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See detailB fields in OB stars (BOB). Detection of a strong magnetic field in the O9.7 V star HD 54879
Castro, N.; Fossati, L.; Hubrig, S. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2015), 581

The number of magnetic stars detected among massive stars is small; nevertheless, the role played by the magnetic field in stellar evolution cannot be disregarded. Links between line profile variability ... [more ▼]

The number of magnetic stars detected among massive stars is small; nevertheless, the role played by the magnetic field in stellar evolution cannot be disregarded. Links between line profile variability, enhancements/depletions of surface chemical abundances, and magnetic fields have been identified for low-mass B-stars, but for the O-type domain this is almost unexplored. Based on FORS 2 and HARPS spectropolarimetric data, we present the first detection of a magnetic field in HD 54879, a single slowly rotating O9.7 V star. Using two independent and different techniques we obtained the firm detection of a surface average longitudinal magnetic field with a maximum amplitude of about 600 G, in modulus. A quantitative spectroscopic analysis of the star with the stellar atmosphere code fastwind results in an effective temperature and a surface gravity of 33 000 ± 1000 K and 4.0 ± 0.1 dex. The abundances of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, silicon, and magnesium are found to be slightly lower than solar, but compatible within the errors. We investigate line-profile variability in HD 54879 by complementing our spectra with spectroscopic data from other recent OB-star surveys. The photospheric lines remain constant in shape between 2009 and 2014, although Hα shows a variable emission. The Hα emission is too strong for a standard O9.7 V and is probably linked to the magnetic field and the presence of circumstellar material. Its normal chemical composition and the absence of photospheric line profile variations make HD 54879 the most strongly magnetic, non-variable single O-star detected to date. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at the La Silla and Paranal observatories under programme ID 191.D-0255(C, F).Appendix A is available in electronic form at <A href="http://www.aanda.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201425354/olm">http://www.aanda.org</A> [less ▲]

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See detailModels of red giants in the CoRoT asteroseismology fields combining asteroseismic and spectroscopic constraints
Lagarde, N.; Miglio, A.; Eggenberger, P. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2015), 580

Context. The availability of asteroseismic constraints for a large sample of red giant stars from the CoRoT and Kepler missions paves the way for various statistical studies of the seismic properties of ... [more ▼]

Context. The availability of asteroseismic constraints for a large sample of red giant stars from the CoRoT and Kepler missions paves the way for various statistical studies of the seismic properties of stellar populations. <BR /> Aims: We use a detailed spectroscopic study of 19 CoRoT red giant stars to compare theoretical stellar evolution models to observations of the open cluster NGC 6633 and field stars. <BR /> Methods: In order to explore the effects of rotation-induced mixing and thermohaline instability, we compare surface abundances of carbon isotopic ratio and lithium with stellar evolution predictions. These chemicals are sensitive to extra-mixing on the red giant branch. <BR /> Results: We estimate mass, radius, and distance for each star using the seismic constraints. We note that the Hipparcos and seismic distances are different. However, the uncertainties are such that this may not be significant. Although the seismic distances for the cluster members are self consistent they are somewhat larger than the Hipparcos distance. This is an issue that should be considered elsewhere. Models including thermohaline instability and rotation-induced mixing, together with the seismically determined masses can explain the chemical properties of red giant targets. However, with this sample of stars we cannot perform stringent tests of the current stellar models. Tighter constraints on the physics of the models would require the measurement of the core and surface rotation rates, and of the period spacing of gravity-dominated mixed modes. A larger number of stars with longer times series, as provided by Kepler or expected with Plato, would help ensemble asteroseismology. [less ▲]

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See detailB fields in OB stars (BOB): FORS 2 spectropolarimetric follow-up of the two rare rigidly rotating magnetosphere stars HD 23478 and HD 345439
Hubrig, S.; Schöller, M.; Fossati, L. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2015), 578

<BR /> Aims: Massive B-type stars with strong magnetic fields and fast rotation are very rare and pose a mystery for theories of star formation and magnetic field evolution. Only two such stars, called σ ... [more ▼]

