References of "Morsomme, Dominique"
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See detailEvaluation of pitch accuracy: from occasional to operatic singers
Larrouy, Pauline ULg; Nowak, Marion; Roig-Sanchis, Virginie et al

Conference (2014, January 15)

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See detailThe effect of melody and technique on the singing voice accuracy of trained singers
Larrouy, Pauline ULg; Magis, David ULg; Morsomme, Dominique ULg

in Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology (2014), 39

A previous study highlighted the effect of vocal technique on the singing voice accuracy of trained singers (1). The intervals' precision between the notes of the tune was altered when the singers used ... [more ▼]

A previous study highlighted the effect of vocal technique on the singing voice accuracy of trained singers (1). The intervals' precision between the notes of the tune was altered when the singers used Western operatic singing technique. In order to better understand these results, we have recorded two different melodies sung with two different vocal techniques. A large panel of trained singers (N = 50) participated in the study. The analytical method described in the reference paper (1) has been applied. The results confirm the effect of vocal technique on the vocal accuracy of trained singers. In addition, these results provide an answer about the melodic effect and guide future work on the perception process of operatic voices. [less ▲]

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See detailThe evaluation of vocal pitch accuracy: The case of operatic singing voices
Larrouy, Pauline ULg; Magis, David ULg; Morsomme, Dominique ULg

in Music Perception (2014), 32(1), 1-10

The objective analysis of Western operatic singing voices indicates that professional singers can be particularly “out of tune”. This study aims to better understand the evaluation of operatic voices ... [more ▼]

The objective analysis of Western operatic singing voices indicates that professional singers can be particularly “out of tune”. This study aims to better understand the evaluation of operatic voices, which have particularly complex acoustical signals. Twenty-two music experts were asked to evaluate the vocal pitch accuracy of 14 sung performances with a pairwise comparison paradigm, in a test and a retest. In addition to the objective measurement of pitch accuracy (pitch interval deviation), several performance parameters (average tempo, fundamental frequency of the starting note) and quality parameters (energy distribution, vibrato rate and extent) were observed and compared to the judges’ perceptual rating. The results show high intra- and inter-judge reliability when rating the pitch accuracy of operatic singing voices. Surprisingly, all the parameters were significantly related to the ratings and explain 78.8% of the variability of the judges’ rating. The pitch accuracy evaluation of operatic voices is thus not based exclusively on the precision of performed music intervals but on a complex combination of performance and quality parameters. [less ▲]

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See detailCriteria and tools for objectively analysing the vocal accuracy of a popular song
Larrouy, Pauline ULg; Morsomme, Dominique ULg

in Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology (2014), 39

This study aims to validate our method for measuring accuracy in a melodic context. We analysed the popular song “Happy Birthday” sung by 63 occasional and 14 professional singers thanks to AudioSculpt ... [more ▼]

This study aims to validate our method for measuring accuracy in a melodic context. We analysed the popular song “Happy Birthday” sung by 63 occasional and 14 professional singers thanks to AudioSculpt and OpenMusic (Ircam, Paris, France). In terms of evaluation of the pitch interval deviation, we replicated the profile of occasional singers described in the literature (the slower the performance, the more accurate it is). Our results also confirm that the professional singers sing more accurately than occasional singers but not when a Western operatic singing technique is involved. These results support the relevance of our method for analysing vocal accuracy of occasional and professional singers and led us to discuss adaptations to be implemented for analysing the accuracy of operatic voices. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of melody and technique on acoustical and musical features of Western operatic singing voices
Larrouy, Pauline ULg; Magis, David ULg; Morsomme, Dominique ULg

in Journal of Voice (2014)

Objective: The operatic singing technique is frequently employed in classical music. Several acoustical parameters of this specific technique have been studied but how these parameters combine remains ... [more ▼]

