References of "Nicks, Baudouin"
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See detailUse of shelter by grazing bulls: effect of climatic factors
Vandenheede, Marc ULg; Nicks, Baudouin ULg; Sheri, R. et al

in Animal Science (1995), 60

The time spent under a shelter by eight grazing fattening bulls of the Belgian Blue breed in each of 3 years consecutively for a total of 48 days was recorded using a time-lapse recorder with infrared ... [more ▼]

The time spent under a shelter by eight grazing fattening bulls of the Belgian Blue breed in each of 3 years consecutively for a total of 48 days was recorded using a time-lapse recorder with infrared illumination. During one grazing period, data were collected over 35 days (experiment 1). Observations were divided into 166 h with rain (20%) and 674 h without precipitation (80%). The average occupation rates were 15.4 (s.e. 29.1)% for the hours with rain and 4.5 (s.e. 14.8)% for the hours without precipitation (P < 0.001). The effect of intensity and duration of rain on the occupation rate was significant from 0.4 l/m(2) or from 2 h. Experiment 2 (13 days of observation) examined the influence of temperature and solar radiation on the use of shelter. The occupation rates were 21 (s.e. 23)% during the daylight hours (07.00 to 19.00 h), 6 (s.e. 8)% during the night (19.00 to 07.00 h) and 14 (s.e. 14)% during a 24-h period. The occupation rate between 07.00 and 19.00 h was significantly correlated to the mean daily temperature (r = 0.75), the maximum daily temperature (r = 0.86) and the direct solar radiation time (r = 0.60). When the maximum daily temperature exceeded 20 degrees C, the use of the shelter increased from 10 to 49% of the daylight hours. There was no significant difference between the live-weight gains of animals from the observed group and those of other bulls on an adjacent pasture without shelter. Nevertheless, these observations suggest that a shelter may improve the welfare of grazing cattle. [less ▲]

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See detailBilan environnemental et zootechnique après engraissement de 4 lots de porcs sur litière biomaîtrisée
Nicks, Baudouin ULg; Desiron, Alain; Canart, Bernard

in 27èmes Journées de la Recherche Porcine en France (1995)

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See detailRelation between dust, aeroallergens concentration and lung dysfunctions in equine COPD
Vandenput, Sandrina ULg; Olaerts, J.; Van Calster, P. et al

in Pflügers Archiv : European Journal of Physiology (1995), 430

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See detailComparaison de l'évolution de 2 litières biomaîtrisées à base de sciure ou de paille pour porcs à l'engraissement
Marlier, Didier ULg; Nicks, Baudouin ULg; Canart, Bernard et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (1994), 138(1), 45-53

Two rooms of a pig house were used to study 2 deep litter systems where the animals were kept on a 50 cm thick layer of sawdust or of chopped straw (10 cm). Seven days before the arrival of the animals ... [more ▼]

Two rooms of a pig house were used to study 2 deep litter systems where the animals were kept on a 50 cm thick layer of sawdust or of chopped straw (10 cm). Seven days before the arrival of the animals, slurry and a microbial product used to stimulate the fermentation were added to the litters. Fifteen pigs on sawdust and seventien pigs on straw (floor spaces : 1.4 and 1.2 M2/pig) were fattened from 23.1 to 93.1 kg live weight. Excreta from pigs was dung into the bedding weekly and treated with the microbial product. This labour was considered as too hard in the straw room and was ended at day 105. No sawdust was added during the fattening period but straw was added 5 times to keep the pigs clean and to keep the temperature in the bedding higher than 30-degrees-C. The mean temperature in the sawdust bed was higher (38 +/- 5,4-degrees-C vs 35 +/- 6,7-degrees-C, p > 0,001) and more constant (mean daily variation 1,3 +/- 1,6 vs 2,2 +/- 2,4-degrees-C, p > 0,001) than the temperature recorded in the straw bed. The air temperature and the relative humidity were similar in the 2 rooms (21-degrees-C and 60 The concentrations of ammonia in the air were measured with Gastec tubes. The average ammonia concentrations recorded during the 7 days before the arrival of the animals (48 +/- 36 ppm vs 12 +/- 9,2 ppm) and those recorded after the eighth day (11 +/- 5,6 ppm vs 6,7 +/- 3,9 ppm) were significantly higher with the straw system compared with the sawdust system. The daily gains were not significantly different in the 2 rooms (552 g on average) and the food conversion ratios in the 2 rooms were 3,6 kg/kg (on sawdust) and 3,85 kg/kg (on straw). Carcasses were of equal quality. In conclusion, results were better with the sawdust bed than with the straw bed. The sawdust bed provided a higher temperature in the bedding and a lower ammonia concentration in the air. The routine weekly task of digging was easier in the sawdust bed and the bedding was used for a second batch. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence de la pluie sur l'utilisation d'un abri par des taurillons au pâturage
Vandenheede, Marc ULg; Sheri, R.; Nicks, Baudouin ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (1994), 138