<BR /> Aims: Massive B-type stars with strong magnetic fields and fast rotation are very rare and pose a mystery for theories of star formation and magnetic field evolution. Only two such stars, called σ Ori E analogues, were known until recently. A team involved in APOGEE, one of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III programs, announced the discovery of two additional rigidly rotating magnetosphere stars, HD 23478 and HD 345439. The magnetic fields in these newly discovered σ Ori E analogues have not been investigated so far. <BR /> Methods: In the framework of our ESO Large Programme and one normal ESO programme, we carried out low-resolution FORS 2 spectropolarimetric observations of HD 23478 and HD 345439. <BR /> Results: In the measurements of hydrogen lines, we discover a rather strong longitudinal magnetic field of up to 1.5 kG in HD 23478 and up to 1.3 kG using the entire spectrum. The analysis of HD 345439 using four subsequent spectropolarimetric subexposures does not reveal a magnetic field at a significance level of 3σ. On the other hand, individual subexposures indicate that HD 345439 may host a strong magnetic field that rapidly varies over 88 min. The fast rotation of HD 345439 is also indicated by the behaviour of several metallic and He i lines in the low-resolution FORS 2 spectra that show profile variations already on this short time-scale. Based on observations obtained in the framework of the ESO Prgs. 191.D-0255(E) and 094.D-0355(B).Appendix A is available in electronic form at <A href="http://www.aanda.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201526262/olm">http://www.aanda.org</A> [less ▲]

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See detailYoung [α/Fe]-enhanced stars discovered by CoRoT and APOGEE: What is their origin?
Chiappini, C.; Anders, F.; Rodrigues, T. S. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2015), 576

We report the discovery of a group of apparently young CoRoT red-giant stars exhibiting enhanced [α/Fe] abundance ratios (as determined from APOGEE spectra) with respect to solar values. Their existence ... [more ▼]

We report the discovery of a group of apparently young CoRoT red-giant stars exhibiting enhanced [α/Fe] abundance ratios (as determined from APOGEE spectra) with respect to solar values. Their existence is not explained bystandard chemical evolution models of the Milky Way, and shows that the chemical-enrichment history of the Galactic disc is more complex. We find similar stars in previously published samples for which isochrone-ages could be reliably obtained, although in smaller relative numbers. This might explain why these stars have not previously received attention. The young [α/Fe]-rich stars are much more numerous in the CoRoT-APOGEE (CoRoGEE) inner-field sample than in any other high-resolution sample available at present because only CoRoGEE can explore the inner-disc regions and provide ages for its field stars. The kinematic properties of the young [α/Fe]-rich stars are not clearly thick-disc like, despite their rather large distances from the Galactic mid-plane. Our tentative interpretation of these and previous intriguing observations in the Milky Way is that these stars were formed close to the end of the Galactic bar, near corotation - a region where gas can be kept inert for longer times than in other regions that are more frequently shocked by the passage of spiral arms. Moreover, this is where the mass return from older inner-disc stellar generations is expected to be highest (according to an inside-out disc-formation scenario), which additionally dilutes the in-situ gas. Other possibilities to explain these observations (e.g., a recent gas-accretion event) are also discussed. Appendix A is available in electronic form at <A href="http://www.aanda.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201525865/olm">http://www.aanda.org</A> [less ▲]

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See detailSpectroscopic variability of two Oe stars
Rauw, Grégor ULg; Morel, Thierry ULg; Nazé, Yaël ULg et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2015), 575

Context. The two Oe stars HD 45 314 and HD 60 848 have recently been found to exhibit very different X-ray properties: whilst HD 60 848 has an X-ray spectrum and the emission level typical of most OB ... [more ▼]

Context. The two Oe stars HD 45 314 and HD 60 848 have recently been found to exhibit very different X-ray properties: whilst HD 60 848 has an X-ray spectrum and the emission level typical of most OB stars, HD 45 314 features a much harder and brighter X-ray emission, making it a so-called γ Cas analogue. Aims: Monitoring the optical spectra could provide hints towards the origin of these very different behaviours. Methods: We analyse a large set of spectroscopic observations of HD 45 314 and HD 60 848, extending over 20 years. We further attempt to fit the Hα line profiles of both stars with a simple model of emission line formation in a Keplerian disk. Results: Strong variations in the strengths of the Hα, Hβ, and He i λ 5876 emission lines are observed for both stars. In the case of HD 60 848, we find a time lag between the variations in the equivalent widths of these lines, which is currently not understood. The emission lines are double peaked with nearly identical strengths of the violet and red peaks. The Hα profile of this star can be successfully reproduced by our model of a disk seen under an inclination of 30°. In the case of HD 45 314, the emission lines are highly asymmetric and display strong line profile variations. We find a major change in behaviour between the 2002 outburst and the one observed in 2013. This concerns both the relationship between the equivalent widths of the various lines and their morphologies at maximum strength (double-peaked in 2002 versus single-peaked in 2013). Our simple disk model fails to reproduce the observed Hα line profiles of HD 45 314. Conclusions: Our results further support the interpretation that Oe stars do have decretion disks similar to those of Be stars. Whilst the emission lines of HD 60 848 are explained well by a disk with a Keplerian velocity field, the disk of HD 45 314 seems to have a significantly more complex velocity field that could be another signature of the phenomenon that produces its peculiar X-ray emission. [less ▲]

