Vaccinations in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases.
; Moutschen, Michel ; et al
in Rheumatology (2010), 49(10), 1815-27
Patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMID) such as RA, IBD or psoriasis, are at increased risk of infection, partially because of the disease itself, but mostly because of treatment with ... [more ▼]
Patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMID) such as RA, IBD or psoriasis, are at increased risk of infection, partially because of the disease itself, but mostly because of treatment with immunomodulatory or immunosuppressive drugs. In spite of their elevated risk for vaccine-preventable disease, vaccination coverage in IMID patients is surprisingly low. This review summarizes current literature data on vaccine safety and efficacy in IMID patients treated with immunosuppressive or immunomodulatory drugs and formulates best-practice recommendations on vaccination in this population. Especially in the current era of biological therapies, including TNF-blocking agents, special consideration should be given to vaccination strategies in IMID patients. Clinical evidence indicates that immunization of IMID patients does not increase clinical or laboratory parameters of disease activity. Live vaccines are contraindicated in immunocompromized individuals, but non-live vaccines can safely be given. Although the reduced quality of the immune response in patients under immunotherapy may have a negative impact on vaccination efficacy in this population, adequate humoral response to vaccination in IMID patients has been demonstrated for hepatitis B, influenza and pneumococcal vaccination. Vaccination status is best checked and updated before the start of immunomodulatory therapy: live vaccines are not contraindicated at that time and inactivated vaccines elicit an optimal immune response in immunocompetent individuals. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 45 (8 ULg)
Thymic self-antigens for the design of a negative/tolerogenic self-vaccination against type 1 diabetes.
Geenen, Vincent ; Mottet, Marie ; Dardenne, Olivier et al
in Current Opinion in Pharmacology (2010), 10
Before being able to react against infectious non-self antigens, the immune system has to be educated in the recognition and tolerance of neuroendocrine proteins and this critical process takes place only ... [more ▼]
Before being able to react against infectious non-self antigens, the immune system has to be educated in the recognition and tolerance of neuroendocrine proteins and this critical process takes place only in the thymus. The development of the autoimmune diabetogenic response results from a thymus dysfunction in programming central self-tolerance to pancreatic insulin-secreting islet β cells, leading to the breakdown of immune homeostasis with an enrichment of islet β-cell reactive effector T cells and a deficiency of β-cell specific natural regulatory T cells (nTregs) in the peripheral T-lymphocyte repertoire. Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2) is the dominant member of the insulin family expressed during fetal life by the thymic epithelium under the control of the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene/protein. The very low degree of insulin gene transcription in normal murine and human thymus explains why the insulin protein is poorly tolerogenic as evidenced in many studies, including the failure of all clinical trials that have attempted immune tolerance to islet β cells via various methods of insulin administration. Based on the close homology and cross-tolerance between insulin, the primary T1D autoantigen, and IGF-2, the dominant self-antigen of the insulin family, a novel type of vaccination, so-called “negative/tolerogenic self-vaccination”, is currently being developed for prevention and cure of T1D. If this approach were found to be effective for reprogramming immunological tolerance in T1D, it could pave the way for the design of other self-vaccines against autoimmune endocrine diseases, as well as other organ-specific autoimmune diseases. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 48 (17 ULg)
Fibromyalgie et affections voisines : analyse du comportement électromyographique au cours d’un effort musculaire isométrique
Maquet, Didier ; Croisier, Jean-Louis ; Dupont, Catherine et al
in Revue du Rhumatisme (2010), 77Detailed reference viewed: 137 (19 ULg)
Long-term efficacy and safety of Raltegravir combined with optimized background therapy in treatment-experienced patients with drug-resistant HIV infection: week 96 results of the BENCHMRK 1 and 2 phase iii trials.
