References of "Morsomme, Dominique"
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See detailVocal impact of a prolonged reading task at two intensity levels : Perceptual analysis
Remacle, Angélique ULg; FINCK, Camille ULg; Schoentgen, Jean et al

Conference (2013, June 01)

Our goal is to evaluate the impact on voice of both duration and intensity level of 2 hours of continuous oral reading. Fifty normophonic women underwent two sessions of voice loading in which the ... [more ▼]

Our goal is to evaluate the impact on voice of both duration and intensity level of 2 hours of continuous oral reading. Fifty normophonic women underwent two sessions of voice loading in which the required intensity level of voice varied: 60-65 dB(A) for the first session, and 70-75 dB(A) for the second session. Objective measurements and subjective self-ratings were presented in a previous study (Remacle, Finck, Roche & Morsomme, 2012). Here are the results of perceptual analysis based on comparative judgments. Ten expert listeners evaluated the pressedness and the breathiness of one sentence recorded before and after each loading session. Pairs of stimuli were presented randomly to listeners who were asked to designate the most pressed sample at a first listening and the most breathy sample at a second listening. Each pair of stimuli was presented twice in order to evaluate the reliability. Results indicate that inter-judges and intra-judges reliability was poor to fair. Concerning the duration effect of vocal loading, results showed a significant decrease of breathiness but no change of pressedness after reading in both sessions. The decreased breathiness represents a voice improvement which could be interpreted as an adaptation of voice to loading. When comparing the two intensity levels, no difference was found for breathiness and pressedness after vocal loading. Similarly to objective measurements and self-ratings, perceptual assessments suggest that the duration of vocal loading has more effects on voice than its intensity level. [less ▲]

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See detailLa charge vocale
Morsomme, Dominique ULg; Remacle, Angélique ULg

in Rééducation Orthophonique (2013), 254

Ce chapitre est consacré à la charge vocale, définie comme une quantité d’utilisation de la voix par unité de temps. La durée, le niveau de pression sonore et la hauteur tonale sont les trois facteurs ... [more ▼]

Ce chapitre est consacré à la charge vocale, définie comme une quantité d’utilisation de la voix par unité de temps. La durée, le niveau de pression sonore et la hauteur tonale sont les trois facteurs principaux qui l’influencent. Pour analyser son incidence sur la voix, nous devons également tenir compte de l’environnement dans lequel évolue le locuteur. Les effets de la charge vocale sur le plan laryngé sont fonction de la physiologie propre à chaque individu. Le dosimètre ou accumulateur vocal est l’outil qui vise à quantifier la charge vocale. Cette instrumentation permet d’observer les comportements vocaux des locuteurs sur de longues périodes en situation écologique. D’un point de vue clinique, la prise en compte de la charge vocale influence nos plans thérapeutiques. Outre les principes de rééducation connus, nous discutons entre autres de l’apport du micro amplificateur et de la nécessité du repos vocal. [less ▲]

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See detailAmbulatory Monitoring of Teachers' Voice Use
Remacle, Angélique ULg; Morsomme, Dominique ULg; FINCK, Camille ULg

in AQL Proceedings (2013, June)

Method: Thirty-two French-speaking female teachers were monitored during one workweek (5 days) using the Ambulatory Phonation Monitor, Model 3200 (KayPENTAX). Phonation time, fundamental frequency (F0 ... [more ▼]

Method: Thirty-two French-speaking female teachers were monitored during one workweek (5 days) using the Ambulatory Phonation Monitor, Model 3200 (KayPENTAX). Phonation time, fundamental frequency (F0), sound pressure level (SPL), distance dose and cycle dose were analyzed in both professional and non-professional environments. Results: Teachers’ phonation time was statistically higher at school (20.3% ± 4.2) than not at school (10.4% ± 3.8). Concerning the fundamental frequency, both F0 average and F0 mode were statistically higher in the professional environment (F0 average = 258.7 Hz ± 20.5; F0 mode = 229.7 Hz ± 18.3) than in the non-professional environment (F0 average = 239.6 Hz ± 20.1; F0 mode = 213.3 Hz ± 20.6). The teachers spoke statistically louder at school (80.6 dB SPL ± 4.9) than not at school (74.5 dB SPL ± 5.2 dB SPL). The cycle dose and the distance dose were also statistically higher at school than in the non-professional environment. The data showed that the vocal folds vibrate 1,195,834 (± 255,696) times a day at work, plus 425,102 (±194,338) times after work. The distance traveled by the vocal folds for these teachers was 4,247 (± 1,476) meters at work, plus 1,173 (± 527) meters after work. Conclusion: Professional and non-professional voice use comparisons showed significant differences for all parameters (p<.001), indicating that vocal load was higher in the professional environment compared to the non-professional environment. [less ▲]

