References of "Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange"
     in
Bookmark and Share    
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailNew nanostructured materials based on fullerene and biodegradable polyesters
Stoilova, Olya; Jérôme, Christine ULg; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg et al

in Chemistry of Materials (2006), 18(20), 4917-4923

Star-shaped poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) with a fullerene (C-60) core, C-60[N(CH2)(12)OPCLOH](x), was successfully synthesized by reaction of azide-terminated PCL with C-60. Both the experimental ... [more ▼]

Star-shaped poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) with a fullerene (C-60) core, C-60[N(CH2)(12)OPCLOH](x), was successfully synthesized by reaction of azide-terminated PCL with C-60. Both the experimental conditions and the stoichiometry were optimized, such that an average of six PCL chains was grafted per fullerene core. The molecular weight of the polyester chains directly controlled the length of the arms of the star-shaped polymers. Singlet oxygen was generated on irradiation of the C-60[N(CH2)(12)OPCLOH] x nanohybrids. These C-60[N(CH2)(12)OPCLOH](x) nanohybrids were then processed in two kinds of nanomaterials. First, they were encapsulated within the core of micelles formed by biocompatible amphiphilic block copolymers. In water, the particle size distribution of these nanoparticles was narrow, and their diameter was in the range of 100 to 200 nm. Second, C-60-containing micro-/nanosized polymer fibers were prepared, for the first time, by electrospinning. The average diameter of the fibers was varied by tuning the PCL/C-60[N(CH2)(12)OPCLOH](x) weight ratio. Grafting of polyester chains onto C-60 is thus a suitable strategy for producing easily processable C-60 and attractive building blocks for incorporation of C-60 in nanomaterials. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 41 (4 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailPreparation of well-defined PVOH/C60 nanohybrids by cobalt-mediated radical polymerization of vinyl acetate
Detrembleur, Christophe ULg; Stoilova, Olya; Bryaskova, Rayna ULg et al

in Macromolecular Rapid Communications (2006), 27(7), 498-504

Poly(vinyl acetate) chains end-capped by a Co(acac)(2) complex [PVAc-Co(acac)(2)] were prepared by bulk cobalt-mediated radical polymerization (CMRP) of vinyl acetate and used for grafting fullerene (C60 ... [more ▼]

Poly(vinyl acetate) chains end-capped by a Co(acac)(2) complex [PVAc-Co(acac)(2)] were prepared by bulk cobalt-mediated radical polymerization (CMRP) of vinyl acetate and used for grafting fullerene (C60) with four PVAc arms at low temperature (30 degrees C). A photoactive water-soluble poly(vinyl alcohol)/C60 nanohybrid was then prepared by hydrolysis of the PVAc arms of the nanohybrid. Because of photoactivity and very low cytotoxicity, this type of water-soluble nanohybrid is very promising for the photodynamic cancer therapy. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 35 (5 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailPhysical and chemical properties of pyropheophorbide)a-methyl ester in ethanol, phosphate buffer and aqueous dispersion of small unilamellar dimyristoyl-L-a-phosphatidylcholine vesicles
Delanaye, Lisiane; Bahri, Mohamed Ali ULg; Tfibel, Francis et al

in Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences (2006), 5

The aggregation process of pyropheophorbide-a methyl ester (PPME), a second generation hotosensitizer, was investigated in various solvents. Absorption and fluorescence spectra showed that the ... [more ▼]

