References of "Moutschen, Michel"
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See detailMaraviroc for previously treated patients with R5 HIV-1 infection.
Gulick, Roy M; Lalezari, Jacob; Goodrich, James et al

in New England Journal of Medicine [=NEJM] (2008), 359(14), 1429-41

BACKGROUND: CC chemokine receptor 5 antagonists are a new class of antiretroviral agents. METHODS: We conducted two double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 studies--Maraviroc versus Optimized Therapy in ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: CC chemokine receptor 5 antagonists are a new class of antiretroviral agents. METHODS: We conducted two double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 studies--Maraviroc versus Optimized Therapy in Viremic Antiretroviral Treatment-Experienced Patients (MOTIVATE) 1 and MOTIVATE 2--with patients who had R5 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) only. They had been treated with or had resistance to three antiretroviral-drug classes and had HIV-1 RNA levels of more than 5000 copies per milliliter. The patients were randomly assigned to one of three antiretroviral regimens consisting of maraviroc once daily, maraviroc twice daily, or placebo, each of which included optimized background therapy (OBT) based on treatment history and drug-resistance testing. Safety and efficacy were assessed after 48 weeks. RESULTS: A total of 1049 patients received the randomly assigned study drug; the mean baseline HIV-1 RNA level was 72,400 copies per milliliter, and the median CD4 cell count was 169 per cubic millimeter. At 48 weeks, in both studies, the mean change in HIV-1 RNA from baseline was greater with maraviroc than with placebo: -1.66 and -1.82 log(10) copies per milliliter with the once-daily and twice-daily regimens, respectively, versus -0.80 with placebo in MOTIVATE 1, and -1.72 and -1.87 log(10) copies per milliliter, respectively, versus -0.76 with placebo in MOTIVATE 2. More patients receiving maraviroc once or twice daily had HIV-1 RNA levels of less than 50 copies per milliliter (42% and 47%, respectively, vs. 16% in the placebo group in MOTIVATE 1; 45% in both maraviroc groups vs. 18% in MOTIVATE 2; P<0.001 for both comparisons in each study). The change from baseline in CD4 counts was also greater with maraviroc once or twice daily than with placebo (increases of 113 and 122 per cubic millimeter, respectively, vs. 54 in MOTIVATE 1; increases of 122 and 128 per cubic millimeter, respectively, vs. 69 in MOTIVATE 2; P<0.001 for both comparisons in each study). Frequencies of adverse events were similar among the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Maraviroc, as compared with placebo, resulted in significantly greater suppression of HIV-1 and greater increases in CD4 cell counts at 48 weeks in previously treated patients with R5 HIV-1 who were receiving OBT. (ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT00098306 and NCT00098722.) [less ▲]

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See detailCervix carcinoma is associated with an up-regulation and nuclear localization of the dual-specificity protein phosphatase VHR.
Henkens, Rachel ULg; Delvenne, Philippe ULg; Arafa, Mohammad et al

in BMC Cancer (2008), 8

BACKGROUND: The 21-kDa Vaccinia virus VH1-related (VHR) dual-specific protein phosphatase (encoded by the DUSP3 gene) plays a critical role in cell cycle progression and is itself regulated during the ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The 21-kDa Vaccinia virus VH1-related (VHR) dual-specific protein phosphatase (encoded by the DUSP3 gene) plays a critical role in cell cycle progression and is itself regulated during the cell cycle. We have previously demonstrated using RNA interference that cells lacking VHR arrest in the G1 and G2 phases of the cell cycle and show signs of beginning of cell senescence. METHODS: In this report, we evaluated successfully the expression levels of VHR protein in 62 hysterectomy or conization specimens showing the various (pre) neoplastic cervical epithelial lesions and 35 additional cases of hysterectomy performed for non-cervical pathologies, from patients under 50 years of age. We used a tissue microarray and IHC technique to evaluate the expression of the VHR phosphatase. Immunofluorescence staining under confocal microscopy, Western blotting and RT-PCR methods were used to investigate the localization and expression levels of VHR. RESULTS: We report that VHR is upregulated in (pre) neoplastic lesions (squamous intraepithelial lesions; SILs) of the uterine cervix mainly in high grade SIL (H-SIL) compared to normal exocervix. In the invasive cancer, VHR is also highly expressed with nuclear localization in the majority of cells compared to normal tissue where VHR is always in the cytoplasm. We also report that this phosphatase is highly expressed in several cervix cancer cell lines such as HeLa, SiHa, CaSki, C33 and HT3 compared to primary keratinocytes. The immunofluorescence technique under confocal microscopy shows that VHR has a cytoplasmic localization in primary keratinocytes, while it localizes in both cytoplasm and nucleus of the cancer cell lines investigated. We report that the up-regulation of this phosphatase is mainly due to its post-translational stabilization in the cancer cell lines compared to primary keratinocytes rather than increases in the transcription of DUSP3 locus. CONCLUSION: These results together suggest that VHR can be considered as a new marker for cancer progression in cervix carcinoma and potential new target for anticancer therapy. [less ▲]