; ; et al
in Clinical Infectious Diseases : An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (2010), 50(4), 605-12
BENCHMRK-1 and -2 are ongoing double-blind phase III studies of raltegravir in patients experiencing failure of antiretroviral therapy with triple-class drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus ... [more ▼]
BENCHMRK-1 and -2 are ongoing double-blind phase III studies of raltegravir in patients experiencing failure of antiretroviral therapy with triple-class drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus infection. At week 96 (combined data), raltegravir (400 mg twice daily) plus optimized background therapy was generally well tolerated, with superior and durable antiretroviral and immunological efficacy, compared with optimized background therapy alone. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 20 (2 ULg)
Fibromyalgia and related conditions: Electromyogram profile during isometric muscle contraction
Maquet, Didier ; Croisier, Jean-Louis ; Dupont, Catherine et al
in Joint Bone Spine (2010), 77
Objectives: To evaluate electromyogram (EMG) profiles in patients with three related conditions: fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, and depression. Methods: We studied 44 healthy volunteers, 22 ... [more ▼]
Objectives: To evaluate electromyogram (EMG) profiles in patients with three related conditions: fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, and depression. Methods: We studied 44 healthy volunteers, 22 patients with fibromyalgia, 11 patients with chronic fatigue syndrome, and 10 patients admitted for depression. The trapezius electromyogram was recorded during maximally sustained, bilateral, 90◦ abduction of the shoulders. EMG signal frequency and amplitude were measured throughout the test. Results: In the fibromyalgia group, isometric contraction duration was significantly shorter than in the other two patient groups (P < 0.001) and the EMG frequency and amplitude pattern indicated premature discontinuation of the muscle contraction. Findings in the chronic fatigue patients were similar to those in the healthy controls. The patients with depression had a distinctive EMG profile characterized by excessive initial motor-unit recruitment with a shift in the frequency spectrum. Conclusions: Fibromyalgia was associated with a specific EMG pattern indicating premature discontinuation of the muscle contraction. Therefore, maximal voluntary muscle contraction tests may be of limited value for assessing function in fibromyalgia patients. Chronic fatigue syndrome patients had similar EMG findings to those in the healthy controls. The EMG alterations in the patients with depression were consistent with manifestations of psychomotor retardation. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 71 (17 ULg)
Epidemiology, assessment, and management of excess abdominal fat in persons with HIV infection.
; Moutschen, Michel ; et al
in AIDS Reviews (2010), 12(1), 3-14
Metabolic and morphologic abnormalities in persons with HIV remain common contributors to stigma and morbidity. Increased abdominal circumference and visceral adiposity were first recognized in the late ... [more ▼]
Metabolic and morphologic abnormalities in persons with HIV remain common contributors to stigma and morbidity. Increased abdominal circumference and visceral adiposity were first recognized in the late 1990s, soon after the advent of effective combination antiretroviral therapy. Visceral adiposity is commonly associated with metabolic abnormalities including low HDL-cholesterol, raised triglycerides, insulin resistance, and hypertension, a constellation of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus known as "the metabolic syndrome". Medline and conference abstracts were searched to identify clinical research on factors associated with visceral adiposity and randomized studies of management approaches. Data were critically reviewed by physicians familiar with the field. A range of host and lifestyle factors as well as antiretroviral drug choice were associated with increased visceral adiposity. Management approaches included treatment switching and metformin, both of which have shown benefit for insulin-resistant individuals with isolated fat accumulation. Testosterone supplements may also have benefits in a subset of individuals. Supra-physiological doses of recombinant human growth hormone and the growth hormone releasing hormone analog tesamorelin both significantly and selectively reduce visceral fat over 12-24 weeks; however, the benefits are only maintained if doping is continued. In summary, the prevention and management of visceral adiposity remains a substantial challenge in clinical practice. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 24 (2 ULg)
HIV-1 V3 envelope deep sequencing for clinical plasma specimens failing in phenotypic tropism assays.