Objective: The operatic singing technique is frequently employed in classical music. Several acoustical parameters of this specific technique have been studied but how these parameters combine remains unclear. This study aims to further characterize the Western operatic singing technique by observing the effects of melody and technique on acoustical and musical parameters of the singing voice. Methods: Fifty professional singers performed two contrasting melodies (popular song and romantic melody) with two vocal techniques (with and without operatic singing technique). The common quality parameters (energy distribution, vibrato rate and extent), perturbation parameters (standard deviation of the fundamental frequency, signal-to-noise ratio, jitter and shimmer) and musical features (fundamental frequency of the starting note, average tempo, and sound pressure level) of the 200 sung performances were analyzed. Results: The results regarding the effect of melody and technique on the acoustical and musical parameters show that the choice of melody had a limited impact on the parameters observed, whereas a particular vocal profile appeared depending on the vocal technique employed. Conclusions: This study confirms that vocal technique affects most of the parameters examined. In addition, the observation of quality, perturbation and musical parameters contributes to a better understanding of the Western operatic singing technique. [less ▲]

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See detailThe effects of stress on singing voice accuracy
Larrouy, Pauline ULg; Morsomme, Dominique ULg

in Journal of Voice (2014), 28(1), 52-58

Objective: The quality of a music performance can be lessened or enhanced if the performer experiences stressful conditions. In addition, the quality of a sung performance requires control of the ... [more ▼]

Objective: The quality of a music performance can be lessened or enhanced if the performer experiences stressful conditions. In addition, the quality of a sung performance requires control of the fundamental frequency of the voice, which is particularly sensitive to stress. The present study aimed to clarify the effects of stress on singing voice accuracy. Methods: Thirty-one music students were recorded in a stressful condition (i.e., a music examination) and a non-stressful condition. Two groups were defined according to the challenge level of the music examination (first and second music levels). Measurements were made by self-reported state anxiety (CSAI-2R questionnaire) and by observing heart rate activity (electrocardiogram) during each performance. In addition, the vocal accuracy of the sung performances was objectively analyzed. Results: As expected, state anxiety and heart rate were significantly higher on the day of the music examination than in the non-stressful condition for all the music students. However, the effect of stress was positive for the first-year students but negative for the second-year students, for whom the music examination was particularly challenging. In addition, highly significant correlations were found between the intensity of cognitive symptoms and the vocal accuracy criteria. Discussion: This study highlights the contrasting effects of stress on singing voice accuracy but also the need to consider the challenge level and perception of the symptoms in experimental and pedagogical settings. [less ▲]

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See detailDosimétrie vocale chez des enseignantes des niveaux maternel et primaire
Remacle, Angélique ULg; Morsomme, Dominique ULg; FINCK, Camille ULg

in Cahiers de l'ASELF (2013), 10(4), 14-29

Objectifs - Cette étude quantifie l’usage vocal professionnel et extra-professionnel chez des enseignantes en différenciant deux niveaux scolaires : le maternel et le primaire. L’objectif est d’identifier ... [more ▼]

Objectifs - Cette étude quantifie l’usage vocal professionnel et extra-professionnel chez des enseignantes en différenciant deux niveaux scolaires : le maternel et le primaire. L’objectif est d’identifier le contexte (professionnel versus extra- professionnel) ainsi que le niveau scolaire (maternel versus primaire) requérant la charge vocale la plus importante. Méthodologie - Le comportement vocal de 21 enseignantes du maternel et de 20 enseignantes du primaire a été accumulé à l’aide d’un dosimètre pendant une semaine de travail (5 jours). Les paramètres analysés sont les suivants : l’intensité vocale, la fréquence fondamentale, la durée de phonation, le nombre de vibrations et la distance parcourue par les plis vocaux. Résultats - Comme attendu, le contexte professionnel est associé à des valeurs significativement plus élevées que le contexte extra-professionnel pour tous les paramètres mesurés. Par ailleurs, la comparaison entre les deux groupes montre des valeurs significativement plus élevées chez les enseignantes du maternel pour le nombre de vibrations et la distance parcourue par les plis vocaux. Conclusions - Le risque de développer des pathologies liées à la charge vocale est principalement associé à l’usage vocal professionnel des enseignantes, et il semble davantage présent chez les institutrices du niveau maternel que chez celles du primaire. [less ▲]

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See detailComparaison de la qualité vocale chez des patients souffrant d’un cancer des cordes vocales classé T1a ayant suivi une résection endoscopique au laser ou une radiothérapie externe
Poncelet, Mélanie ULg; DEMEZ, Pierre ULg; PIRET, Yves et al