The aggregation process of pyropheophorbide-a methyl ester (PPME), a second generation hotosensitizer, was investigated in various solvents. Absorption and fluorescence spectra showed that the photosensitizer was under a monomeric form in ethanol as well as in dimyristoyl-L-α-phosphatidylcholine liposomes while it was strongly aggregated in phosphate buffer. A quantitative determination of reactive oxygen species production by PPME in these solvents has been undertaken by electron spin resonance associated with spin trapping technique and absorption spectroscopy. In phosphate buffer, both electron spin resonance and absorption measurements led to the conclusion that singlet oxygen production was not detectable while hydroxyl radical production was very weak. In liposomes and ethanol, singlet oxygen and hydroxyl radical production increased highly; the singlet oxygen quantum yield was determined to be 0.2 in ethanol and 0.13 in liposomes. The hydroxyl radical production origin was also investigated. Singlet oxygen was formed from PPME triplet state deactivation in presence of oxygen. Indeed, the triplet state formation quantum yield of PPME was found to be about 0.23 in ethanol, 0.15 in liposomes (too small to be measured in PBS). [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 26 (5 ULg)
See detailStudy of neuronal cells preconditionning
Guelluy, Pierre-Henri ULg; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange ULg; Deby, Ginette et al

Poster (2005, November 25)

Detailed reference viewed: 12 (7 ULg)
See detailStudy of neuronal preconditionning by ESR
Guelluy, Pierre-Henri ULg; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange ULg; Deby, Ginette et al

Scientific conference (2005, November 17)

Detailed reference viewed: 10 (8 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailSynoviocytes, not chondrocytes, release free radicals after cycles of anoxia/re-oxygenation
Schneider, Nicole ULg; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange ULg; Lejeune, Jean-Philippe ULg et al

in Biochemical & Biophysical Research Communications (2005), 334(2), 669-673

By oxymetry and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), we investigated the effects of repeated anoxia/re-oxygenation (A/R) periods on the respiration and production of free radicals by synoviocytes ... [more ▼]

By oxymetry and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), we investigated the effects of repeated anoxia/re-oxygenation (A/R) periods on the respiration and production of free radicals by synoviocytes (rabbit HIG-82 cell line and primary equine synoviocytes) and equine articular chondrocytes. Three periods of 20 min anoxia followed by re-oxygenation were applied to 10(7)cells; O(2) consumption was measured before anoxia and after each re-oxygenation. After the last A/R, cellular free radical formation was investigated by EPR spectroscopy with spin trapping technique (n=3 for each cell line). Both types of synoviocytes showed a high O(2) consumption, which was slowered after anoxia. By EPR with the spin trap POBN, we proved a free radical formation. Results were similar for equine and rabbit synoviocytes. For chondrocytes, we observed a low O(2) consumption, unchanged by anoxia, and no free radical production. These observations suggest an oxidant activity of synoviocytes, potentially important for the onset of osteoarthritis. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 22 (6 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailResveratrol and curcumin reduce the respiratory burst of Chlamydia-primed THP-1 cells
Deby-Dupont, Ginette; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange ULg; Serteyn, Didier ULg et al

in Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications (2005), 333(1), 21-27

The intracellular bacterium Chlamydia pneumoniae is involved in the inflammation process of atherosclerosis. We previously demonstrated that C. pneumonia infected monocytes (THP-1 cells) responded to ... [more ▼]

The intracellular bacterium Chlamydia pneumoniae is involved in the inflammation process of atherosclerosis. We previously demonstrated that C. pneumonia infected monocytes (THP-1 cells) responded to stimulation by an increased respiratory burst linked to an increased NADPH oxidase (NOX) activity. We now tested agents acting on the assembly of the NOX subunits or on protein kinase C, a trigger of NOX activity. Apocynin, resveratrol, rutin, quercetin, curcumin, and tocopherols were tested. The cells were pre-incubated with Chlamydia and the agent for 19 h, and then stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate. The NOX activity was monitored by measuring the hydrogen peroxide production. Resveratrol and curcumin (10(-4)-10(-6) M) were better inhibitors than apocynin. alpha-Tocopherol was inactive, and gamma-tocopherol inhibitor at 10(-4) M only. Quercetin was inactive, and rutin a moderate but significant inhibitor. The inhibition by resveratrol was increased by 10(-6) M rutin or quercetin. Resveratrol and curcumin thus appeared to be interesting for atherosclerosis treatment. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 40 (4 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailReactivity towards singlet oxygen of propofol inside liposomes and neuronal cells
Heyne, Belinda; Brault, Daniel; Fontaine-Aupart, Marie-Pierre et al

in Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - General Subjects (2005), 1724