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See detailThe evaluation of singing voice accuracy: How tolerant are we?
Larrouy, Pauline ULg; Blanckaert, Ellen; Morsomme, Dominique ULg

Conference (2013, May 28)

The evaluation of the singing voice accuracy is partly based on the precision of the intervals between the tones of a sung performance. This study aims to observe the listeners’ tolerance when judging ... [more ▼]

The evaluation of the singing voice accuracy is partly based on the precision of the intervals between the tones of a sung performance. This study aims to observe the listeners’ tolerance when judging melodies in order to properly evaluate the singing voice accuracy in a melodic context For this purpose, an interval contained in familiar and unfamiliar sung performances was manipulated in two directions (compression and enlargement from 10 to 60 cents). This material was presented through the method of limits procedure to 30 non-musicians. They were asked to define whether the melodies proposed were “in tune” or “out of tune” in a test and a retest. The accuracy thresholds for compression and enlargement errors as well as the tolerance zone were computed. The results showed that participants were consistent in their evaluation between the test and the retest. The tolerance zone (M = 42 cents, ES = 1.60) was not affected by the familiarity of the melody. Concerning the accuracy thresholds, participants were more tolerant when the interval was compressed (M = 25.68 cents, ES = .1.34) than when it was enlarged (M = 16.32 cents, ES = .91), for the familiar (t(30) = 4.94, p < .001) and non familiar melody (t(30) = 3.27, p = .003). This study highlights the ability of non-musicians to evaluate familiar and unfamiliar melodies with a similar tolerance. Furthermore, the error direction is relevant in perceptive rating and should be taken into account when defining a sung performance as “in tune” or “out of tune”. [less ▲]

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See detailVocal loading profiles of kindergarten and elementary school teachers
Remacle, Angélique ULg; Morsomme, Dominique ULg; FINCK, Camille ULg

Conference (2013, April 24)

Purpose: Although a global picture exists of teachers’ voice demands in general, few studies have compared specific groups of teachers to determine whether some are more at risk than others to develop ... [more ▼]

Purpose: Although a global picture exists of teachers’ voice demands in general, few studies have compared specific groups of teachers to determine whether some are more at risk than others to develop vocal loading related dysphonia. This study compared vocal loading of kindergarten and elementary school teachers; professional and non-professional vocal load was determined for both groups. Method: Twelve kindergarten and twenty elementary school female teachers were monitored during one workweek using the Ambulatory Phonation Monitor, Model 3200 (KayPENTAX). Vocal loading parameters analyzed were phonation time, F0, SPL, distance dose and cycle dose. A total of 160 days (≈1513 hours) of collected data were analyzed. Results and conclusions: All the parameters were higher for kindergarten teachers than for elementary school teachers in both professional and non-professional environments, but the differences were significant only for the cycle dose and the distance dose (p < .05). The higher vocal load measured in kindergarten teachers suggests that they could be more at risk for developing voice disorders than elementary school teachers. Particular attention should be paid to this specific group of teachers working with young children. Concerning the comparisons between professional and non-professional voice use, significant differences were observed for all parameters (p < .0001), indicating that vocal load was higher in the professional environment for both groups. [less ▲]

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See detailThe singing voice evaluation
Larrouy, Pauline ULg; Morsomme, Dominique ULg

Conference (2013, March 01)

Singing is an activity widely shared. In order to determine whether a vocal performance is “in tune” or not, to understand better the causes of poor pitch singing or to judge the quality of a singer ... [more ▼]

Singing is an activity widely shared. In order to determine whether a vocal performance is “in tune” or not, to understand better the causes of poor pitch singing or to judge the quality of a singer, objective tools are needed. Studies leaded for a PhD validate an objective analysis of the vocal accuracy but also observe the effects to take into account for the singing voice evaluation. Experimental as well as artistic and pedagogical perspectives appear from the conclusions of those studies. [less ▲]