Conference (2013, November 22)

Thème général : le choix du traitement concernant les cancers glottiques à un stade précoce reste controversé. Les deux principaux traitements sont la chirurgie endoscopique au laser et la radiothérapie ... [more ▼]

Thème général : le choix du traitement concernant les cancers glottiques à un stade précoce reste controversé. Les deux principaux traitements sont la chirurgie endoscopique au laser et la radiothérapie. Nous nous sommes intéressée aux conséquences des traitements sur une fonction importante, à savoir la phonation. Hypothèse de recherche : la qualité vocale des patients ayant souffert d’une tumeur T1a du plan glottique varie en fonction du traitement reçu, à savoir une résection endoscopique au laser CO2 ou une radiothérapie. Matériel et méthodes : nous avons recruté 18 patients traités par cordectomie, 7 traités par radiothérapie et 31 sujets contrôles. Un bilan vocal recommandé par l’European Voice Society a été réalisé chez tous les participants. Ce bilan comprenait des mesures acoustiques, aérodynamiques et des mesures perceptives (évaluation par le sujet lui-même ainsi que par un jury naïf composé de 38 juges). Résultats : les sujets traités par cordectomie obtiennent un score au jitter plus élevé et une étendue fréquentielle réduite par rapport aux sujets contrôles. Leur temps maximum phonatoire est plus faible alors que leur Mean flow rate est plus élevé par rapport aux sujets contrôles. Leurs scores au VHI total ainsi qu’à l’échelle physique sont plus élevés. Au niveau des mesures acoustiques, aérodynamiques et perceptives nous n’obtenons pas de différence significative entre les patients traités par cordectomie et ceux traités par radiothérapie. On constate néanmoins que les voix des sujets traités par cordectomie ont tendance à être jugées par le jury comme moins altérées. Conclusion : notre étude ne permet pas d’affirmer la supériorité d’un des traitements en ce qui concerne la qualité vocale post-traitement. L’analyse perceptive réalisée par un jury naïf permet d’observer que les voix des sujets traités pas radiothérapie ont tendance à être jugées comme étant légèrement plus altérées que celles des sujets traités pas cordectomie. Bien que certains prolongements soient possibles, notre étude apporte néanmoins une évaluation multiparamétrique de la qualité vocale après un cancer des cordes vocales classé T1a et traité soit par cordectomie endoscopique au laser CO2 soit par radiothérapie externe. Elle est la première à utiliser un jury naïf dans l’évaluation perceptive de la qualité vocale. [less ▲]

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See detailStress et voix: le cas de la justesse mélodique
Larrouy, Pauline ULg; Morsomme, Dominique ULg

Scientific conference (2013, November 14)

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See detailLa charge vocale et son incidence sur le traitement orthophonique
REMACLE, Angélique ULg; Morsomme, Dominique ULg

Conference (2013, October 25)

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See detailHow do music experts and non-experts evaluate the vocal accuracy of operatic singing voices?
Larrouy, Pauline ULg; Nowak, Marion; Morsomme, Dominique ULg

Conference (2013, August 22)

Professional singers are expected to sing in tune. However, when an operatic singing technique is employed, the objective measurement of the vocal accuracy (i.e. pitch interval deviation) shows ... [more ▼]