Singlet oxygen (1O2), a reactive oxygen species, has been found to be implicated in many cellular events and pathological disorders.Herein, we investigated the reactivity of 1O2 towards the anaesthetic ... [more ▼]

Singlet oxygen (1O2), a reactive oxygen species, has been found to be implicated in many cellular events and pathological disorders.Herein, we investigated the reactivity of 1O2 towards the anaesthetic agent propofol (PPF) encapsulated within DMPC liposomes. By time resolved luminescence, the rate constant of 1O2 quenching by PPF was evaluated, depending on the location of the sensitizer. The nature of the oxidation product, resulting from the reaction of 1O2 with PPF, was determined using absorption and HPLC techniques. Finally, the in vitro protective effect of PPF towards the1O2-induced neuronal cell toxicity was evaluated in terms of cell viability. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 8 (4 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailCatalytic activation of copper(II) salts on the reaction of peroxynitrite with propofol in alkaline medium
Kohnen, Stephan ULg; Halusiak, Emilie ULg; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange ULg et al

in Nitric Oxide (2005), 12(4), 252-260

We report here on the role of copper (II) salts on the acceleration of peroxynitrite (ONOO-) decomposition and ONOO- reaction with the anaesthetic agent propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) in alkaline medium ... [more ▼]

We report here on the role of copper (II) salts on the acceleration of peroxynitrite (ONOO-) decomposition and ONOO- reaction with the anaesthetic agent propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) in alkaline medium. We observed a strong acceleration of the ONOO- decomposition in alkaline medium in the presence of copper (I and II) salts. After 18 h of ONOO- reaction with propofol, we observed nitrosated, nitrated, and oxidized (quinone and diphenylquinone) derivatives of propofol, but in the presence of Cu(II) (20% molar vs ONOO-), the yields of quinone and nitrosopropofol strongly increased. We also observed that the temperature and the atmosphere influenced the effects of Cu(II) on ONOO- reactions with propofol: low temperatures promoted nitrosation and high temperatures promoted oxidation; O-2 atmosphere increased the general reactivity and the yield of nitrated and oxidized products. We highlighted the influence of Cu(II) salts on the radical character of the reaction by direct EPR technique. The exact mechanism of the Cu(II) catalysis remains unexplained, but we suggest the formation of a copper complex with propofol or, more probably, the oxidation of ONOO- into ONOO• by copper ions promoting the formation of quinone and nitrosopropofol according to a previously reported mechanism [M. Cudic, C. Ducrocq, Transformations of 2,6-diisopropylphenol by NO-derived nitrogen oxides, particularly peroxyrutrite, Nitric Oxide 4 (2000) 147-156]. © 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 36 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailQuantification of lipid bilayer effective microviscosity and fluidity effect induced by propofol
Bahri, Mohamed Ali ULg; Heyne, Belinda; Hans, Pol ULg et al

in Biophysical Chemistry (2005), 114(1), 53-61

Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy with nitroxide spin probes was used as a method to probe the liposome microenvironments. The effective microviscosities have been determined from the calibration ... [more ▼]

Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy with nitroxide spin probes was used as a method to probe the liposome microenvironments. The effective microviscosities have been determined from the calibration of the ESR spectra of the probes in solvent mixtures of known viscosities. In the first time, by measuring ESR order parameter (S ) and correlation time (s c) of stearic spin probes, we have been able to quantify the value of effective microviscosity at different depths inside the liposome membrane. At room temperature, local microviscosities measured in dimyristoyl-l-a phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) liposome membrane at the different depths of 7.8, 16.95, and 27.7 2 were 222.53, 64.09, and 62.56 cP, respectively. In the gel state (10 °C), those microviscosity values increased to 472.56, 370.61, and 243.37 cP. In a second time, we have applied this technique to determine the modifications in membrane microviscosity induced by 2,6-diisopropyl phenol (propofol; PPF), an anaesthetic agent extensively used in clinical practice. Propofol is characterized by a unique phenolic structure, absent in the other conventional anaesthetics. Indeed, given its lipophilic property, propofol is presumed to penetrate into and interact with membrane lipids and hence to induce changes in membrane fluidity. Incorporation of propofol into dimyristoyl-L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine liposomes above the phase-transition temperature (23.9 °C) did not change microviscosity. At 10 °C, an increase of propofol concentration from 0 to 1.0 10 [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 112 (6 ULg)
See detailStudy of neuronal cells preconditioning by ESR
Guelluy, Pierre-Henri ULg; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange ULg; Deby-Dupont, G. et al

Conference (2005)

Detailed reference viewed: 4 (1 ULg)
See detailSYNOVIOCYTES BUT NOT ARTICULAR CHONDROCYTES RELEASE FREE RADICALS AFTER REPETITIVE CYCLES OF ANOXIA/REOXYGENATION: AN ELECTRON SPIN RESONANCE STUDY.
Schneider, Nicole ULg; Lejeune, Jean-Philippe ULg; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange ULg et al

Poster (2005)

Objective : We investigated if short recurrent periods of anoxia/reoxygenation (A/R), mimicking the in vivo conditions of hypoxia, could stimulate the production of free radicals by synoviocytes and ... [more ▼]

Objective : We investigated if short recurrent periods of anoxia/reoxygenation (A/R), mimicking the in vivo conditions of hypoxia, could stimulate the production of free radicals by synoviocytes and chondrocytes. Material and Methods : Synoviocytes (immortalised rabbit line HIG-82 and equine synoviocytes isolated from synovial membranes of the stifle joint) and chondrocytes (isolated from the same equine joint) were cultured for 48 hours. The respiration rate of the cells (107 cells/assay) was studied by oxymetry and the free radical production monitored by electron spin resonance (ESR) in the presence of the spin trap (-[-4-pyridyl 1-oxide]-N-tert butyl nitrone)/ethanol mixture (2%v/v). The A/R consisted of three periods of 20 minutes anoxia, each anoxia period being followed by re-oxygenation. Oxygen consumption by the cells was measured before starting the anoxia/reoxygenation cycles and after each reoxygenation. At the end of the last A/R period, the cells were transferred into the ESR flat cell and in the cavity, and the free radical formation was monitored. Results : The equine chondrocytes showed a low respiration rate, weakly affected by A/R and no production of free radicals (n=3). Synoviocytes showed a higher respiration rate (at least 20 times higher) which was affected by recurrent A/R (decrease of the slope of oxygen consumption), and a free radical production as evidenced by the appearance of the 4-POBN/EtOH adducts (n=6). Conclusions :These observations suggest that synoviocytes, but not chondrocytes, responded to repeated anoxia-reoxygenation conditions by the production of free radicals. Synoviocytes could thus be responsible for the production of free radicals in the joints, what could be an important factor in the onset of osteoarthritis. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 32 (2 ULg)
See detailQuantification of lipid bilayer viscosity and fuidity effect induced by propofol.
Bahri, Mohamed Ali ULg; Heyne, Belinda; Hans, Pol ULg et al

Conference (2004, April 23)

Detailed reference viewed: 37 (6 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEffects of COX-2 inhibitors on ROS produced by Chlamydia pneumoniae-primed human promonocytic cells (THP-1)
Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange ULg; Deby, Ginette ULg; Dogné, Jean-Michel ULg et al

in Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications (2004), 325(4), 1122-1130

Chronic inflammation through foam cells and macrophages is important in atherosclerosis development, and can be considered as therapeutic targets. Cyclooxygenase and NADPH-oxidase were expressed within ... [more ▼]