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See detailB fields in OB stars (BOB): on the detection of weak magnetic fields in the two early B-type stars beta CMa and epsilon CMa
Fossati, L.; Castro, N.; Morel, Thierry ULg et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2015), 574

Within the context of the "B fields in OB stars (BOB)" collaboration, we used the HARPSpol spectropolarimeter to observe the early B-type stars beta CMa (HD44743; B1 II/III) and epsilon CMa (HD52089; B1.5 ... [more ▼]

Within the context of the "B fields in OB stars (BOB)" collaboration, we used the HARPSpol spectropolarimeter to observe the early B-type stars beta CMa (HD44743; B1 II/III) and epsilon CMa (HD52089; B1.5 II). For both stars, we consistently detected the signature of a weak (<30 G in absolute value) longitudinal magnetic field. We determined the physical parameters of both stars and characterise their X-ray spectrum. For beta CMa, our mode identification analysis led to determining a rotation period of 13.6+/-1.2 days and of an inclination angle of the rotation axis of 57.6+/-1.7 degrees, with respect to the line of sight. On the basis of these measurements and assuming a dipolar field geometry, we derived a best fitting obliquity of ~22 degrees and a dipolar magnetic field strength (Bd) of ~100 G (60<Bd<230 G within 1 sigma), below what is typically found for other magnetic massive stars. For epsilon CMa we could only determine a lower limit on the dipolar magnetic field strength of 13 G. For this star, we determine that the rotation period ranges between 1.3 and 24 days. Both stars are expected to have a dynamical magnetosphere. We also conclude that both stars are most likely core hydrogen burning and that they have spent more than 2/3 of their main sequence lifetime. A histogram of the distribution of the dipolar magnetic field strength for the magnetic massive stars known to date does not show the magnetic field "desert" observed instead for intermediate-mass stars. The biases involved in the detection of (weak) magnetic fields in massive stars with the currently available instrumentation and techniques imply that weak fields might be more common than currently observed. Our results show that, if present, even relatively weak magnetic fields are detectable in massive stars and that more observational effort is probably still needed to properly access the magnetic field incidence. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Gaia-ESO Survey: CNO abundances in the open clusters Trumpler 20, NGC 4815, and NGC 6705
Tautvaišienė, G.; Drazdauskas, A.; Mikolaitis, Š. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2015), 573

Context. The Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey will observe a large sample of clusters and cluster stars, covering a wide age-distance-metallicity-position-density parameter space. <BR /> Aims: We aim ... [more ▼]