; ; et al
in AIDS Research and Therapy (2010), 7
ABSTRACT : BACKGROUND : HIV-1 infected patients for whom standard gp160 phenotypic tropism testing failed are currently excluded from co-receptor antagonist treatment. To provide patients with maximal ... [more ▼]
ABSTRACT : BACKGROUND : HIV-1 infected patients for whom standard gp160 phenotypic tropism testing failed are currently excluded from co-receptor antagonist treatment. To provide patients with maximal treatment options, massively parallel sequencing of the envelope V3 domain, in combination with tropism prediction tools, was evaluated as an alternative tropism determination strategy. Plasma samples from twelve HIV-1 infected individuals with failing phenotyping results were available. The samples were submitted to massive parallel sequencing and to confirmatory recombinant phenotyping using a fraction of the gp120 domain. RESULTS : A cut-off for sequence reads interpretation of 5 to10 times the sequencing error rate (0.2%) was implemented. On average, each sample contained 7 different V3 haplotypes. V3 haplotypes were submitted to tropism prediction algorithms, and 4/14 samples returned with presence of a dual/mixed (D/M) tropic virus, respectively at 3%, 10%, 11%, and 95% of the viral quasispecies. V3 tropism prediction was confirmed by gp120 phenotyping, except for two out of 4 D/M predicted viruses (with 3 and 95%) which were phenotypically R5-tropic. In the first case, the result was discordant due to the limit of detection for the phenotyping technology, while in the latter case the prediction algorithms were not computing the viral tropism correctly. CONCLUSIONS : Although only demonstrated on a limited set of samples, the potential of the combined use of "deep sequencing + prediction algorithms" in cases where routine gp160 phenotype testing cannot be employed was illustrated. While good concordance was observed between gp120 phenotyping and prediction of R5-tropic virus, the results suggest that accurate prediction of X4-tropic virus would require further algorithm development. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 58 (13 ULg)
Multidentate small-molecule inhibitors of vaccinia H1-related (VHR) phosphatase decrease proliferation of cervix cancer cells.
; Vossius, Sofie ; Rahmouni, Souad et al
in Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (2009), 52(21), 6716-23
Loss of VHR phosphatase causes cell cycle arrest in HeLa carcinoma cells, suggesting that VHR inhibition may be a useful approach to halt the growth of cancer cells. We recently reported that VHR is ... [more ▼]
Loss of VHR phosphatase causes cell cycle arrest in HeLa carcinoma cells, suggesting that VHR inhibition may be a useful approach to halt the growth of cancer cells. We recently reported that VHR is upregulated in several cervix cancer cell lines as well as in carcinomas of the uterine cervix. Here we report the development of multidentate small-molecule inhibitors of VHR that inhibit its enzymatic activity at nanomolar concentrations and exhibit antiproliferative effects on cervix cancer cells. Chemical library screening was used to identify hit compounds, which were further prioritized in profiling and kinetic experiments. SAR analysis was applied in the search for analogs with improved potency and selectivity, resulting in the discovery of novel inhibitors that are able to interact with both the phosphate-binding pocket and several distinct hydrophobic regions within VHR’s active site. This multidentate binding mode was confirmed by X-ray crystallography. The inhibitors decreased the proliferation of cervix cancer cells, while growth of primary normal keratinocytes was not affected. These compounds may be a starting point to develop drugs for the treatment of cervical cancer. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 70 (23 ULg)
Synergistic activation of HIV-1 expression by deacetylase inhibitors and prostratin: implications for treatment of latent infection
; ; et al
in PLoS ONE (2009), 4(6), 6093
The persistence of transcriptionally silent but replication-competent HIV-1 reservoirs in Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART)-treated infected individuals, represents a major hurdle to virus ... [more ▼]