Chronic inflammation through foam cells and macrophages is important in atherosclerosis development, and can be considered as therapeutic targets. Cyclooxygenase and NADPH-oxidase were expressed within atherosclerotic lesions. Reactive oxygen species produced by NADPH oxidase were found to trigger the cyclooxygenase-2 expression. The effects of preferential COX-2 inhibitors on ROS produced by Chlamydia-primed human monocytes (THP-1 cells) were evaluated by fluorescence, chemiluminescence, oxymetry, and EPR spin trapping. Fluorescence assays showed an increased production of ROS with Chlamydia versus cells primed by 10(-8) M PMA. COX-2 inhibitors inhibited in a dose-dependent manner the luminol-enhanced CL while ibuprofen and diclofenac increased the chemiluminescence response. By EPR spin trapping, COX-2 inhibitors, ibuprofen, and diclofenac, exhibited a dose-dependent inhibiting effect (10 and 100 muM) on the EPR signal appearance. Our cell model combining EPR, chemiluminescence, and oxymetry appeared relevant to study the modulating effects of preferential COX-2 inhibitors on the cell oxidant activity and chronic inflammatory diseases. (C) 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 125 (36 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailIn vitro evaluation of glutathione peroxidase (GPx)-like activity and antioxidant properties of some Ebselen analogues
Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange ULg; Mareque-Faez, Juan; Chistiaens, U. et al

in Redox Report : Communications in Free Radical Research (2004), 9(2), 81-87

Four analogues of Ebselen were synthesized and their glutathione peroxidase activity and antioxidant property evaluated and compared to Ebselen. Among the studied compounds, only diselenide [3] exhibited ... [more ▼]

Four analogues of Ebselen were synthesized and their glutathione peroxidase activity and antioxidant property evaluated and compared to Ebselen. Among the studied compounds, only diselenide [3] exhibited both glutathione peroxidase activity and radical-scavenging capability. Compounds [3] and [4] showed a strong inhibitory effect (53% and 43%, respectively) on the lipid peroxidation of linoleic acid compared to Ebselen and selenide derivatives ([1] and [2]) which were less active (28%, 26% and 18% inhibition, respectively). A concentration-dependent inhibitory effect was also found in the model of the formation of ABTS*+ radical cation: 65% and 89% inhibition for compound [3] at 10(-4) M and 5 x 10(-5) M, respectively, and 68% and 90% for compound [4], compared to 14% and 52% inhibition for Ebselen and the diselenides [1] and [2] (29%, 46% and 45%, 68%, respectively). By EPR spin trapping technique, the following inhibitory profile of the Ebselen analogues was observed towards the formation of thiyl radicals: Ebselen = [3]>[1]>[2]>[4]. Studies with compound [3] are in progress on oxidative stress cell models. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 20 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEffects of glucocorticoids on the respiratory burst of Chlamydia-primed THP-1 cells.
Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange ULg; Deby, Ginette ULg; Mathy, Marianne ULg et al

in Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications (2004), 318(4), 941-8

We previously observed that the respiratory burst of human monocytes (THP-1 cell line) triggered by phorbol myristate acetate was strongly enhanced by a priming of the cells by Chlamydia pneumoniae ... [more ▼]

We previously observed that the respiratory burst of human monocytes (THP-1 cell line) triggered by phorbol myristate acetate was strongly enhanced by a priming of the cells by Chlamydia pneumoniae [Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 287 (2001) 781]. We describe here the modifications of the responses of Chlamydia-primed THP-1 cells to hydrocortisone (HCT) and methylprednisolone (MPL). HCT and MPL inhibited the production of the cytokines TNFalpha and IL-8. But HCT, which inhibited the respiratory burst in LPS-primed monocytes, paradoxically stimulated the phenomenon in Chlamydia-primed cells; MPL exerted no significant effect. Both glucocorticoids did not significantly modify the triggering effect of Chlamydia on NF-kappaB binding activity. On the expression of p22(phox), a protein subunit of the NADPH oxidase, HCT had an increasing and MPL a decreasing effect. Glucocorticoids thus had unexpected effects on the inflammatory response of Chlamydia-primed monocytes. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 74 (32 ULg)
See detailQuantification of lipid bilayer effective microviscosity and fluidity effect induced by propofol
Bahri, Mohamed Ali ULg; Heyne, B.; Hans, P. et al