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See detailRaltegravir with optimized background therapy for resistant HIV-1 infection.
Steigbigel, Roy T; Cooper, David A; Kumar, Princy N et al

in New England Journal of Medicine [=NEJM] (2008), 359(4), 339-54

BACKGROUND: Raltegravir (MK-0518) is an inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integrase active against HIV-1 susceptible or resistant to older antiretroviral drugs. METHODS: We ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Raltegravir (MK-0518) is an inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integrase active against HIV-1 susceptible or resistant to older antiretroviral drugs. METHODS: We conducted two identical trials in different geographic regions to evaluate the safety and efficacy of raltegravir, as compared with placebo, in combination with optimized background therapy, in patients infected with HIV-1 that has triple-class drug resistance in whom antiretroviral therapy had failed. Patients were randomly assigned to raltegravir or placebo in a 2:1 ratio. RESULTS: In the combined studies, 699 of 703 randomized patients (462 and 237 in the raltegravir and placebo groups, respectively) received the study drug. Seventeen of the 699 patients (2.4%) discontinued the study before week 16. Discontinuation was related to the study treatment in 13 of these 17 patients: 7 of the 462 raltegravir recipients (1.5%) and 6 of the 237 placebo recipients (2.5%). The results of the two studies were consistent. At week 16, counting noncompletion as treatment failure, 355 of 458 raltegravir recipients (77.5%) had HIV-1 RNA levels below 400 copies per milliliter, as compared with 99 of 236 placebo recipients (41.9%, P<0.001). Suppression of HIV-1 RNA to a level below 50 copies per milliliter was achieved at week 16 in 61.8% of the raltegravir recipients, as compared with 34.7% of placebo recipients, and at week 48 in 62.1% as compared with 32.9% (P<0.001 for both comparisons). Without adjustment for the length of follow-up, cancers were detected in 3.5% of raltegravir recipients and in 1.7% of placebo recipients. The overall frequencies of drug-related adverse events were similar in the raltegravir and placebo groups. CONCLUSIONS: In HIV-infected patients with limited treatment options, raltegravir plus optimized background therapy provided better viral suppression than optimized background therapy alone for at least 48 weeks. (ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT00293267 and NCT00293254.) [less ▲]

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See detailReport of a case of Streptococcus agalactiae mycotic aneurysm and review of the literature.
Chandrikakumari, Kavitha; Giot, Jean-Baptiste ULg; de Leval, Laurence ULg et al

in International Journal of Surgical Pathology (2008), 16(3), 314-9

A unique case of mycotic aneurysm of the abdominal aorta caused by Streptococcus agalactiae in an afebrile patient presenting with abdominal pain is described. Although this bacterium is associated with a ... [more ▼]