The persistence of transcriptionally silent but replication-competent HIV-1 reservoirs in Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART)-treated infected individuals, represents a major hurdle to virus eradication. Activation of HIV-1 gene expression in these cells together with an efficient HAART has been proposed as an adjuvant therapy aimed at decreasing the pool of latent viral reservoirs. Using the latently-infected U1 monocytic cell line and latently-infected J-Lat T-cell clones, we here demonstrated a strong synergistic activation of HIV-1 production by clinically used histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) combined with prostratin, a non-tumor-promoting nuclear factor (NF)- kappaB inducer. In J-Lat cells, we showed that this synergism was due, at least partially, to the synergistic recruitment of unresponsive cells into the expressing cell population. A combination of prostratin+HDACI synergistically activated the 5' Long Terminal Repeat (5'LTR) from HIV-1 Major group subtypes representing the most prevalent viral genetic forms, as shown by transient transfection reporter assays. Mechanistically, HDACIs increased prostratin-induced DNA-binding activity of nuclear NF-kappaB and degradation of cytoplasmic NF-kappaB inhibitor, IkappaBalpha . Moreover, the combined treatment prostratin+HDACI caused a more pronounced nucleosomal remodeling in the U1 viral promoter region than the treatments with the compounds alone. This more pronounced remodeling correlated with a synergistic reactivation of HIV-1 transcription following the combined treatment prostratin+HDACI, as demonstrated by measuring recruitment of RNA polymerase II to the 5'LTR and both initiated and elongated transcripts. The physiological relevance of the prostratin+HDACI synergism was shown in CD8(+)-depleted peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HAART-treated patients with undetectable viral load. Moreover, this combined treatment reactivated viral replication in resting CD4(+) T cells isolated from similar patients. Our results suggest that combinations of different kinds of proviral activators may have important implications for reducing the size of latent HIV-1 reservoirs in HAART-treated patients. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 76 (12 ULg)
Efficacy and safety of etravirine in treatment-experienced, HIV-1 patients: pooled 48 week analysis of two randomized, controlled trials.
; ; et al
in AIDS (2009), 23(17), 2289-300
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy, safety and virologic resistance profile of etravirine (TMC125), a next-generation nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, over 48 weeks in treatment-experienced ... [more ▼]
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy, safety and virologic resistance profile of etravirine (TMC125), a next-generation nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, over 48 weeks in treatment-experienced adults infected with HIV-1 strains resistant to a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor and other antiretrovirals. DESIGN: DUET-1 (NCT00254046) and DUET-2 (NCT00255099) are two identically designed, randomized, double-blind phase III trials. METHODS: Patients received twice-daily etravirine 200 mg or placebo, each plus a background regimen of darunavir/ritonavir, investigator-selected nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors and optional enfuvirtide. Eligible patients had documented nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance, at least three primary protease inhibitor mutations at screening and were on a stable but virologically failing regimen for at least 8 weeks, with plasma viral load more than 5000 copies/ml. Pooled 48-week data from the two trials are presented. RESULTS: Patients (1203) were randomized and treated (n = 599, etravirine; n = 604, placebo). Significantly more patients in the etravirine than in the placebo group achieved viral load less than 50 copies/ml at week 48 (61 vs. 40%, respectively; P < 0.0001). Significantly fewer patients in the etravirine group experienced at least one confirmed or probable AIDS-defining illness/death (6 vs. 10%; P = 0.0408). Safety and tolerability in the etravirine group was comparable to the placebo group. Rash was the only adverse event to occur at a significantly higher incidence in the etravirine group (19 vs. 11%, respectively, P < 0.0001), occurring primarily in the second week of treatment. CONCLUSION: At 48 weeks, treatment-experienced patients receiving etravirine plus background regimen had statistically superior and durable virologic responses (viral load less than 50 copies/ml) than those receiving placebo plus background regimen, with comparable tolerability and no new safety signals reported since week 24. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 26 (2 ULg)
Interruption of antiretroviral therapy is associated with increased plasma cystatin C.