The time spent under a shelter by 8 grazing fattening bulls of the Belgian Blue breed was recorded during 35 days using a time-lapse recorder with IR illumination. The observation period was divided into ... [more ▼]

The time spent under a shelter by 8 grazing fattening bulls of the Belgian Blue breed was recorded during 35 days using a time-lapse recorder with IR illumination. The observation period was divided into 166 hours with rain (20 %) and 674 hours without precipitation (80 %). An occupation rate was calculated for each hour as the sum of the time spent under the shelter by each of the 8 bulls divided by 480 (8 animals x 60 minutes). The average occupation rates were 15.4 +/- 29.1 % for the hours with rain and 4.5 +/- 14.8 % for the hours without precipitation (P<0.001). The occupation rate was significantly influenced by intensity and duration of the rain : the occupation rate being higher during rainfall than with dry weather when the intensity of the rain was at least 0.4 l/m2 and the duration more than 2 hours. There was no significant difference between the live weight gain of the animals with a shelter and of other bulls grazing on an adjacent pasture without shelter. Our observations suggested however that a shelter may improve the welfare of the animals. [less ▲]

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See detailResults from keeping fattening pigs on deep litters
Nicks, Baudouin ULg; Desiron, A.; Marlier, D. et al

in Proceedings of the VIII International Congress on Animal Hygiene (1994)

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See detailUn bon chien pour bien vivre. Comment le choisir, l'accueillir, l'éduquer.
GIFFROY, J. M.; Nicks, Baudouin ULg; ÖDBERG, F. O. et al

Article for general public (1994)

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See detailComparaison des températures de litières et des niveaux de pollution de l'air lors d'engraissement de porcs sur litières biomaîtrisées à base de sciure ou de paille hachée
Nicks, Baudouin ULg; Marlier, Didier ULg; Canart, Bernard

in 26èmes Journées de la Recherche Porcine en France (1994)

Two rooms of a pig house were used to study 2 deep litter systems where the animals were kept on a 50 cm deep layer of sawdust or chopped straw (chopped to lengths of 10 cm). Seven days before the arrival ... [more ▼]

Two rooms of a pig house were used to study 2 deep litter systems where the animals were kept on a 50 cm deep layer of sawdust or chopped straw (chopped to lengths of 10 cm). Seven days before the arrival of the animals, slurry and a microbial product used to stimulate the fermentation were added to the litters. Fifteen pigs on sawdust and 17 pigs on straw were fattened from 23.1 to 93.3 kg live weight. Excreta was dug into the bedding weekly and treated with the microbial product. This labour was discontinued on the straw after 105 days as the labour was considered too hard. No sawdust was added during the fattening period but straw was added 5 times to keep the pigs clean and to keep the temperature in the bedding above 30C. The mean bedding temperature was greater for the sawdust (38 5C) than in the straw (35 15C) and the mean daily variations were lower for the sawdust (1.3 1.6C) than the straw (2.2 2.4C). The air temperature and relative humidity were similar for both rooms (21C and 60%). The concentration of ammonia in the air was substantially higher in the room with the straw (48 36 ppm) than with the sawdust (12 9.2 ppm) during the 7 days before the animals arrived and 11 5.6 ppm and 6.7 3.9 ppm, respectively after the eighth day. Dust concentration was 2 times lower in the room with straw. Growth rates and feed conversion ratios were similar for both groups. It is concluded that the results were better for the sawdust litter as it provided a higher bedding temperature and lower ammonia concentration in the air and the routine weekly task of digging was easier. [less ▲]

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See detailLa litière biomaîtrisée en élevage porcin
Nicks, Baudouin ULg; Desiron, Alain; Canart, Bernard

in Compte rendu de la Journée d'Etude sur Agriculture et Environnement (1994)

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See detailRésultats de la mesure de la concentration en poussière dans l'air de 12 porcheries
Marlier, Didier ULg; Nicks, Baudouin ULg; Canart, Bernard