A unique case of mycotic aneurysm of the abdominal aorta caused by Streptococcus agalactiae in an afebrile patient presenting with abdominal pain is described. Although this bacterium is associated with a variety of infections in human beings, aortitis is uncommon. Chronic alcoholism and diabetes mellitus are the 2 major predisposing conditions for group B Streptococci infection and both were present in this case. The abdominal pain and elevated inflammatory markers in the absence of fever were elusive in presentation; however, the diagnosis of mycotic aneurysm was established by abdominal computed tomography scan. The patient was treated successfully by resection of the diseased aorta and aortic allograft replacement. Culture of the excised tissue grew Streptococcus agalactiae sensitive to penicillin G and (other commonly tested antibiotics) fluoroquinolones. A prolonged course of moxifloxacin (for 6 months) was administered due to the persistence of elevated inflammatory markers and was remarkably well tolerated. Sixteen months after stopping the antibiotics, the patient is doing well, and the control imaging studies are satisfactory. [less ▲]

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See detailMajor clinical outcomes in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive participants and in those not receiving ART at baseline in the SMART study.
Emery, Sean; Neuhaus, Jacqueline A; Phillips, Andrew N et al

in Journal of Infectious Diseases (2008), 197(8), 1133-44

BACKGROUND: The SMART study randomized 5,472 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with CD4+ cell counts >350 cells/microL to intermittent antiretroviral therapy (ART; the drug conservation ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The SMART study randomized 5,472 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with CD4+ cell counts >350 cells/microL to intermittent antiretroviral therapy (ART; the drug conservation [DC] group) versus continuous ART (the viral suppression [VS] group). In the DC group, participants started ART when the CD4+ cell count was <250 cells/microL. Clinical outcomes in participants not receiving ART at entry inform the early use of ART. METHODS: Patients who were either ART naive (n=249) or who had not been receiving ART for >or= 6 months (n=228) were analyzed. The following clinical outcomes were assessed: (i) opportunistic disease (OD) or death from any cause (OD/death); (ii) OD (fatal or nonfatal); (iii) serious non-AIDS events (cardiovascular, renal, and hepatic disease plus non-AIDS-defining cancers) and non-OD deaths; and (iv) the composite of outcomes (ii) and (iii). RESULTS: A total of 477 participants (228 in the DC group and 249 in the VS group) were followed (mean, 18 months). For outcome (iv), 21 and 6 events occurred in the DC (7 in ART-naive participants and 14 in those who had not received ART for >or= 6 months) and VS (2 in ART-naive participants and 4 in those who had not received ART for 6 months) groups, respectively. Hazard ratios for DC vs. VS by outcome category were as follows: outcome (i), 3.47 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26-9.56; p=.02); outcome (ii), 3.26 (95% CI, 1.04-10.25; p=.04); outcome (iii), 7.02 (95% CI, 1.57-31.38; p=.01); and outcome (iv), 4.19 (95% CI, 1.69-10.39; p=.002 ). CONCLUSIONS: Initiation of ART at CD4+ cell counts >350 cells/microL compared with <250 cells/microL may reduce both OD and serious non-AIDS events. These findings require validation in a large, randomized clinical trial. [less ▲]

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See detailInferior clinical outcome of the CD4+ cell count-guided antiretroviral treatment interruption strategy in the SMART study: role of CD4+ Cell counts and HIV RNA levels during follow-up.
Lundgren, Jens D; Babiker, Abdel; El-Sadr, Wafaa et al

in Journal of Infectious Diseases (2008), 197(8), 1145-55

BACKGROUND AND METHODS: The SMART study compared 2 strategies for using antiretroviral therapy-drug conservation (DC) and viral suppression (VS)-in 5,472 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND AND METHODS: The SMART study compared 2 strategies for using antiretroviral therapy-drug conservation (DC) and viral suppression (VS)-in 5,472 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with CD4+ cell counts >350 cells/microL. Rates and predictors of opportunistic disease or death (OD/death) and the relative risk (RR) in DC versus VS groups according to the latest CD4+ cell count and HIV RNA level are reported. RESULTS: During a mean of 16 months of follow-up, DC patients spent more time with a latest CD4+ cell count <350 cells/microL (for DC vs. VS, 31% vs. 8%) and with a latest HIV RNA level >400 copies/mL (71% vs. 28%) and had a higher rate of OD/death (3.4 vs. 1.3/100 person-years) than VS patients. For periods of follow- up with a CD4+ cell count <350 cells/microL, rates of OD/death were increased but similar in the 2 groups (5.7 vs. 4.6/100 person-years), whereas the rates were higher in DC versus VS patients (2.3 vs. 1.0/100 person-years; RR, 2.3 [95% confidence interval, 1.5-3.4]) for periods with the latest CD4+ cell count >or= 350 cells/microL-an increase explained by the higher HIV RNA levels in the DC group. CONCLUSIONS: The higher risk of OD/death in DC patients was associated with (1) spending more follow-up time with relative immunodeficiency and (2) living longer with uncontrolled HIV replication even at higher CD4+ cell counts. Ongoing HIV replication at a given CD4+ cell count places patients at an excess risk of OD/death. [less ▲]