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See detailPrise en charge logopedique des patients presbyphoniques
Morsomme, Dominique ULg

Conference (2013, March 01)

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See detailHow to improve your vocal resonance
Morsomme, Dominique ULg

in Behrman, Alison; Haskell, John (Eds.) Exercises for Voice Therapy (2013)

Now in its second edition, Exercises for Voice Therapy provides speech-language pathologists with step-by-step instruction for developing session materials for clients-both children and adults-with all ... [more ▼]

Now in its second edition, Exercises for Voice Therapy provides speech-language pathologists with step-by-step instruction for developing session materials for clients-both children and adults-with all types of voice disorders. The new edition includes 17 new expert contributors and 24 new exercises, provinding a greater assortment of exercises and targeting a larger variety of voice disorders. The exercises vary in difficulty and all follow the same format for easy integration into speech-language pathologists' therapy sessions.The accompanying CD contains recordings of many of the exercises to provide an aural model for those that may be difficult to interpret from the text alone. [less ▲]

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See detailThe evaluation of singing voice accuracy: A comparison between subjective and objective methods
Larrouy, Pauline ULg; Lévêque, Yohanna; Schön, Daniele et al

in Journal of Voice (2013), 27(2), 2591-5

Objective: Vocal accuracy of a sung performance can be evaluated by two methods: acoustic analyses and subjective judgements. Acoustic analyses have been presented as a more reliable solution but both ... [more ▼]

Objective: Vocal accuracy of a sung performance can be evaluated by two methods: acoustic analyses and subjective judgements. Acoustic analyses have been presented as a more reliable solution but both methods are still used for the evaluation of singing voice accuracy. This paper presents a first time direct comparison of these methods. Methods: 166 untrained singers were asked to sing the popular song « Happy Birthday ». These recordings constituted the database analyzed. Acoustic analyses were performed to quantify the pitch interval deviation, the number of contour errors and the number of tonality modulations for each recording. Additionally, eighteen experts in singing voice or music rated the global pitch accuracy of these performances. Results: A high correlation occurred between acoustic measurements and subjective rating. The total model of acoustic analyses explained 81% of the variance of the judges’ scores. Their rating was influenced by both tonality modulation and interval deviation. Conclusions: This study highlights the congruence between objective and subjective measurements of vocal accuracy within this first time comparison. Our results confirm the relevance of the pitch interval deviation criterion in vocal accuracy assessment. Furthermore, the number of tonality modulations is also a salient criterion in perceptive rating and should be taken into account in studies using acoustic analyses. [less ▲]

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See detailLa voix juste: la science au service du chant
Larrouy, Pauline ULg; Morsomme, Dominique ULg

Scientific conference (2012, December 12)

Le chant est une activité largement répandue et partagée. Afin de déterminer si une performance vocale est « juste » ou « fausse », de mieux comprendre les causes d’un trouble de justesse ou encore de ... [more ▼]

Le chant est une activité largement répandue et partagée. Afin de déterminer si une performance vocale est « juste » ou « fausse », de mieux comprendre les causes d’un trouble de justesse ou encore de porter un jugement sur la qualité d’un chanteur, des outils d’évaluation sont nécessaires. Quatre études réalisées dans le cadre d’une thèse de Doctorat permettent de valider une méthode objective d’analyse de la justesse mais aussi d’observer les effets à prendre en compte pour une évaluation pertinente de la justesse vocale. Dans un premier temps, l’analyse de mélodies chantées par des chanteurs entraînés et non entraînés nous a permis de mettre au point une méthode d’évaluation objective de la justesse vocale sur base d’analyses acoustiques. La confrontation de cette méthode objective avec le jugement d’experts en voix ou en musique nous a permis d’affiner les critères à prendre en compte dans l’évaluation objective de la justesse. Dans un second temps, nous avons observé les effets du contexte d’évaluation et de la technique vocale sur l’évaluation de la justesse vocale. Les différents résultats mettent en évidence la possibilité d’analyser objectivement une performance vocale chantée mais également la complexité du processus de jugement. Les perspectives expérimentales, artistiques et pédagogiques seront discutées à la lumière des conclusions de ces études. [less ▲]