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (1993), 137

Aerial dust concentrations in 12 pig houses Dust concentration was measured during 3 days at hourly intervals in 5 farrowing houses and 7 fattening houses. The number concentration of aerial particles was ... [more ▼]

Aerial dust concentrations in 12 pig houses Dust concentration was measured during 3 days at hourly intervals in 5 farrowing houses and 7 fattening houses. The number concentration of aerial particles was measured using a counter which sizes the total numbers in 5 categories: from 0.3-0.5 mum to > 5 mum. The mean dust concentrations were significantly higher in the farrowing houses than in the fattening houses (179 +/- 91 vs 97 +/- 65 particles/ml). Over a 24-h period, the ratio between the highest and the lowest hourly concentrations was 3 +/- 1 in the farrowing houses and 5 +/- 4 in the fattening houses; the difference between the 2 types of houses is significant. The smallest particles were the most numerous; 82 % of the aerial particles were in the size range 0.3-0.5 mum, with less than 1 % being 5 mum or larger. During the most polluted hours, there was proportionally more particles in the size range 0.5-1 mum and significantly less particles in the size ranges 1-2 mum and 2-5 mum, as compared to the less polluted hours. This study shows that most of the aerial particles in piggeries are smaller than 5 mum, the size below which deposition is regarded to occur in the lower respiratory tract, the farrowing houses being more polluted than the fattening houses. [less ▲]

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See detailEtude de l'effet de 2 additifs à base d'extrait de Yucca sur la réduction des émissions d'azote ammoniacal par des lisiers de porcs
Marlier, Didier ULg; Nicks, Baudouin ULg; Canart, Bernard

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (1993), 137(7), 485-493

The effects of two commercial yucca extracts on the ammonia release from pig slurry have been tested in laboratory and in one fattening house. In laboratory, tests were carried on with 4 litre samples ... [more ▼]

The effects of two commercial yucca extracts on the ammonia release from pig slurry have been tested in laboratory and in one fattening house. In laboratory, tests were carried on with 4 litre samples whose ammonia production was recorded during 35 days. One of the two products, at the factory recommanded dose of 5 g/l, has successfully lowered the ammonia emission rate of the slurry. In the pig house, the two same products were given in the pigs' diet at the dose of 160 and 200 g/ton of feed. Inside a same building, pigs of one room received feed plus yucca extracts and those of the second room feed alone; none of the 2 products has significantly reduced the ammonia concentrations recorded on a three month period. One can expect improvements of the yucca extracts but up to now no guaranty can be given of their efficiency. [less ▲]

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See detailMicroclimat et composition de l'air dans une enceinte fermée destinée à l'étude de la toxicité des polluants atmosphériques chez le porcelet
Urbain, B.; Gustin, Pascal ULg; Prouvost, J. F. et al

in Veterinary Research (1993), 24(6), 503-514

An experimental model representing the pollution background in a pigpen was constructed in order to study the toxicology of pig respiratory air pollutants. Temperature, relative humidity, air-flow rate ... [more ▼]

An experimental model representing the pollution background in a pigpen was constructed in order to study the toxicology of pig respiratory air pollutants. Temperature, relative humidity, air-flow rate, total dust, total viable particles, endotoxins in respirable dust (< 5 microns) and ammonia were measured in a 1.9 m3 environmental chamber designed for piglets. The activity of 1 piglet was recorded on video. Temperature and relative humidity were respectively 23.9 +/- 1.3 degrees C and 70.5 +/- 8.3% (mean +/- SD). Air flow rate was 10 m3/h. Dust, viable particles, endotoxin and ammonia concentrations were respectively 7 +/- 2 particles/ml, 3.4 x 10(4) +/- 2.9 x 10(4) BCFP (bacterial colony-forming particles)/m3, 4.8 +/- 1.5 ng/m3 and 6 +/- 0.8 ppm (mean +/- SD). All these parameters were comparable to the lowest values recorded in pigpens [less ▲]

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See detailAir pollution levels in pig houses
Nicks, Baudouin ULg; Marlier, D.; Canart, B.

in Proceedings of the Fourth International Livestock Environment Symposium (1993)

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See detailTemperature, air humidity and air pollution levels in breeding pig houses
Nicks, Baudouin ULg; Canart, B.; Vandenheede, Marc ULg

in Pigs News and Information (1993), 14(2), 77-78

A study was undertaken to provide practical information concerning the frequency of temp. and RH measurements required to obtain a good estimate of their averages and of their daily variations, and to ... [more ▼]