; ; et al
in AIDS (2009), 23(1), 71-82
BACKGROUND: Cystatin C has been proposed as an alternative marker of renal function. We sought to determine whether participants randomized to episodic use of antiretroviral therapy guided by CD4 cell ... [more ▼]
BACKGROUND: Cystatin C has been proposed as an alternative marker of renal function. We sought to determine whether participants randomized to episodic use of antiretroviral therapy guided by CD4 cell count (drug conservation) had altered cystatin C levels compared with those randomized to continuous antiretroviral therapy (viral suppression) in the Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy trial, and to identify factors associated with increased cystatin C. METHODS: Cystatin C was measured in plasma collected at randomization, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 months after randomization in a random sample of 249 and 250 participants in the drug conservation and viral suppression groups, respectively. Logistic regression was used to model the odds of at least 0.15 mg/dl increase in cystatin C (1 SD) in the first month after randomization, adjusting for demographic and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: At randomization, mean (SD) cystatin C level was 0.99 (0.26 mg/dl) and 1.01 (0.28 mg/dl) in the drug conservation and viral suppression arms, respectively (P = 0.29). In the first month after randomization, 21.8 and 10.6% had at least 0.15 mg/dl increase in cystatin C in the drug conservation and viral suppression arms, respectively (P = 0.0008). The difference in cystatin C between the treatment arms was maintained through 1 year after randomization. After adjustment, participants in the viral suppression arm had significantly reduced odds of at least 0.15 mg/dl increase in cystatin C in the first month (odds ratio 0.42; 95% confidence interval 0.23-0.74, P = 0.0023). CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that interruption of antiretroviral therapy is associated with an increase in cystatin C, which may reflect worsened renal function. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 22 (3 ULg)
Selective defect of anti-pneumococcal IgG in a patient with persistent polyclonal B cell lymphocytosis.
Hafraoui, Kaoutar ; Moutschen, Michel ; et al
in European Journal of Internal Medicine (2009), 20(3), 62-5
BACKGROUND: Persistent polyclonal B cell lymphocytosis (PPBL) is a rare condition characterized by increased IgM and large excess of B cells with an IgD(+) CD27(+) phenotype. In normal individuals, these ... [more ▼]
BACKGROUND: Persistent polyclonal B cell lymphocytosis (PPBL) is a rare condition characterized by increased IgM and large excess of B cells with an IgD(+) CD27(+) phenotype. In normal individuals, these cells play a central role in the defense against pneumococcal infection. So far, few studies have characterized humoral immune responses in PPBL patients. We therefore measured IgG directed against S. pneumoniae antigens in a 51 yr-old woman with PPBL before and after vaccination with a pneumococcal 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine. METHODS: Antibodies against pneumococcal antigens were measured first with an overall immunoassay using microplates coated with the 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine. A serotype-specific test was also performed according to the WHO consensus protocol. RESULTS: Despite a large number of IgD(+) CD27(+) cells, our patient had low baseline titers of IgG directed against pneumococcal antigens and did not significantly respond to a 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine against S. pneumoniae. On the contrary, she had good titers of IgG directed against tetanus toxoid. CONCLUSION: IgM(+) IgD(+) CD27(+) cells which accumulate in this patient with typical PPBL patient failed to perform IgG isotype switch after a polysaccharide vaccine. The potential mechanisms and relationships with the main features of PPBL are discussed. Further studies on a larger number of similar patients are needed. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 38 (10 ULg)
Triom une: la tritherapie du pauvre ?
; ; Vaira, Dolorès et al
in Revue Médicale de Liège (2009), 64(1), 32-6
Despite a relative global stabilization of its incidence, HIV infection remains a major threat for public health, principally in Africa where it concerns more than 22 million people and constitutes the ... [more ▼]
Despite a relative global stabilization of its incidence, HIV infection remains a major threat for public health, principally in Africa where it concerns more than 22 million people and constitutes the first cause of death on the continent. To face the emergency of the HIV/AIDS epidemics on the African continent, the primary goal is to make available to all patients free and efficient antiretroviral medications. Such a goal cannot be dissociated from large scale prevention campaigns. In 2000, Triomune, one of the first fixed dose combinations of three antiretrovirals (stavudine, lamivudine & nevirapine) was launched by the Indian drug company Cipla, specialized in the production of low cost medications. Its convenient pill burden (one pill twice a day) and its very low cost (around 30 US $ per month) make Triomune an appealing solution for the treatment of HIV/AIDS in Africa. Unfortunately, Triomune presents several drawbacks (low genetic barrier, frequent side effects) and one of its constituents is not used in Europe anymore. Other first line treatments are urgently needed. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 46 (6 ULg)
Gentamicin in infective endocarditis: how to use it?