Professional singers are expected to sing in tune. However, when an operatic singing technique is employed, the objective measurement of the vocal accuracy (i.e. pitch interval deviation) shows particularly low scores, whatever the melody performed. This study focuses on the perceptual judgment of operatic voices in order to observe the evaluation process of singing voice accuracy by music experts and non-experts. In addition, this study aims to better understand the relationship between the subjective and objective measurements of operatic singing voices. 22 music experts and 22 non-experts paired in age and gender participated in a test and a retest (8 to 15 days in between). Fourteen sung performances performed by professional operatic singers were presented with a pairwise comparison paradigm. The participants were asked to indicate the most “in tune” melody for each pair (N = 91). The performances obtained thus a ranking by each judge. In addition, the 14 sung performances were objectively analyzed in order to confront the objective measurement of singing voice accuracy with the perceptual rating of the judges. Computing the variances of rank differences between the test and the retest, we observed that 20 music experts and 16 non-experts were consistent in their judgments. Among each group, the correlations between consistent raters were positive. However, 67.38% of these correlations were significant (p < .05) for the music experts whereas only 42.10% were significant for the non-experts. In addition, no relationship occurred between the objective measurements (from 9.5 to 115.5 cents, M = 40.57, SD = 34.42) and the perceptual ratings, except for two music experts. This study highlights the consistency of a judge when rating operatic singing voices and the difference between music experts and non-experts concerning the inter-judges reliability. Despite the fact that the majority of the music experts used similar strategies to evaluate the vocal accuracy of operatic voices, their judgment was obviously not linked with the objective measurement of vocal accuracy. This finding supports the tolerance of music expert listeners regarding the singing voice accuracy of operatic singers. Furthermore, this study provides some directions about the perception of operatic singing voices, which are particularly complex. [less ▲]

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See detailThe evaluation of singing voice accuracy: Are we good judges even if we are not musicians?
Larrouy, Pauline ULg; Roig-Sanchis, Virginie; Morsomme, Dominique ULg

Conference (2013, August 08)

A previous study highlighted that objective and subjective measurements of vocal accuracy are highly correlated when the rating is done by musicians and that 81% of their variance was explained by the ... [more ▼]

A previous study highlighted that objective and subjective measurements of vocal accuracy are highly correlated when the rating is done by musicians and that 81% of their variance was explained by the pitch interval deviation and the number of tonality modulations (Larrouy-Maestri, Lévêque, Schön, Giovanni, & Morsomme, 2013). However, the general audience is not expert in music. This study aims to observe the vocal accuracy assessment done by non musicians. Eighteen non musicians were asked to rate on a 9-point scale the global pitch accuracy of 166 vocal performances sung by untrained singers. This database was presented two times (T1 and T2) in a random order. The sung performances were objectively analyzed regarding three criteria: pitch interval deviation, number of tonality modulations and number of contour errors. The results show an intraclass correlation coefficient of .89 (p < .01) among the non experts and a mean intra-judges Spearman correlation of .66 (SD = .06) between T1 and T2. There is also a significant correlation between the acoustic measurements and the mean ratings (r(166) = .809; p < .01), with higher scores for accurate performances. Confronted with the music experts of the previous study, the judgment of the non experts correlated with the musicians ratings (r(166) = .840; p < .01). However, a Mann Whitney test showed that the rating of non experts was globally more severe than the experts one (p = 009). In addition, the regression analysis showed that only the pitch interval deviation criterion was considered in their judgment, explaining 66% of the variance of the judges. This study highlights the reliability and the objectivity of non musicians in the vocal accuracy assessment. Moreover, an effect of music expertise is observed concerning the severity of the rating and the vocal accuracy assessment process. [less ▲]

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See detailThe influence of subjective factors on the evaluation of singing voice accuracy
Larrouy, Pauline ULg; Morsomme, Dominique ULg

Poster (2013, August)

A previous study highlighted the objectivity of music experts when rating the vocal accuracy of sung performances (Larrouy-Maestri, Lévêque, Schön, Giovanni, & Morsomme, 2013). However, in an ecological ... [more ▼]

A previous study highlighted the objectivity of music experts when rating the vocal accuracy of sung performances (Larrouy-Maestri, Lévêque, Schön, Giovanni, & Morsomme, 2013). However, in an ecological context, numerous factors can influence the judges’ assessment of a music performance. This preliminary study aims to examine the effect of the music level of the performers on the evaluation of singing voice accuracy and to explore subjective factors which could influence the assessment. The same sung melody, performed by first and second year students of music conservatory (N = 31), was recorded in the context of their solfeggio examination. The jury, constituted of four music experts, was asked to rate the global pitch accuracy of each student. Two criteria (pitch interval deviation and tonal center deviation) were objectively measured and subjective data about the feeling of the students during the performance (e.g. anxiety level, enjoyment of singing) were collected through questionnaires. The results showed that the criteria used by the jury differed according to the music level of the students. Indeed, while the score of the jury correlated significantly with the vocal accuracy of the second year students, their assessment seemed more subjective concerning the first year students. Interestingly, the score of the jury was significantly correlated with the enjoyment of singing of the first year students and not with the objective measurements (pitch interval deviation and tonal center deviation) anymore. This preliminary work shows the effect of the music level of the performers on the evaluation of singing voice accuracy. Besides the educational implications of these findings, this study describes a promising method for the investigation of subjective factors, which influence the vocal assessment in an ecological context. [less ▲]