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See detailPrevalence and epidemiology of HIV type 1 drug resistance among newly diagnosed therapy-naive patients in Belgium from 2003 to 2006.
Vercauteren, Jurgen; Derdelinckx, Inge; Sasse, Andre et al

in AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses (2008), 24(3), 355-62

This study is the first prospective study to assess the prevalence, epidemiology, and risk factors of HIV-1 drug resistance in newly diagnosed HIV-infected patients in Belgium. In January 2003 it was ... [more ▼]

This study is the first prospective study to assess the prevalence, epidemiology, and risk factors of HIV-1 drug resistance in newly diagnosed HIV-infected patients in Belgium. In January 2003 it was initiated as part of the pan-European SPREAD program, and continued thereafter for four inclusion rounds until December 2006. Epidemiological, clinical, and behavioral data were collected using a standardized questionnaire and genotypic resistance testing was done on a sample taken within 6 months of diagnosis. Two hundred and eighty-five patients were included. The overall prevalence of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance in Belgium was 9.5% (27/285, 95% CI: 6.6-13.4). Being infected in Belgium, which largely coincided with harboring a subtype B virus, was found to be significantly associated with transmission of drug resistance. The relatively high rate of baseline resistance might jeopardize the success of first line treatment as more than 1 out of 10 (30/285, 10.5%) viruses did not score as fully susceptible to one of the recommended first-line regimens, i.e., zidovudine, lamivudine, and efavirenz. Our results support the implementation of genotypic resistance testing as a standard of care in all treatment-naive patients in Belgium. [less ▲]

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See detailSubgroup and resistance analyses of raltegravir for resistant HIV-1 infection.
Cooper, David A; Steigbigel, Roy T; Gatell, Jose M et al

in New England Journal of Medicine [=NEJM] (2008), 359(4), 355-65

BACKGROUND: We evaluated the efficacy of raltegravir and the development of viral resistance in two identical trials involving patients who were infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: We evaluated the efficacy of raltegravir and the development of viral resistance in two identical trials involving patients who were infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) with triple-class drug resistance and in whom antiretroviral therapy had failed. METHODS: We conducted subgroup analyses of the data from week 48 in both studies according to baseline prognostic factors. Genotyping of the integrase gene was performed in raltegravir recipients who had virologic failure. RESULTS: Virologic responses to raltegravir were consistently superior to responses to placebo, regardless of the baseline values of HIV-1 RNA level; CD4 cell count; genotypic or phenotypic sensitivity score; use or nonuse of darunavir, enfuvirtide, or both in optimized background therapy; or demographic characteristics. Among patients in the two studies combined who were using both enfuvirtide and darunavir for the first time, HIV-1 RNA levels of less than 50 copies per milliliter were achieved in 89% of raltegravir recipients and 68% of placebo recipients. HIV-1 RNA levels of less than 50 copies per milliliter were achieved in 69% and 80% of the raltegravir recipients and in 47% and 57% of the placebo recipients using either darunavir or enfuvirtide for the first time, respectively. At 48 weeks, 105 of the 462 raltegravir recipients (23%) had virologic failure. Genotyping was performed in 94 raltegravir recipients with virologic failure. Integrase mutations known to be associated with phenotypic resistance to raltegravir arose during treatment in 64 patients (68%). Forty-eight of these 64 patients (75%) had two or more resistance-associated mutations. CONCLUSIONS: When combined with an optimized background regimen in both studies, a consistently favorable treatment effect of raltegravir over placebo was shown in clinically relevant subgroups of patients, including those with baseline characteristics that typically predict a poor response to antiretroviral therapy: a high HIV-1 RNA level, low CD4 cell count, and low genotypic or phenotypic sensitivity score. (ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT00293267 and NCT00293254.) [less ▲]