Context. The Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey will observe a large sample of clusters and cluster stars, covering a wide age-distance-metallicity-position-density parameter space. <BR /> Aims: We aim to determine C, N, and O abundances in stars of Galactic open clusters of the Gaia-ESO survey and to compare the observed abundances with those predicted by current stellar and Galactic evolution models. In this pilot paper, we investigate the first three intermediate-age open clusters. <BR /> Methods: High-resolution spectra, observed with the FLAMES-UVES spectrograph on the ESO VLT, were analysed using a differential model atmosphere method. Abundances of carbon were derived using the C[SUB]2[/SUB] band heads at 5135 and 5635.5 Å. The wavelength interval 6470-6490 Å, with CN features, was analysed to determine nitrogen abundances. Oxygen abundances were determined from the [O i] line at 6300 Å. <BR /> Results: The mean values of the elemental abundances in Trumpler 20 as determined from 42 stars are: [ Fe/H ] = 0.10 ± 0.08 (s.d.), [ C/H ] = -0.10 ± 0.07, [ N/H ] = 0.50 ± 0.07, and consequently C/N = 0.98 ± 0.12. We measure from five giants in NGC 4815: [ Fe/H ] = -0.01 ± 0.04, [ C/H ] = -0.17 ± 0.08, [ N/H ] = 0.53 ± 0.07, [ O/H ] = 0.12 ± 0.09, and C/N = 0.79 ± 0.08. We obtain from 27 giants in NGC 6705: [ Fe/H ] = 0.0 ± 0.05, [ C/H ] = -0.08 ± 0.06, [ N/H ] = 0.61 ± 0.07, [ O/H ] = 0.13 ± 0.05, and C/N = 0.83 ± 0.19. The C/N ratios of stars in the investigated open clusters were compared with the ratios predicted by stellar evolutionary models. For the corresponding stellar turn-off masses from 1.9 to 3.3 M[SUB]⊙[/SUB], the observed C/N ratio values are very close to the predictions of standard first dredge-up models as well as to models of thermohaline extra-mixing. They are not decreased as much as predicted by the recent model in which the thermohaline- and rotation-induced extra-mixing act together. The average [O/H] abundance ratios of NGC 4815 and NGC 6705 are compared with the predictions of two Galactic chemical evolution models. The data are consistent with the evolution at the solar radius within the errors. <BR /> Conclusions: The first results of CNO determinations in open clusters show the potential of the Gaia-ESO Survey to judge stellar and Galactic chemical evolution models and the validity of their physical assumptions through a homogeneous and detailed spectral analysis. Based on data products from observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme ID 188.B-3002 (The Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey, PIs G. Gilmore and S. Randich). [less ▲]

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See detailChemical abundances of fast-rotating OB stars
Cazorla, Constantin ULg; Morel, Thierry ULg; Nazé, Yaël ULg et al

in Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union - New windows on massive stars: asteroseismology, interferometry, and spectropolarimetry (2015)

Fast rotation in massive stars is predicted to induce mixing in their interior, but a population of fast-rotating stars with normal nitrogen abundances at their surface has recently been revealed (Hunter ... [more ▼]

Fast rotation in massive stars is predicted to induce mixing in their interior, but a population of fast-rotating stars with normal nitrogen abundances at their surface has recently been revealed (Hunter et al. 2009; Brott et al. 2011, but see Maeder et al. 2014). However, as the binary fraction of these stars is unknown, no definitive statements about the ability of single-star evolutionary models including rotation to reproduce these observations can be made. Our work combines for the first time a detailed surface abundance analysis with a radial-velocity monitoring for a sample of bright, fast-rotating Galactic OB stars to put strong constraints on stellar evolutionary and interior models. [less ▲]

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See detailB fields in OB stars (BOB): low-resolution FORS2 spectropolarimetry of the first sample of 50 massive stars
Fossati, L.; Castro, N.; Schoeller, M. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2015), 582

Within the context of the collaboration "B fields in OB stars (BOB)", we used the FORS2 low-resolution spectropolarimeter to search for a magnetic field in 50 massive stars, including two reference ... [more ▼]

Within the context of the collaboration "B fields in OB stars (BOB)", we used the FORS2 low-resolution spectropolarimeter to search for a magnetic field in 50 massive stars, including two reference magnetic massive stars. Because of the many controversies of magnetic field detections obtained with the FORS instruments, we derived the magnetic field values with two completely independent reduction and analysis pipelines. We compare and discuss the results obtained from the two pipelines. We obtained a general good agreement, indicating that most of the discrepancies on magnetic field detections reported in the literature are caused by the interpretation of the significance of the results (i.e., 3-4 sigma detections considered as genuine, or not), instead of by significant differences in the derived magnetic field values. By combining our results with past FORS1 measurements of HD46328, we improve the estimate of the stellar rotation period, obtaining P = 2.17950+/-0.00009 days. For HD125823, our FORS2 measurements do not fit the available magnetic field model, based on magnetic field values obtained 30 years ago. We repeatedly detect a magnetic field for the O9.7V star HD54879, the HD164492C massive binary, and the He-rich star CPD -57 3509. We obtain a magnetic field detection rate of 6+/-4%, while by considering only the apparently slow rotators we derive a detection rate of 8+/-5%, both comparable with what was previously reported by other similar surveys. We are left with the intriguing result that, although the large majority of magnetic massive stars is rotating slowly, our detection rate is not a strong function of the stellar rotational velocity. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Gaia-ESO Survey: The analysis of high-resolution UVES spectra of FGK-type stars
Smiljanic, R.; Korn, A. J.; Bergemann, M. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2014), 570