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See detailVocal Impact of a Prolonged Reading Task in Dysphonic Versus Normophonic Female Teachers
Remacle, Angélique ULg; Morsomme, Dominique ULg; Berrué, Elise et al

in Journal of Voice (2012), 26(6), 8201-82013

OBJECTIVES: This study evaluates the impact on voice of a 2-hour reading task between 70-75 dB(A) in 16 normophonic and 16 dysphonic female teachers with vocal nodules. METHODS: Objective measurements ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: This study evaluates the impact on voice of a 2-hour reading task between 70-75 dB(A) in 16 normophonic and 16 dysphonic female teachers with vocal nodules. METHODS: Objective measurements (acoustic analysis, voice range measurements, aerodynamic measurements) and subjective self-ratings were collected before the task and every 30 minutes during the reading to determine the voice evolution in both groups. RESULTS: Fundamental frequency, lowest frequency, highest frequency (F-High), highest intensity and intensity range increase through the reading, whereas Shimmer decreases. Maximum phonation time decreases after 30 minutes. Estimated subglottal pressure (ESP) and sound pressure level increase during the first hour. Afterwards, ESP decreases. Self-ratings worsen through time. When comparing the normophonic and the dysphonic teachers, self-ratings reveal more complaints in the dysphonic group. Few differences in objective measurements are found between both groups: normophonic teachers show lower ESP, higher F-High and greater frequency range. CONCLUSIONS: Frequency modifications from acoustic analysis and voice range measurements suggest an increased laryngeal tension during vocal load, while subjects perceive a worsening of voice. Aerodynamic parameters depict first a deterioration of voice efficiency and then an adaptation to the prolonged reading. The comparison between both groups shows a discrepancy between objective measurements and self-ratings, suggesting that both approaches are necessary to have a complete view of vocal load effects. Surprisingly, both groups behave similarly through vocal load, without more or quicker deterioration of voice in the dysphonic group. [less ▲]

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See detailVocal Impact of a Prolonged Reading Task in Dysphonic versus Normophonic Female Teachers
Remacle, Angélique ULg; Morsomme, Dominique ULg; Berrué, Elise et al

in Journal of Voice (2012, November), 26(6), 8201-82013

OBJECTIVES: This study evaluates the impact on voice of a 2-hour reading task between 70-75 dB(A) in 16 normophonic and 16 dysphonic female teachers with vocal nodules. METHODS: Objective measurements ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: This study evaluates the impact on voice of a 2-hour reading task between 70-75 dB(A) in 16 normophonic and 16 dysphonic female teachers with vocal nodules. METHODS: Objective measurements (acoustic analysis, voice range measurements, aerodynamic measurements) and subjective self-ratings were collected before the task and every 30 minutes during the reading to determine the voice evolution in both groups. RESULTS: Fundamental frequency, lowest frequency, highest frequency (F-High), highest intensity and intensity range increase through the reading, whereas Shimmer decreases. Maximum phonation time decreases after 30 minutes. Estimated subglottal pressure (ESP) and sound pressure level increase during the first hour. Afterwards, ESP decreases. Self-ratings worsen through time. When comparing the normophonic and the dysphonic teachers, self-ratings reveal more complaints in the dysphonic group. Few differences in objective measurements are found between both groups: normophonic teachers show lower ESP, higher F-High and greater frequency range. CONCLUSIONS: Frequency modifications from acoustic analysis and voice range measurements suggest an increased laryngeal tension during vocal load, while subjects perceive a worsening of voice. Aerodynamic parameters depict first a deterioration of voice efficiency and then an adaptation to the prolonged reading. The comparison between both groups shows a discrepancy between objective measurements and self-ratings, suggesting that both approaches are necessary to have a complete view of vocal load effects. Surprisingly, both groups behave similarly through vocal load, without more or quicker deterioration of voice in the dysphonic group. [less ▲]

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See detailThe vocal profile for singers
Morsomme, Dominique ULg; Larrouy, Pauline ULg

Conference (2012, October 30)

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See detailImpact du stress sur la justesse d’une performance vocale chez des étudiants de conservatoire
Larrouy, Pauline ULg; Morsomme, Dominique ULg

Conference (2012, October 15)

Un haut niveau d’anxiété entraîne des symptômes physiques et cognitifs. Cet état émotionnel peut se répercuter sur les caractéristiques acoustiques de la voix. Cette étude vise à observer l’impact d’une ... [more ▼]