Frippiat, Frédéric ; ; Moutschen, Michel
in Clinical Infectious Diseases : An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (2009), 49(2), 320-1321Detailed reference viewed: 27 (1 ULg)
Impact of growth hormone (GH) deficiency and GH replacement upon thymus function in adult patients.
Morrhaye, Gabriel ; ; Legros, Jean-Jacques et al
in PLoS ONE (2009), 4(5), 5668
BACKGROUND: Despite age-related adipose involution, T cell generation in the thymus (thymopoiesis) is maintained beyond puberty in adults. In rodents, growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 ... [more ▼]
BACKGROUND: Despite age-related adipose involution, T cell generation in the thymus (thymopoiesis) is maintained beyond puberty in adults. In rodents, growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and GH secretagogues reverse age-related changes in thymus cytoarchitecture and increase thymopoiesis. GH administration also enhances thymic mass and function in HIV-infected patients. Until now, thymic function has not been investigated in adult GH deficiency (AGHD). The objective of this clinical study was to evaluate thymic function in AGHD, as well as the repercussion upon thymopoiesis of GH treatment for restoration of GH/IGF-1 physiological levels. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Twenty-two patients with documented AGHD were enrolled in this study. The following parameters were measured: plasma IGF-1 concentrations, signal-joint T-cell receptor excision circle (sjTREC) frequency, and sj/beta TREC ratio. Analyses were performed at three time points: firstly on GH treatment at maintenance dose, secondly one month after GH withdrawal, and thirdly one month after GH resumption. After 1-month interruption of GH treatment, both plasma IGF-1 concentrations and sjTREC frequency were decreased (p<0.001). Decreases in IGF-1 and sjTREC levels were correlated (r = 0.61, p<0.01). There was also a decrease in intrathymic T cell proliferation as indicated by the reduced sj/beta TREC ratio (p<0.01). One month after reintroduction of GH treatment, IGF-1 concentration and sjTREC frequency regained a level equivalent to the one before GH withdrawal. The sj/beta TREC ratio also increased with GH resumption, but did not return to the level measured before GH withdrawal. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with AGHD under GH treatment, GH withdrawal decreases thymic T cell output, as well as intrathymic T cell proliferation. These parameters of thymus function are completely or partially restored one month after GH resumption. These data indicate that the functional integrity of the somatotrope GH/IGF-1 axis is important for the maintenance of a normal thymus function in human adults. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NTC00601419. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 159 (29 ULg)
Autoimmune angioneurotic edema in a patient with Helicobacter pylori infection.
; ; Giot, Jean-Baptiste et al
in Helicobacter (2009), 14(1), 9-11
Association of acquired autoimmune angioneurotic edema with other diseases is increasing. However, the precise mechanism by which antibodies to C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-INH) are produced, is not ... [more ▼]
Association of acquired autoimmune angioneurotic edema with other diseases is increasing. However, the precise mechanism by which antibodies to C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-INH) are produced, is not elucidated. We describe a patient with IgA antibodies against C1-INH without other autoimmune markers. Our patient had gastritis and Helicobacter pylori infection, proven by biopsy. This case suggests that H. pylori infection can act as triggering factor for acquired autoimmune angioneurotic edema. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 45 (2 ULg)
Activation and coagulation biomarkers are independent predictors of the development of opportunistic disease in patients with HIV infection.