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See detailDecline of antibiotic use in primary care.
Frippiat, Frédéric ULg; Chandrikakumari, Kavitha; Moutschen, Michel ULg

in Lancet Infectious Diseases (2008), 8(5), 272273

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See detailLesions cerebrales demyelinisantes decouvertes chez un patient immunocompetent VIH-1+.
Nkoghe, D.; Moutschen, Michel ULg; Demonty, Jean ULg

in Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses (2008), 38(9), 500-3

We report the case of a 32-year-old immunocompetent HIV patient, presenting with acute demyelinating leukoencephalopathy. The patient displayed clinical and radiological features similar to multiple ... [more ▼]

We report the case of a 32-year-old immunocompetent HIV patient, presenting with acute demyelinating leukoencephalopathy. The patient displayed clinical and radiological features similar to multiple sclerosis. Histology revealed inflammation with necrosis, demyelination and destruction of axons. Serum tests were negative for various infectious agents as well as specific cultures and PCR. Corticotherapy and many antibiotic treatments failed. Resorption of the lesions occurred after partial excision and highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). No recurrence was noted. This demyelinating cerebral disease was considered as the primary manifestation of HIV infection. HIV implication in the genesis of the process and its perpetuating this condition was suspected, but the mechanism is unclear. Dysimmune consequences related to the early course of HIV infection could be prevented by antiretroviral treatment. This study was the first description of tritherapy effectiveness on HIV related multiple sclerosis (MS)-like illness. [less ▲]

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See detailRecombinant gp350 vaccine for infectious mononucleosis: A phase 2, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of an Epstein-Barr virus vaccine in healthy young adults
Sokal, E. M.; Hoppenbrouwers, K.; Vandermeulen, C. et al

in Journal of Infectious Diseases (2007), 196(12), 1749-1753

Background. To date, there is no commercially available vaccine to prevent infectious mononucleosis, a disease frequently induced by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in adolescents or adults devoid of ... [more ▼]

Background. To date, there is no commercially available vaccine to prevent infectious mononucleosis, a disease frequently induced by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in adolescents or adults devoid of preexisting immunity to the virus. Methods. A total of 181 EBV-seronegative, healthy, young adult volunteers were randomized in a double-blind fashion to receive either placebo or a recombinant EBV subunit glycoprotein 350 (gp350)/aluminum hydroxide and 3-O-desacyl-4'-monophosphoryl lipid A (AS04) candidate vaccine in a 3-dose regimen. Results. The vaccine had demonstrable efficacy (mean efficacy rate, 78.0% [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.0% -96.0%]) in preventing the development of infectious mononucleosis induced by EBV infection, but it had no efficacy in preventing asymptomatic EBV infection. One month after receipt of the final dose of gp350 vaccine, 98.7% of subjects showed seroconversion to anti-gp350 antibodies (95% CI, 85.5%-97.9%), and they remained anti-gp350 antibody positive for > 18 months. Furthermore, there were no concerns regarding the safety or reactogenicity of the gp350/AS04 vaccine. Conclusion. These data support the clinical feasibility of using an EBV vaccine to prevent infectious mononucleosis. [less ▲]

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See detailPatients infectes par le VIH. Et syndrome lipodystrophique
Uurlings, Françoise ULg; Moutschen, Michel ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2007), 62(11), 669-74

Prolonged utilization of some antiretroviral drugs in patients infected by HIV can lead to the outbreak of a lipodystrophy syndrome. This syndrome is characterized by modification of fats corporal ... [more ▼]