Un haut niveau d’anxiété entraîne des symptômes physiques et cognitifs. Cet état émotionnel peut se répercuter sur les caractéristiques acoustiques de la voix. Cette étude vise à observer l’impact d’une situation stressante sur la justesse d’une performance vocale. 31 étudiants (deux niveaux différents) recrutés au sein des Conservatoires Royaux de Belgique ont chanté une mélodie à trois moments de l’année : deux fois en situation calme (T1 et T3) et une fois en situation anxiogène (T2), c’est à dire le jour de l’examen. Nous avons contrôlé le degré d’anxiété par la mesure de la fréquence cardiaque. Un questionnaire nous renseigne sur l’intensité des symptômes cognitifs et somatiques perçus par les étudiants et leur direction (altérant ou facilitant). La précision des intervalles et le maintien de la tonalité ont été mesurés pour chaque production. Nous comparons les scores obtenus lors d’une situation calme et lors de l’examen. Nous observons que la fréquence cardiaque augmente significativement en situation anxiogène (F(2,90) = 12.60 ; p < .001). L’intensité des symptômes cognitifs et somatiques est plus élevée lors de la situation anxiogène mais l’évolution des symptômes somatiques entre T3 et T2 est plus importante pour les étudiants de 2ème année par rapport aux étudiants de 1ère année. Concernant la justesse, les résultats indiquent qu’un état de stress induit une meilleure précision des intervalles chez les étudiants de 1ère année (p = .02) mais altère le maintien de la tonalité chez les élèves de 2ème année (p = .01). En conclusion, une situation d’examen entraîne une augmentation de la fréquence cardiaque mais l’interprétation des symptômes somatiques dépendrait du niveau d’étude. Les conséquences d’une situation anxiogène, tel un examen de solfège, sur la justesse d’une performance vocale, peuvent être bénéfiques mais sont négatives lorsque l’enjeu est important. [less ▲]

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See detailA comparison between subjective and objective methods for evaluating the vocal accuracy of a popular song
Larrouy, Pauline ULg; Lévêque, Yohana; Giovanni, Antoine et al

Poster (2012, July 25)

Vocal accuracy of a sung performance can be evaluated by two methods: acoustical analyses and subjective judgements. For one decade, acoustic analyses have been presented as a more reliable solution to ... [more ▼]

Vocal accuracy of a sung performance can be evaluated by two methods: acoustical analyses and subjective judgements. For one decade, acoustic analyses have been presented as a more reliable solution to evaluate vocal accuracy, avoiding the limitation of experts’ perceptive system and their variability. This paper presents for the first time a direct comparison of these methods. 166 occasional singers were asked to sing the popular song « Happy Birthday ». Acoustic analyses were performed to quantify the pitch interval deviation, the number of contour errors and the number of tonality modulations for each recording. Additionally, eighteen experts in singing voice or music rated the global pitch accuracy of these performances. The results showed a high inter-rater concordance within the judges. In addition, a high correlation occurred between acoustic measurements and subjective rating. The total model of acoustic analyses explained 81% of the variance of the judges’ scores. Their rating was influenced by both tonality modulations and interval deviations. This study highlights the congruence between objective and subjective measurements of vocal accuracy while the assessment is done by music or singing voice experts. Our results confirm the relevance of the “pitch interval deviation” criterion in vocal accuracy assessment. Furthermore, the “number of tonality modulations” is a salient criterion in perceptive rating and should be taken into account in studies using acoustical analyses. [less ▲]

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See detailVocal Impact of a Prolonged Reading Task at Two Intensity Levels: Objective Measurements and Subjective Self-Ratings
Remacle, Angélique ULg; FINCK, Camille ULg; Roche, Anne et al

in Journal of Voice (2012), 26(4), 177-186

Objectives: The objectives of this study are to evaluate the impact on voice of both duration and intensity level of 2 hours of continuous oral reading. Voice modifications accompanying changes in ... [more ▼]