Conference (2004)

Detailed reference viewed: 8 (4 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailInvestigation of singlet oxygen reactivity towards propofol
Heyne, Belinda; Kohnen, Stephan ULg; Brault, Daniel et al

in Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences (2003), 2(9), 939-945

The reaction between the anaesthetic agent 2,6-diisopropylphenol (propofol, PPF) and singlet oxygen (1O2) has been investigated in aqueous solution by means of HPLC, GC, absorption spectroscopy and laser ... [more ▼]

The reaction between the anaesthetic agent 2,6-diisopropylphenol (propofol, PPF) and singlet oxygen (1O2) has been investigated in aqueous solution by means of HPLC, GC, absorption spectroscopy and laser flash photolysis with infrared luminescence detection. The rate constants for the physical and chemical quenching of 1O2 by PPF (kPPF) are found to be 2.66 x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1) and approximately 3.2 x 10(6) M(-1) s(-1) in CD3OD and D2O-CD3OD (75:25 v/v), respectively. The reaction of propofol with singlet oxygen produced by light irradiation of Rose Bengal leads essentially to two reaction products, 2,6-diisopropyl-p-benzoquinone and 3,5,3',5'-tetraisopropyl-(4,4')-diphenoquinone that are unambiguously identified from comparison with authentic samples. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 48 (16 ULg)
See detailEFFECTS OF O2 TENSION AND GLUCOSE CONCENTRATION ON THE CELLULAR RESPIRATION OF EQUINE ARTICULAR CHONDROCYTES IN CULTURE.
Schneider, Nicole ULg; Lejeune, Jean-Philippe ULg; Duyckaerts, Claire ULg et al

Poster (2003)

In vivo, articular chondrocytes are exposed to 5 to 10% O2. Chondrocytes are also suspected to produce reactive oxygen species when submitted to anoxia/re-oxygenation. We were interested to study the ... [more ▼]

In vivo, articular chondrocytes are exposed to 5 to 10% O2. Chondrocytes are also suspected to produce reactive oxygen species when submitted to anoxia/re-oxygenation. We were interested to study the effects of O2 and glucose variations on cellular respiration, glucose consumption and lactate production. Equine articular chondrocytes were cultured in suspension for 2 days under 5 or 21 % O2 in the gaseous phase, and with 0, 1.0 or 4.5 g/L glucose. The viable cells were then counted and the respiration rate (O2 consumption) of 10.106 cells was monitored by oxymetry for 2 hours; after oxymetry, glucose and lactate were measured in the medium (enzymatic assays). After 2 days, the cell viability was the best at 5% O2 and 1g/L glucose; it decreased at 4.5 g/L glucose and was the worst at 0g/L glucose, for the two O2 tensions (n=3). There was no obvious difference of the respiration rate between cells cultured at 5 and 21% O2, but respiration of chondrocytes was surprisingly low. When cells were submitted to 20 min anoxia at 0% O2, the O2 consumption was doubled at re-oxygenation for cells previously cultured at 21% O2. Glucose and lactate values found in the medium after oxymetry: lactate release in medium was similar (36.23 and 34.57 mg/L respectively) for cells cultured with 1g glucose and 5 or 21% O2 conditions; lactate values were low (2.03 and 8,63 mg/L respectively) for 4.5 g glucose and 5 or 21% O2. Glucose uptake was not different whatever the culture conditions. These results indicate a low cellular respiration with a lactate production linked to the glucose concentrationin the medium, and raise the question of the capacity of chondrocytes to produce ROS in vivo starting from the mitochondrial chain. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 24 (1 ULg)