Prolonged utilization of some antiretroviral drugs in patients infected by HIV can lead to the outbreak of a lipodystrophy syndrome. This syndrome is characterized by modification of fats corporal repartition, sometimes associated with metabolic disturbancies (dyslipemia and insulin resistance). Two antiretroviral classes are implicated in the pathophysiology of this syndrome, namely protease inhibitors (PIs) and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). The PIs rather influence the differentiation of adipose tissue with its secretion. They are more often associated with visceral adiposity, insulin resistance and dyslipemia. The mitochondrial toxicity of the NRTIs is more frequently responsible for adipose tissue loss at the periphery. Other factors in relation to the patient influence the severity of this syndrome. Several therapeutic options are to be considered both when taking care of the patients suffering from this syndrome and when new patients are to be treated. [less ▲]

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See detailA Patient with Hiv Infection, Cough, Asthenia, and Fever
Mayasi, N.; Chandrikakumari, Kavitha; Mukeba, D. et al

in Clinical Infectious Diseases : An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (2007), 45(5), 662-3559-600

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See detailPhase I/II studies to evaluate safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant gp350 Epstein-Barr virus vaccine in healthy adults
Moutschen, Michel ULg; Leonard, Philippe ULg; Sokal, E. M. et al

in Vaccine (2007), 25(24), 4697-4705

Two double-blind randomised controlled studies (phase I and I/II) were performed to assess for the first time the safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant subunit gp350 Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) vaccine ... [more ▼]

Two double-blind randomised controlled studies (phase I and I/II) were performed to assess for the first time the safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant subunit gp350 Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) vaccine in 148 healthy adult volunteers. All candidate vaccine formulations had a good safety profile and were well tolerated, with the incidence of solicited and unsolicited symptoms within a clinically acceptable range. One serious adverse event was reported in the phase I trial which was considered to be of suspected relationship to vaccination. The gp350 vaccine formulations were immunogenic and induced gp350-specific antibody responses (including neutralising antibodies). (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailHIV-1 protease inhibitors do not interfere with provirus transcription and host cell apoptosis induced by combined treatment TNF-alpha plus TSA
Vandergeeten, Claire ULg; Quivy, Vincent; Moutschen, Michel ULg et al

in Biochemical Pharmacology (2007), 73(11), 1738-1748

HIV-1 latency represents a major hurdle to the complete eradication of the virus from patients under highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) regimens. One solution to this problem would be to ... [more ▼]

HIV-1 latency represents a major hurdle to the complete eradication of the virus from patients under highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) regimens. One solution to this problem would be to eliminate the latently infected cellular reservoirs by forcing gene expression in presence of HAART to prevent spreading of the infection by the newly synthesized viruses. Many studies have reported that a combination of a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) (i.e. TSA, NaBut, Valproic acid,...) with a pro-inflammatory cytokine (i.e. TNF alpha, IL-1,...) reactivates in a synergistic manner HIV-1 transcription in latently infected cells. The aim of the present study was to determine whether HIV-1 protease inhibitors (PIs) used in HAART (such as Saquinavir, Indinavir, Nelfinavir, Lopinavir, Ritonavir and Amprenavir) could interfere with the potential purge of the cellular reservoirs induced by a combined treatment involving TSA and TNF alpha. We showed, in two HIV-1 latently infected cell lines (ACH-2 and U1) that all PIs efficiently inhibited release of mature viral particles but did neither affect cell apoptosis nor NF-kappa B induction and HIV-1 transcription activation following combined treatment with TNF alpha + TSA. This study is encouraging in the fight against HIV-1 and shows that PIs should be compatible with an inductive adjuvent therapy for latent reservoir reduction/elimination in association with efficient HAART regimens. (c) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailAvancees therapeutiques en pathologie infectieuse au cours de la derniere decennie
GIOT, Jean-Baptiste ULg; Mukeba Tshialala, D.; Mayasi Ngongo, N. et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2007), 62(5-6, May-Jun), 377-83

This review focuses on new antibiotics, particularly for gram-positive infections, new antiretroviral drugs, new treatment of fungal infections and indications of miltefosine in the treatment of ... [more ▼]

This review focuses on new antibiotics, particularly for gram-positive infections, new antiretroviral drugs, new treatment of fungal infections and indications of miltefosine in the treatment of leishmaniasis. [less ▲]