Context. The ongoing Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey is using FLAMES at the VLT to obtain high-quality medium-resolution Giraffe spectra for about 10[SUP]5[/SUP] stars and high-resolution UVES ... [more ▼]

Context. The ongoing Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey is using FLAMES at the VLT to obtain high-quality medium-resolution Giraffe spectra for about 10[SUP]5[/SUP] stars and high-resolution UVES spectra for about 5000 stars. With UVES, the Survey has already observed 1447 FGK-type stars. <BR /> Aims: These UVES spectra are analyzed in parallel by several state-of-the-art methodologies. Our aim is to present how these analyses were implemented, to discuss their results, and to describe how a final recommended parameter scale is defined. We also discuss the precision (method-to-method dispersion) and accuracy (biases with respect to the reference values) of the final parameters. These results are part of the Gaia-ESO second internal release and will be part of its first public release of advanced data products. Methods: The final parameter scale is tied to the scale defined by the Gaia benchmark stars, a set of stars with fundamental atmospheric parameters. In addition, a set of open and globular clusters is used to evaluate the physical soundness of the results. Each of the implemented methodologies is judged against the benchmark stars to define weights in three different regions of the parameter space. The final recommended results are the weighted medians of those from the individual methods. Results: The recommended results successfully reproduce the atmospheric parameters of the benchmark stars and the expected T[SUB]eff[/SUB]-log g relation of the calibrating clusters. Atmospheric parameters and abundances have been determined for 1301 FGK-type stars observed with UVES. The median of the method-to-method dispersion of the atmospheric parameters is 55 K for T[SUB]eff[/SUB], 0.13 dex for log g and 0.07 dex for [Fe/H]. Systematic biases are estimated to be between 50-100 K for T[SUB]eff[/SUB], 0.10-0.25 dex for log g and 0.05-0.10 dex for [Fe/H]. Abundances for 24 elements were derived: C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Y, Zr, Mo, Ba, Nd, and Eu. The typical method-to-method dispersion of the abundances varies between 0.10 and 0.20 dex. Conclusions: The Gaia-ESO sample of high-resolution spectra of FGK-type stars will be among the largest of its kind analyzed in a homogeneous way. The extensive list of elemental abundances derived in these stars will enable significant advances in the areas of stellar evolution and Milky Way formation and evolution. Based on observations made with the ESO/VLT, at Paranal Observatory, under program 188.B-3002 (The Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey, PIs Gilmore and Randich). Appendices are available in electronic form at <A href="http://www.aanda.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201423937/olm">http://www.aanda.org</A> [less ▲]

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See detailThe PLATO 2.0 Mission
Rauer, H.; Catala, C.; Aerts, C. et al

in Experimental Astronomy (2014)

PLATO 2.0 has recently been selected for ESA’s M3 launch opportunity (2022/24). Providing accurate key planet parameters (radius, mass, density and age) in statistical numbers, it addresses fundamental ... [more ▼]