; ; et al
in Journal of Infectious Diseases (2009), 200(6), 973-83
BACKGROUND: Activation and coagulation biomarkers were measured within the Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy (SMART) trial. Their associations with opportunistic disease (OD) in human ... [more ▼]
BACKGROUND: Activation and coagulation biomarkers were measured within the Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy (SMART) trial. Their associations with opportunistic disease (OD) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients were examined. METHODS: Inflammatory (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hsCRP], interleukin-6 [IL-6], amyloid-A, and amyloid-P) and coagulation (D-dimer and prothrombin-fragment 1+2) markers were determined. Conditional logistic regression analyses were used to assess associations between these biomarkers and risk of OD. RESULTS: The 91 patients who developed an OD were matched to 182 control subjects. Patients with an hsCRP level > or =5 microg/mL at baseline had a 3.5 higher odds of OD (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5-8.1) than did those with an hsCRP level <1 microg/mL (P=.003, by test for trend) and patients with an IL-6 level > or =3 pg/mL at baseline had a 2.4 higher odds of OD (95% CI, 1.0-5.4) than did those with an IL-6 level <1.5 pg/mL (P=.02, by test for trend). No other baseline biomarkers predicted development of an OD. Latest follow-up hsCRP level for those with an hsCRP level > or =5 microg/mL (compared with a level <1 microg/mL; odds ratio [OR], 7.6; 95% CI, 2.0-28.5; [P=.002, by test for trend), latest amyloid-A level for those with an amyloid-A level > or =6 mg/L (compared with a level <2 mg/L; OR, 3.8; 95% CI, 1.1-13.4; P=.03, by test for trend), and latest IL-6 level for those with an IL-6 level > or =3 pg/mL (compared with a level <1.5 pg/mL; OR 2.4; 95% CI, 0.7-8.8; P=.04, by test for trend) were also associated with development of an OD. CONCLUSIONS: Higher IL-6 and hsCRP levels independently predicted development of OD. These biomarkers could provide additional prognostic information for predicting the risk of OD. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 16 (2 ULg)
Bases immunologiques a la comprehension du concept d'anticorps monoclonal.
Moutschen, Michel ; Scheen, André
in Revue Médicale de Liège (2009), 64(5-6), 237-43
Antibodies (Ab) are molecules with dual functions: on the one hand, they bind to antigens (Ag) through their variable regions (Fab, "Fragment antigen binding"), located at one of their extremities; on the ... [more ▼]
Antibodies (Ab) are molecules with dual functions: on the one hand, they bind to antigens (Ag) through their variable regions (Fab, "Fragment antigen binding"), located at one of their extremities; on the other hand, they recruit cells of the immune system, via the other extremity, the constant region or Fc region, which results in a selective destruction of cells that have the corresponding Ag. The capacity of recognition of Ag by Ab is unique. Ag generally have several different epitopes that all are binding sites for Ab. Ab may be classified according to their ability to recognize one single epitope or several epitopes. They are called monoclonal Ab (mAb) or polyclonal Ab, respectively. MAbs recognize the same epitope because they are issued from one single line of plasmocytes, originating from one single cell. It is the reason why they are so selective. MAbs exert complex, but unique mechanisms of action: they inhibit or activate signal transduction, and they specifically drive the immune system against target cells, such as tumoral cells. After their extensive use in fundamental and in applied research as wells as diagnostic tools, mAbs are now largely exploited in therapeutics. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 118 (3 ULg)
Infection humaine par le virus B du singe en Afrique
; Moutschen, Michel ; Thiry, Etienne et al
in Santé : Cahiers d'Etude et de Recherches Francophones (2008), 18(1), 3-8
Simian herpes B virus or Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (CeHV-1) is enzootic (80% to 100%) in Asian monkeys of the genus Macaca but is also present in other monkey species. This virus, discovered in 1933 ... [more ▼]
Simian herpes B virus or Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (CeHV-1) is enzootic (80% to 100%) in Asian monkeys of the genus Macaca but is also present in other monkey species. This virus, discovered in 1933, is closely related to human herpesvirus 1 and human herpesvirus 2, responsible respectively for labial and genital herpes. CeHV-1 infection is generally asymptomatic or mild in monkeys but in humans it may lead to fulminant encephalomyelitis that has an 80% lethality rate without treatment. Infections in humans are usually attributed to animal bites or scratches or to percutaneous or mucosal inoculation with infected materials from asymptomatic monkeys. Although the incidence of human infection with CeHV-1 is low, until the availability of antiviral therapy its death rate made this virus a serious zoonotic threat. Even now, good knowledge of its clinical signs and risk factors is essential for only they allow early and swift antiviral therapy (acyclovir, valacyclovir, or famciclovir) and prevent severe disease or fatal outcome. This article describes the virus, the resulting disease in human and a suspected clinical case involving a woman bit by a vervet monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops) in Garamba National Park in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 75 (8 ULg)