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See detailVocal impact of a prolonged reading task at two intensity levels : Perceptual analysis
Remacle, Angélique ULg; FINCK, Camille ULg; Schoentgen, Jean et al

Conference (2013, June 01)

Our goal is to evaluate the impact on voice of both duration and intensity level of 2 hours of continuous oral reading. Fifty normophonic women underwent two sessions of voice loading in which the ... [more ▼]

Our goal is to evaluate the impact on voice of both duration and intensity level of 2 hours of continuous oral reading. Fifty normophonic women underwent two sessions of voice loading in which the required intensity level of voice varied: 60-65 dB(A) for the first session, and 70-75 dB(A) for the second session. Objective measurements and subjective self-ratings were presented in a previous study (Remacle, Finck, Roche & Morsomme, 2012). Here are the results of perceptual analysis based on comparative judgments. Ten expert listeners evaluated the pressedness and the breathiness of one sentence recorded before and after each loading session. Pairs of stimuli were presented randomly to listeners who were asked to designate the most pressed sample at a first listening and the most breathy sample at a second listening. Each pair of stimuli was presented twice in order to evaluate the reliability. Results indicate that inter-judges and intra-judges reliability was poor to fair. Concerning the duration effect of vocal loading, results showed a significant decrease of breathiness but no change of pressedness after reading in both sessions. The decreased breathiness represents a voice improvement which could be interpreted as an adaptation of voice to loading. When comparing the two intensity levels, no difference was found for breathiness and pressedness after vocal loading. Similarly to objective measurements and self-ratings, perceptual assessments suggest that the duration of vocal loading has more effects on voice than its intensity level. [less ▲]

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See detailLa charge vocale
Morsomme, Dominique ULg; Remacle, Angélique ULg

in Rééducation Orthophonique (2013), 254

Ce chapitre est consacré à la charge vocale, définie comme une quantité d’utilisation de la voix par unité de temps. La durée, le niveau de pression sonore et la hauteur tonale sont les trois facteurs ... [more ▼]

Ce chapitre est consacré à la charge vocale, définie comme une quantité d’utilisation de la voix par unité de temps. La durée, le niveau de pression sonore et la hauteur tonale sont les trois facteurs principaux qui l’influencent. Pour analyser son incidence sur la voix, nous devons également tenir compte de l’environnement dans lequel évolue le locuteur. Les effets de la charge vocale sur le plan laryngé sont fonction de la physiologie propre à chaque individu. Le dosimètre ou accumulateur vocal est l’outil qui vise à quantifier la charge vocale. Cette instrumentation permet d’observer les comportements vocaux des locuteurs sur de longues périodes en situation écologique. D’un point de vue clinique, la prise en compte de la charge vocale influence nos plans thérapeutiques. Outre les principes de rééducation connus, nous discutons entre autres de l’apport du micro amplificateur et de la nécessité du repos vocal. [less ▲]

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See detailAmbulatory Monitoring of Teachers' Voice Use
Remacle, Angélique ULg; Morsomme, Dominique ULg; FINCK, Camille ULg

in AQL Proceedings (2013, June)

Method: Thirty-two French-speaking female teachers were monitored during one workweek (5 days) using the Ambulatory Phonation Monitor, Model 3200 (KayPENTAX). Phonation time, fundamental frequency (F0 ... [more ▼]