PLATO 2.0 has recently been selected for ESA’s M3 launch opportunity (2022/24). Providing accurate key planet parameters (radius, mass, density and age) in statistical numbers, it addresses fundamental questions such as: How do planetary systems form and evolve? Are there other systems with planets like ours, including potentially habitable planets? The PLATO 2.0 instrument consists of 34 small aperture telescopes (32 with 25 s readout cadence and 2 with 2.5 s candence) providing a wide field-of-view (2232 deg 2) and a large photometric magnitude range (4–16 mag). It focusses on bright (4–11 mag) stars in wide fields to detect and characterize planets down to Earth-size by photometric transits, whose masses can then be determined by ground-based radial-velocity follow-up measurements. Asteroseismology will be performed for these bright stars to obtain highly accurate stellar parameters, including masses and ages. The combination of bright targets and asteroseismology results in high accuracy for the bulk planet parameters: 2 %, 4–10 % and 10 % for planet radii, masses and ages, respectively. The planned baseline observing strategy includes two long pointings (2–3 years) to detect and bulk characterize planets reaching into the habitable zone (HZ) of solar-like stars and an additional step-and-stare phase to cover in total about 50 % of the sky. PLATO 2.0 will observe up to 1,000,000 stars and detect and characterize hundreds of small planets, and thousands of planets in the Neptune to gas giant regime out to the HZ. It will therefore provide the first large-scale catalogue of bulk characterized planets with accurate radii, masses, mean densities and ages. This catalogue will include terrestrial planets at intermediate orbital distances, where surface temperatures are moderate. Coverage of this parameter range with statistical numbers of bulk characterized planets is unique to PLATO 2.0. The PLATO 2.0 catalogue allows us to e.g.: - complete our knowledge of planet diversity for low-mass objects, - correlate the planet mean density-orbital distance distribution with predictions from planet formation theories,- constrain the influence of planet migration and scattering on the architecture of multiple systems, and - specify how planet and system parameters change with host star characteristics, such as type, metallicity and age. The catalogue will allow us to study planets and planetary systems at different evolutionary phases. It will further provide a census for small, low-mass planets. This will serve to identify objects which retained their primordial hydrogen atmosphere and in general the typical characteristics of planets in such low-mass, low-density range. Planets detected by PLATO 2.0 will orbit bright stars and many of them will be targets for future atmosphere spectroscopy exploring their atmosphere. Furthermore, the mission has the potential to detect exomoons, planetary rings, binary and Trojan planets. The planetary science possible with PLATO 2.0 is complemented by its impact on stellar and galactic science via asteroseismology as well as light curves of all kinds of variable stars, together with observations of stellar clusters of different ages. This will allow us to improve stellar models and study stellar activity. A large number of well-known ages from red giant stars will probe the structure and evolution of our Galaxy. Asteroseismic ages of bright stars for different phases of stellar evolution allow calibrating stellar age-rotation relationships. Together with the results of ESA’s Gaia mission, the results of PLATO 2.0 will provide a huge legacy to planetary, stellar and galactic science. [less ▲]

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See detailThe red giants in NGC 6633 as seen with CoRoT, HARPS and SOPHIE
Poretti, Ennio; Mathias, Philippe; Barban, Caroline et al

in Asteroseismology of stellar populations in the Milky Way (2014, September 01)

The open cluster NGC 6633 was observed with CoRoT in 2011 and simultaneous high-resolution spectroscopy was obtained with the SOPHIE and HARPS spectrographs. One of the four targets was not found to be a ... [more ▼]

The open cluster NGC 6633 was observed with CoRoT in 2011 and simultaneous high-resolution spectroscopy was obtained with the SOPHIE and HARPS spectrographs. One of the four targets was not found to be a cluster member. For all stars we provide estimates of the seismic and spectroscopic parameters. [less ▲]

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See detailThe B Fields in OB Stars (BOB) Survey
Morel, Thierry ULg; Castro, N.; Fossati, L. et al

in The Messenger (2014), 157

The B fields in OB stars (BOB) survey is an ESO Large Programme collecting spectropolarimetric observations for a large number of early-type stars in order to study the occurrence rate, properties, and ... [more ▼]

The B fields in OB stars (BOB) survey is an ESO Large Programme collecting spectropolarimetric observations for a large number of early-type stars in order to study the occurrence rate, properties, and ultimately the origin of magnetic fields in massive stars. A total of 98 objects was observed over 20 nights with FORS2 and HARPSpol to July 2014. Preliminary results indicate that the fraction of magnetic OB stars with an organised, detectable field is low. This conclusion, now independently reached by two different surveys, has profound implications for any theoretical model attempting to explain the field formation in these stars. We also discuss some important issues addressed by our observations (e.g., the lower bound of the field strength) and the discovery of some remarkable objects. [less ▲]

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See detailChemical abundances of fast-rotating OB stars
Cazorla, Constantin ULg; Morel, Thierry ULg; Nazé, Yaël ULg et al

Poster (2014, June 23)

Fast rotation in massive stars is predicted to induce mixing in their interior, but recent observations have challenged this concept by revealing a population of fast-rotating stars with normal nitrogen ... [more ▼]

Fast rotation in massive stars is predicted to induce mixing in their interior, but recent observations have challenged this concept by revealing a population of fast-rotating stars with normal nitrogen abundances at their surface (Hunter et al. 2009, A&A, 496, 841; Brott et al. 2011, A&A, 530, A116, but see Maeder et al. 2014, A&A, 565, A39). However, as the binary fraction of these stars is unknown, the importance of mass-transfer processes cannot be quantified. As a result, no definitive statements about the ability of single-star evolutionary models including rotation to reproduce these observations can be made. Our work combines for the first time a detailed surface abundance analysis with a radial-velocity monitoring for a sample of bright, fast-rotating Galactic OB stars to put strong constraints on stellar evolutionary and interior models. [less ▲]