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See detailDownregulation of CD94/NKG2A inhibitory receptors on CD8+ T cells in HIV infection is more pronounced in subjects with detected viral load than in their aviraemic counterparts.
Zeddou, Mustapha ULg; Rahmouni, Souad ULg; Vandamme, Arnaud ULg et al

in Retrovirology (2007), 4

The CD94/NKG2A heterodimer is a natural killer receptor (NKR), which inhibits cell-mediated cytotoxicity upon interaction with MHC class I gene products. It is expressed by NK cells and by a small ... [more ▼]

The CD94/NKG2A heterodimer is a natural killer receptor (NKR), which inhibits cell-mediated cytotoxicity upon interaction with MHC class I gene products. It is expressed by NK cells and by a small fraction of activated CD8+ T lymphocytes. Abnormal upregulation of the CD94/NKG2A inhibitory NKR on cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) could be responsible for a failure of immunosurveillance in cancer or HIV infection. In this study, CD94/NKG2A receptor expression on CD8+ T lymphocytes and NK cells was assessed in 46 HIV-1-infected patients (24 viraemic, 22 aviraemic) and 10 healthy volunteers. The percentage of CD8+ T lymphocytes expressing the CD94/NKG2A inhibitory heterodimer was very significantly decreased in HIV-1-infected patients in comparison with non-infected controls. Within the HIV infected patients, the proportion of CD8+ T lymphocytes and NK cells expressing CD94/NKG2A was higher in subjects with undetectable viral loads in comparison with their viraemic counterparts. No significant difference was detected in the proportion of CD8+ T lymphocytes expressing the activatory CD94/NKG2C heterodimer between the HIV-1 infected patients and the healthy donors, nor between the vireamic and avireamic HIV-1 infected patients. In conclusion, chronic stimulation with HIV antigens in viraemic patients leads to a decreased rather than increased CD94/NKG2A expression on CD8+ T lymphocytes and NK cells. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation clinique de la fonction du thymus.
Castermans, Emilie ULg; Morrhaye, Gabriel ULg; Marchand, S. et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2007), 62(11), 675-8

The essential role of the thymus is to install an extremely diverse repertoire of T lymphocytes that are self-tolerant and competent against non-self, as well as to generate self-antigen specific ... [more ▼]

The essential role of the thymus is to install an extremely diverse repertoire of T lymphocytes that are self-tolerant and competent against non-self, as well as to generate self-antigen specific regulatory T cells (Treg) able to inactivate in periphery self-reactive T cells having escaped the thymic censorship. Although indirect, techniques of medical imaging and phenotyping of peripheral T cells may help in the investigation of thymic function. Nowadays however, thymopoiesis is better evaluated through quantification by PCR of T-cell receptor excision circles (TREC) generated by intrathymic random recombination of the gene segments coding for the variable parts of the T-cell receptor for antigen (TCR). The TREC methodology is very valuable in the circumstances not associated with intense proliferation or apoptosis of peripheral T lymphocytes. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation de la thymopoiese: applications cliniques.
Castermans, Emilie ULg; Morrhaye, Gabriel ULg; Marchand, S. et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2007), 62(12), 725-9

In the precedent article, we have described how T-cell generation in the thymus (thymopoiesis) may be currently evaluated through quantification by PCR of T-cell receptor excision circles (TREC) generated ... [more ▼]

In the precedent article, we have described how T-cell generation in the thymus (thymopoiesis) may be currently evaluated through quantification by PCR of T-cell receptor excision circles (TREC) generated by intrathymic random recombination of the gene segments coding for variable parts of T-cell receptor for antigen (TCR). In hematology, TREC methodology helps in a better understanding of immune reconstitution after graft of hematopoietic stem cells: first there is a proliferation of mature T cells present in the graft, then a differentiation of naive T cells. In geriatrics, the homeostasis of the peripheral T-cell repertoire is maintained through proliferation of peripheral memory T cells rather than through thymic generation of naive T cells. In addition, TREC quantification constitutes a novel major tool for deciphering the tight control of thymopoiesis by the neuroendocrine system. [less ▲]

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