Objectives: The objectives of this study are to evaluate the impact on voice of both duration and intensity level of 2 hours of continuous oral reading. Voice modifications accompanying changes in intensity level during prolonged reading tasks are analyzed. Methods: Fifty normophonic women undergo two sessions of voice loading in which the required intensity level of voice varied between 60–65 dB(A) for the first session and 70–75 dB(A) for the second session. The effects of loading on objective data (average fundamental frequency [F0], jitter%, shimmer%, noise-to-harmonic ratio, maximum phonation time, lowest frequency [F-Low], highest frequency [F-High], frequency range [Range], lowest intensity [I-Low] level, and highest intensity level) and self-ratings (voice quality, phonation effort, vocal fatigue, and laryngeal discomfort) are assessed every 30 minutes during the loading tasks. Results: Results indicate that average F0, F-Low, I-Low, maximum phonation time, feeling of phonation effort, vocal fatigue, and laryngeal discomfort increase during prolonged reading, whereas shimmer% and self-rating of voice quality decrease. Average F0, F-High, and Range are the only parameters influenced by the required intensity of vocal load; they are significantly higher in the 70- to 75-dB session compared with the 60- to 65-dB session. Concerning the subjective self-ratings, similar results for the four ratings used suggest that only one would suffice in future studies. Conclusions: These results confirm the importance of both duration and intensity level as loading factors, even if intensity level affects fewer variables than duration. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of performance anxiety on the accuracy of the singing voice among music students
Larrouy, Pauline ULg; Clijsters, Céline; Morsomme, Dominique ULg

Poster (2012, May 31)

Performance anxiety causes physical and cognitive symptoms. This emotional state can affect the vocal features thus the fundamental frequency which is the main parameter to evaluate the singing voice ... [more ▼]

Performance anxiety causes physical and cognitive symptoms. This emotional state can affect the vocal features thus the fundamental frequency which is the main parameter to evaluate the singing voice accuracy. The aim of this study is to observe the impact of performance anxiety on the singing voice accuracy. 31 music students from the Royal Conservatories of Belgium sang a melody three times. Twice in quiet situations and one time in a stress situation (the day of the examination). This performance was rated by a panel of teachers. The anxiety level was controlled by measuring the heart frequency. We analyzed errors concerning the interval accuracy and the respect of the tonal center. We observe that the heart frequency is significantly higher in the stress situation (F(2,28)=15,18 ; p<.001), especially for advanced students. The students have difficulty to maintain the tonal center (F(2,12)=7,17 ; p=.03), whereas the accuracy of the intervals is not altered (F(2,12)=1,1 ; p=.56). The rating of the jury correlates with interval accuracy (r=-.411; p=.03) and respect of the tonal center (r=-.452; p=.016), particularly at the beginning of the melody (r=-.516; p=.005). To conclude, performance anxiety leads to an increase of the heart frequency and alters the respect of the tonal center. This is particularly the case for advanced students for whom this situation is a real challenge. [less ▲]

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See detailSubjective self-ratings through a prolonged reading task in dysphonic versus normophonic female teachers
Remacle, Angélique ULg; Morsomme, Dominique ULg; Berrué, Elise et al

Poster (2012, May 10)

Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact that a 2-hour reading task could have on ones voice in 16 normophonic and 16 dysphonic female teachers. Method and material: Teachers’ voices were ... [more ▼]

Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact that a 2-hour reading task could have on ones voice in 16 normophonic and 16 dysphonic female teachers. Method and material: Teachers’ voices were orally loaded by reading a novel. They were instructed to read for imaginary students, as in their classroom. Voice intensity was constantly controlled between 70 and 75 dB. Every 30 minutes, participants were asked to answer the following questions using a 100-mm horizontal visual analogue scale: 1) How is your voice quality? 2) Do you feel any phonation effort? 3) Do you feel any vocal fatigue? and 4) Do you feel any laryngeal discomfort? Results and conclusions: For all subjective self-ratings, the repeated measures ANOVA demonstrated significant main effects of the duration (p < 0.0001) and of the group (p < 0.05). Subjects of both groups reported a worsening of their voice quality during the reading while phonation effort, vocal fatigue and laryngeal discomfort increased. Surprisingly, no significant interaction between duration and group was found. This means that subjective self-ratings realized before and during the reading task depict a similar evolution of both groups, while we expected more worsening of voice through time in the dysphonic group. [less ▲]

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See detailLa voix dysphonique: L'impact négatif sur l'élève
Morsomme, Dominique ULg; Minel, Laura; Verduyckt, Ingrid

in Ortho Magazine (2012), 98

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See detailLa voix dysphonique: L'impact négatif sur l'élève
Morsomme, Dominique ULg; Minel, Laura; Verduyckt, Ingrid

in Ortho Magazine (2012), 98

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