Method: Thirty-two French-speaking female teachers were monitored during one workweek (5 days) using the Ambulatory Phonation Monitor, Model 3200 (KayPENTAX). Phonation time, fundamental frequency (F0), sound pressure level (SPL), distance dose and cycle dose were analyzed in both professional and non-professional environments. Results: Teachers’ phonation time was statistically higher at school (20.3% ± 4.2) than not at school (10.4% ± 3.8). Concerning the fundamental frequency, both F0 average and F0 mode were statistically higher in the professional environment (F0 average = 258.7 Hz ± 20.5; F0 mode = 229.7 Hz ± 18.3) than in the non-professional environment (F0 average = 239.6 Hz ± 20.1; F0 mode = 213.3 Hz ± 20.6). The teachers spoke statistically louder at school (80.6 dB SPL ± 4.9) than not at school (74.5 dB SPL ± 5.2 dB SPL). The cycle dose and the distance dose were also statistically higher at school than in the non-professional environment. The data showed that the vocal folds vibrate 1,195,834 (± 255,696) times a day at work, plus 425,102 (±194,338) times after work. The distance traveled by the vocal folds for these teachers was 4,247 (± 1,476) meters at work, plus 1,173 (± 527) meters after work. Conclusion: Professional and non-professional voice use comparisons showed significant differences for all parameters (p<.001), indicating that vocal load was higher in the professional environment compared to the non-professional environment. [less ▲]

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See detailThe evaluation of singing voice accuracy: How tolerant are we?
Larrouy, Pauline ULg; Blanckaert, Ellen; Morsomme, Dominique ULg

Conference (2013, May 28)

The evaluation of the singing voice accuracy is partly based on the precision of the intervals between the tones of a sung performance. This study aims to observe the listeners’ tolerance when judging ... [more ▼]

The evaluation of the singing voice accuracy is partly based on the precision of the intervals between the tones of a sung performance. This study aims to observe the listeners’ tolerance when judging melodies in order to properly evaluate the singing voice accuracy in a melodic context For this purpose, an interval contained in familiar and unfamiliar sung performances was manipulated in two directions (compression and enlargement from 10 to 60 cents). This material was presented through the method of limits procedure to 30 non-musicians. They were asked to define whether the melodies proposed were “in tune” or “out of tune” in a test and a retest. The accuracy thresholds for compression and enlargement errors as well as the tolerance zone were computed. The results showed that participants were consistent in their evaluation between the test and the retest. The tolerance zone (M = 42 cents, ES = 1.60) was not affected by the familiarity of the melody. Concerning the accuracy thresholds, participants were more tolerant when the interval was compressed (M = 25.68 cents, ES = .1.34) than when it was enlarged (M = 16.32 cents, ES = .91), for the familiar (t(30) = 4.94, p < .001) and non familiar melody (t(30) = 3.27, p = .003). This study highlights the ability of non-musicians to evaluate familiar and unfamiliar melodies with a similar tolerance. Furthermore, the error direction is relevant in perceptive rating and should be taken into account when defining a sung performance as “in tune” or “out of tune”. [less ▲]

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See detailVocal loading profiles of kindergarten and elementary school teachers
Remacle, Angélique ULg; Morsomme, Dominique ULg; FINCK, Camille ULg

Conference (2013, April 24)

Purpose: Although a global picture exists of teachers’ voice demands in general, few studies have compared specific groups of teachers to determine whether some are more at risk than others to develop ... [more ▼]

Purpose: Although a global picture exists of teachers’ voice demands in general, few studies have compared specific groups of teachers to determine whether some are more at risk than others to develop vocal loading related dysphonia. This study compared vocal loading of kindergarten and elementary school teachers; professional and non-professional vocal load was determined for both groups. Method: Twelve kindergarten and twenty elementary school female teachers were monitored during one workweek using the Ambulatory Phonation Monitor, Model 3200 (KayPENTAX). Vocal loading parameters analyzed were phonation time, F0, SPL, distance dose and cycle dose. A total of 160 days (≈1513 hours) of collected data were analyzed. Results and conclusions: All the parameters were higher for kindergarten teachers than for elementary school teachers in both professional and non-professional environments, but the differences were significant only for the cycle dose and the distance dose (p < .05). The higher vocal load measured in kindergarten teachers suggests that they could be more at risk for developing voice disorders than elementary school teachers. Particular attention should be paid to this specific group of teachers working with young children. Concerning the comparisons between professional and non-professional voice use, significant differences were observed for all parameters (p < .0001), indicating that vocal load was higher in the professional environment for both groups. [less ▲]

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