References of "Nicks, Baudouin"
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See detailEffects of space allowance on the welfare of pregnant sows housed in dynamic groups.
Remience, Virginie; Wavreille, José; Cloet, D. et al

in Proceedings of the 40th International Congress of the Internationnal Society for Applied Ethology (2006)

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See detailCaractéristiques morphologiques des juments de Trait belge
Nicks, Baudouin ULg; Delfontaine, Béatrice; Canart, Bernard et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2006), 150(4), 247-252

Belgian draft mares were measured when visiting their owners. The mean wither height of at least 4-year-old mares (n = 207) was 1.64 m and the girth circumference 2.22 m. Compared with the wither height ... [more ▼]

Belgian draft mares were measured when visiting their owners. The mean wither height of at least 4-year-old mares (n = 207) was 1.64 m and the girth circumference 2.22 m. Compared with the wither height, the hip height was 1 % higher (1.655 m) and the body length 8 % higher (1.775 m). The mean cannon circumference was about 30 cm. The wither height, the body length and the girth circumference of the 2-year-old mares ( n = 39) represented respectively 98 %, 96 % and 94 % of the corresponding measurements of the group of older mares ( at least 4 years old). The morphological characteristics of these last ones, compared with results published about 50 years ago, show that the wither height remained identical whereas body length and width seem to have slightly increased. [less ▲]

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See detailGaseous emissions in the raising of weaned pigs on fully slatted floor or on sawdust-based deep litter
Nicks, Baudouin ULg; Laitat, Martine ULg; Farnir, Frédéric ULg et al

in Proceedings of the International workshop on Green Pork Production (2005)

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See detailAspects environnementaux et zootechniques de l’élevage de porcs charcutiers et de porcelets sevrés sur litières accumulées de sciure ou de paille
Nicks, Baudouin ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2005), 149(Sp. Iss. SI), 31-36

Aspects environnementaux et zootechniques de l’élevage de porcs charcutiers et de porcelets sevrés sur litières accumulées de sciure ou de paille. Thèse de doctorat en sciences vétérinaires défendue le 27 ... [more ▼]

Aspects environnementaux et zootechniques de l’élevage de porcs charcutiers et de porcelets sevrés sur litières accumulées de sciure ou de paille. Thèse de doctorat en sciences vétérinaires défendue le 27 avril 2004. [less ▲]

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See detailFacteurs influençant le comportement alimentaire et les performances du porc sevré: l'équipement d'alimentation.
Laitat, Martine ULg; Vandenheede, Marc ULg; Nicks, Baudouin ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2005), 149(2), 61-74

Among the most important elements of the nursery pen design, the feeder allows or not the optimisation of pigs' performance. Two principal design features can characterize a feeder : the way pigs will be ... [more ▼]

Among the most important elements of the nursery pen design, the feeder allows or not the optimisation of pigs' performance. Two principal design features can characterize a feeder : the way pigs will be fed ( wet, dry or wet/dry) and its capacity, which depends in turn on the trough length or the number of feeding spaces ( mono - or multi- space feeder and communal trough). To determine the number of pigs that can be accommodated per feeder, the daily time spent per pig at the feeder - depending on pig size and feed delivered - must be taken into account. Recommendations of 4 to 10 weaned pigs per feeding space are generally given. Pigs are able to adapt their eating behaviour when crowding occurs but suboptimal situations may reduce feed intake and productivity and even impair welfare. Some particularities of the feeder such as limited depth, feeder gap opening, lip height, side panels or protective crate can limit feed spillage and/ or agonistic interactions at the feeder. Feeder position in the pen should prevent pigs to be disturbed while eating and allow free movement of penmates. [less ▲]

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See detailGaseous emissions in the raising of fattening pigs on fully slatted floor or on straw-based deep litter
Nicks, Baudouin ULg; Philippe, François-Xavier ULg; Laitat, Martine ULg et al

in Proceedings of the XIIth international congress of the International Society for animal Hygiene, Animals and the environment (2005)

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See detailGaseous emissions from deep-litter pens with straw or sawdust for fattening pigs
Nicks, Baudouin ULg; Laitat, Martine ULg; Farnir, Frédéric ULg et al

in Animal Science (2004), 78(Part 1), 99-107

Three successive batches of fattening pigs were raised on a deep litter of straw in one room and of sawdust in another. The quantities of litter used per pig were 40 kg of straw and 81 kg of sawdust. Once ... [more ▼]