A study was undertaken to provide practical information concerning the frequency of temp. and RH measurements required to obtain a good estimate of their averages and of their daily variations, and to determine the relationships between ammonia, carbon dioxide and bacterial concn in a pig house. Measurements were made in 9 artificially ventilated farrowing or weaner houses with slatted floors. Temp. and RH were measured every 20 min for 7 d. Sensors were placed inside buildings in the middle of the houses, 0.8 m above floor level, and outside the buildings. Data were recorded using a datalogger. Ammonia and carbon dioxide concn were measured using 8 h Gastec diffusion tubes. Three readings were taken in the same location at 2-day intervals. The airborne bacterial concn was measured with a 6-stage Andersen sampler. Bacteria colony forming particles (BCFP) were collected by impacting onto agar-filled petri dishes which are placed in an incubator for 24 h prior to counting the colonies formed. Results are discussed, indicating no significant correlation between the 3 measures of pollution (NH3 and CO2 concn, BCFP levels) despite careful microclimate control. [less ▲]

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See detailComparaison of dust concentrations in pig buildings and in an environmental inhalation chamber
Urbain, B.; Gustin, P.; Nicks, Baudouin ULg

in Proceedings of the 12th Congress of the International Pig Veterinary Society (1992)

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See detailTemperature, air humidity and air pollution level in 9 farrowing or weaner pig houses
Nicks, Baudouin ULg

in Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Meeting of the European Association of Animal Production (1992)

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See detailModalités d'utilisation d'un abri par des taurillons au pâturage
Vandenheede, Marc ULg; Nicks, Baudouin ULg; Canart, Bernard et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (1992), 136

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See detailEtude sur les fluctuations de température relevées dans 25 compartiments de maternité et de post-sevrage
Nicks, Baudouin ULg; Debliquy, P.; Canart, Bernard et al

in 24èmes Journées de la Recherche Porcine en France (1992)

Temp. was measured for 7 days, every 20 min., in 20 farrowing houses and 5 weaning houses. The mean stocking rate in the farrowing houses was 70% and the air space per litter (1 sow and 8 piglets) 25 m ... [more ▼]

Temp. was measured for 7 days, every 20 min., in 20 farrowing houses and 5 weaning houses. The mean stocking rate in the farrowing houses was 70% and the air space per litter (1 sow and 8 piglets) 25 m. In the weaning houses the mean stocking density was 84% and the air space per piglet 1.3 m. Four different heating systems were used: radiators, floor heating, gas heaters and aerotherms. Artificial ventilation was provided in 88% of the compartments and natural ventilation in the others. The mean inside and outside temp. were 22 2 and 106C resp. A good estimate of the mean daily temp. was provided with only the min. and max. daily records. No more than one measurement per h was needed to assess the daily variations. The mean daily temp. range inside the buildings was 33C, ranging from 1 to 11C. The largest inside temp. variations were observed with high and fluctuating outside temp. On an hourly, daily or weekly basis, the outside temp. range was reduced by two thirds. This value can be used as a reference to judge the ability of the building and its equipment to maintain a constant inside temp. [less ▲]

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See detailCaractéristiques hygrométriques et niveau de pollution de l'air dans 9 locaux en porcherie d'élevage
Debliquy, P.; Nicks, Baudouin ULg; Canart, Bernard et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (1991), 135

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See detailEtude sur les fluctuations de température relevées dans 5 locaux de post-sevrage en porcheries
Debliquy, P.; Nicks, Baudouin ULg; Canart, Bernard et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (1991), 135(7), 511-515

Temperature was measured during 7 days, every 20 minutes, in 5 rooms of 3 weaning houses. All the rooms were artificially ventilated but they differed by their stocking rate which ranged from 0.5 to 2.3 ... [more ▼]

Temperature was measured during 7 days, every 20 minutes, in 5 rooms of 3 weaning houses. All the rooms were artificially ventilated but they differed by their stocking rate which ranged from 0.5 to 2.3 m3 per animal. The mean inside and outside temperatures were 23 +/- 3-degrees-C and 13 +/- 8-degrees-C. The outside temperature range was reduced, on average, by 60% either on a daily or a weekly basis. In terms of absolute values, the daily range varied from 2 to 80-degrees-C according to the room. An accurate estimate of the mean daily temperatures was already provided by just the minimum and maximum records. Only one measurement per hour was needed to assess the daily variations. Advices related to the stability of temperature in the rooms have to be expressed in relative terms rather than in absolute values. A 60% reduction of the outside temperature range can be suggested as a reference. [less ▲]

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