Three successive batches of fattening pigs were raised on a deep litter of straw in one room and of sawdust in another. The quantities of litter used per pig were 40 kg of straw and 81 kg of sawdust. Once a month, the emissions of ammonia, nitrous oxide, methane, carbon dioxide and water vapour were measured continuously for 6 days consecutively. Gaseous emissions from pig raising on sawdust-based litter and straw-based litter were respectively 12.16 and 13.61 g per pig per day for ammonia (NH3), 4.96 and 7.39 g per pig per day for methane (CH4), 2.09 and 0.03 g per pig per day for nitrous oxide (N2O), 3.15 and 2.74 kg per pig per day for water (H2O) and 1.32 and 1.30 kg per pig per day for carbon dioxide (CO2). Differences between the emissions of the two litters were significant for N2O and H2O (P < 0.01). The nitrogen content of the manures collected at the end of the experiment was 1.47 kg per pig for the straw-based litter and 1.07 kg per pig for that based on sawdust. Nitrogen emissions were calculated under the assumption that no gases volatilized from the litter or from the animals other than NH3 and N2O. With the two litters, about 50% of nitrogen excreted by the pigs was emitted into the atmosphere in the form of N-2. [less ▲]

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See detailGaseous emissions in the raising of weaned pigs on fully slatted floor or on straw-bases deep litter
Nicks, Baudouin ULg; Laitat, Martine ULg; Farnir, Frédéric ULg et al

in Clement, G.; Madec, F. (Eds.) Proceedings of the in- between congress of the International Society for Animal Hygiene (2004)

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See detailImpacts des aménagements de porcheries sur les émissions d'ammoniac et de gaz à effet de serre
Nicks, Baudouin ULg

in Proceedings de la quatrième journée Productions porcines et avicoles (2004)

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See detailComparaison des émissions gazeuses lors de l'élevage de porcelets sevrés et de porcs charcutiers sur caillebotis et sur litières accumulées
Nicks, Baudouin ULg

in Proceedings de la journée d'étude "Agriculture-Environnement: aujourd'hui et pour demain" (2004)

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See detailCaractéristiques techniques et aspects environnementaux de l’élevage de porcs charcutiers et de porcelets sevrés sur litières accumulées
Nicks, Baudouin ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2004), 148(1), 31-38

The technique of raising pigs on deep litter consists of leaving the animals on a 30 to 50 cm depth of straw or sawdust which can be used for several batches. This article gives a synthesis on ... [more ▼]

The technique of raising pigs on deep litter consists of leaving the animals on a 30 to 50 cm depth of straw or sawdust which can be used for several batches. This article gives a synthesis on experimental results on rearing 3 to 4 successive batches of fattening pigs or 5 to 6 batches of weaned pigs on straw-based or sawdust-based deep litters. For fattening pigs, this rearing technique required on average 80 kg of sawdust or 45 kg of straw per pig and produced, on average, 123 kg per pig of sawdust-based compost or 159 kg per pig of straw-based manure with a nitrogen content of 1.29 kg and 1.87 kg respectively. For weaned pigs, the rearing technique required on average 15 kg of sawdust or 6 kg of straw per pig and produced, on average, 17 kg of sawdust-based compost per pig or an equivalent quantity of straw-based manure with a nitrogen content of 177 g and 210 g respectively. The cumulative greenhouse gases emissions (CO2, CH4, N2O), calculated in CO2 equivalents, were higher with sawdust-based litter than with straw-based litter of 42 % during fattening periods and of 53% during post-weaning periods. On the contrary, NH3 emissions were higher from the strawbased litter than from the sawdust-based litter but only during post- weaning periods (+ 160 %), not during fattening periods. None of the two litters presents a decisive advantage on the other on an environmental point of view. [less ▲]

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See detailFacteurs influençant la consommation alimentaire et les performances zootechniques du porc sevré: perception et caractéristiques de l'aliment
Laitat, Martine ULg; De Jaeger, F.; Vandenheede, Marc ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2004), 148(1), 15-29

Weaning is a critical period for piglets. Promoting solid food ingestion in the farrowing pen and early after weaning is essential to optimise piglets' performance, health and welfare. A lot of papers ... [more ▼]

Weaning is a critical period for piglets. Promoting solid food ingestion in the farrowing pen and early after weaning is essential to optimise piglets' performance, health and welfare. A lot of papers report studies about pigs' perception of the feed's organoleptic properties. Pigs are attracted by specific flavors and show taste acuity for the five basic stimuli. The choice of pigs for a diet formulation is mainly based on the protein content of the food and the absence of toxin or anti-nutritional contaminants. They also tend to prefer eating pellets and crumbles rather than meal. Weaned pigs readily accept liquid feed. Wet/dry feeders give the possibility to the pigs to mix water and food at the same place and notably allow them to eat faster when they are fed meal. However, wet feeding may induce greater food wastage. The influence of food visual aspect on feed intake in pigs has been little assessed. Visual and auditory stimuli produced by the feeding behaviour of penmates have although a better-known impact on feed intake in this species. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of diet form (pellets or meal) on the optimal number of weaned pigs per feeding space
Laitat, Martine ULg; Vandenheede, Marc ULg; Desiron, Alain et al

in Journal of Swine Health and Production (2004), 12(6, NOV-DEC), 288-295

Objectives: To assess the influence of group size and diet form on performance and feeding behavior of weaned pigs and to determine an optimal number of pigs per feeding space for pellets or meal provided ... [more ▼]

Objectives: To assess the influence of group size and diet form on performance and feeding behavior of weaned pigs and to determine an optimal number of pigs per feeding space for pellets or meal provided in a tube feeder. Methods: During six consecutive trials, feeding behavior and performance of groups comprising 30 (G30), 40 (G40), or 50 (G50) weaned pigs were compared for 6 weeks after weaning. A tube feeder was used for all groups, delivering either pellets or meal (trough length 64 cm; two integrated drinkers). Results: Mean ADG was 5% higher when pigs were fed pellets rather than meal (P = .06). Whatever the diet, ADG was lower in G50 than in G40 (P < .05). In groups fed meal, ADG was lower in G40 than in G30 (P < .001). Average time using the feeder was 4.7 minutes per hour for pigs fed pellets, and 7.3 minutes per hour for pigs fed meal (P = .003). Overall feeder occupation rates during the day were 139 +/- 30% for meal and 93 +/- 21% for pellets (P = .01), and during the night, 91 +/- 33% for meal and 54 +/- 15% for pellets (P = .03), assuming 100% is four pigs eating simultaneously during the observation period. Implications: Diet form influences the optimal number of pigs per feeder space. For the tube feeders in this study, the recommended maximum number of pigs per feeding space is 6.5 for pigs fed meal and 10.2 for pigs fed pellets. [less ▲]

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See detailBehavioural impact of food presentation: How to find an ideal number od weaned pigs per feeding place?
Laitat, Martine ULg; Vandenheede, Marc ULg; Desiron, Alain et al

in Kirkwood, J. K.; Roberts, E. A.; Vickery, S. (Eds.) Proceedings of the Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (2004)

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See detailEmissions of ammonia, nitrous oxide, methane, carbon dioxide and water vapor in the raising of weaned pigs on straw-based and sawdust-based deep litters
Nicks, Baudouin ULg; Laitat, Martine ULg; Vandenheede, Marc ULg et al

in Animal Research (2003), 52(3, MAY-JUN), 299-308

Five successive batches of 40 weaned pigs were raised on deep litter of sawdust or straw without changing the litter in between batches. The quantity of litter dry matter utilized in the two cases was 5 ... [more ▼]

Five successive batches of 40 weaned pigs were raised on deep litter of sawdust or straw without changing the litter in between batches. The quantity of litter dry matter utilized in the two cases was 5 kg per pig. The concentrations of gases were measured 8 times, at about one-month intervals, for 6 consecutive days and the ventilation flow was recorded continuously. Pig raising on saw-dust-based litter differed from that with straw by an emission of 2.6 times less ammonia (0.46 vs. 1.21 g per pig per day), 2.1 times less methane (0.77 vs. 1.58 g per pig per day), 3.9 times more N2O (1.39 vs. 0.36 g per pig per day), 4% more CO2 (481 vs. 463 g per pig per day) and 21% more H2O (1126 vs. 933 g per pig per day). All differences were significant. About 58% of the nitrogen excreted by the pigs was recovered in the gas form and for the two litters, about 79% in the form of N-2. [less ▲]

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See detailFeeding behaviour of weaned pigs fed either pellets or meal: effects of the number of aniamls per feeding place
Laitat, Martine ULg; Vandenheede, Marc ULg; Desiron, Alain et al

in Ferrante, V. (Ed.) Proceedings of the 37th International Congress of the International Society for Applied Ethology (2003)

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See detailPrise en compte du bien-être des animaux dans l’aménagement des porcheries : les aspects réglementaires
Nicks, Baudouin ULg; Laitat, Martine ULg; Vandenheede, Marc ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2002), 146(1), 39-42

A new directive laying down standards for the protection of pigs was published in the Official Journal of the European Communities (directive 2001/88/CE ; OJC 1 Decembre 2001). This directive is amending ... [more ▼]

A new directive laying down standards for the protection of pigs was published in the Official Journal of the European Communities (directive 2001/88/CE ; OJC 1 Decembre 2001). This directive is amending directive 91/630/CEE entered into force in Belgium in 1994. The three main topics refer to : the characteristics of the flooring surfaces, pregnant sows housing and the feeding systems. This paper details and discusses these topics and other points involving modifications of pig housing and management. [less ▲]

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