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See detailSeismic analysis of HD 43587Aa, a solar-like oscillator in a multiple system
Boumier, P.; Benomar, O.; Baudin, F. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2014), 564

Context. The object HD 43587Aa is a G0V star observed during the 145-day LRa03 run of the COnvection, ROtation and planetary Transits space mission (CoRoT), for which complementary High Accuracy Radial ... [more ▼]

Context. The object HD 43587Aa is a G0V star observed during the 145-day LRa03 run of the COnvection, ROtation and planetary Transits space mission (CoRoT), for which complementary High Accuracy Radial velocity Planet Searcher (HARPS) spectra with S/N > 300 were also obtained. Its visual magnitude is 5.71, and its effective temperature is close to 5950 K. It has a known companion in a highly eccentric orbit and is also coupled with two more distant companions. <BR /> Aims: We undertake a preliminary investigation of the internal structure of HD 43587Aa. <BR /> Methods: We carried out a seismic analysis of the star, using maximum likelihood estimators and Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. <BR /> Results: We established the first table of the eigenmode frequencies, widths, and heights for HD 43587Aa. The star appears to have a mass and a radius slightly larger than the Sun, and is slightly older (5.6 Gyr). Two scenarios are suggested for the geometry of the star: either its inclination angle is very low, or the rotation velocity of the star is very low. <BR /> Conclusions: A more detailed study of the rotation and of the magnetic and chromospheric activity for this star is needed, and will be the subject of a further study. New high resolution spectrometric observations should be performed for at least several months in duration. [less ▲]

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See detailB fields in OB stars (BOB): The discovery of a magnetic field in a multiple system in the Trifid nebula, one of the youngest star forming regions
Hubrig, S.; Fossati, L.; Carroll, T. A. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2014), 564

<BR /> Aims: Recent magnetic field surveys in O- and B-type stars revealed that about 10% of the core-hydrogen-burning massive stars host large-scale magnetic fields. The physical origin of these fields ... [more ▼]

<BR /> Aims: Recent magnetic field surveys in O- and B-type stars revealed that about 10% of the core-hydrogen-burning massive stars host large-scale magnetic fields. The physical origin of these fields is highly debated. To identify and model the physical processes responsible for the generation of magnetic fields in massive stars, it is important to establish whether magnetic massive stars are found in very young star-forming regions or whether they are formed in close interacting binary systems. <BR /> Methods: In the framework of our ESO Large Program, we carried out low-resolution spectropolarimetric observations with FORS 2 in 2013 April of the three most massive central stars in the Trifid nebula, HD 164492A, HD 164492C, and HD 164492D. These observations indicated a strong longitudinal magnetic field of about 500-600 G in the poorly studied component HD 164492C. To confirm this detection, we used HARPS in spectropolarimetric mode on two consecutive nights in 2013 June. <BR /> Results: Our HARPS observations confirmed the longitudinal magnetic field in HD 164492C. Furthermore, the HARPS observations revealed that HD 164492C cannot be considered as a single star as it possesses one or two companions. The spectral appearance indicates that the primary is most likely of spectral type B1-B1.5 V. Since in both observing nights most spectral lines appear blended, it is currently unclear which components are magnetic. Long-term monitoring using high-resolution spectropolarimetry is necessary to separate the contribution of each component to the magnetic signal. Given the location of the system HD 164492C in one of the youngest star formation regions, this system can be considered as a Rosetta Stone for our understanding of the origin of magnetic fields in massive stars. Based on observations obtained in the framework of the ESO Prg. 191.D-0255(A,B). [less ▲]

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See detailAtmospheric parameters and chemical properties of red giants in the CoRoT asteroseismology fields
Morel, Thierry ULg; Miglio, A.; Lagarde, N. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2014), 564

A precise characterisation of the red giants in the seismology fields of the CoRoT satellite is a prerequisite for further in-depth seismic modelling. High-resolution FEROS and HARPS spectra were obtained ... [more ▼]

A precise characterisation of the red giants in the seismology fields of the CoRoT satellite is a prerequisite for further in-depth seismic modelling. High-resolution FEROS and HARPS spectra were obtained as part of the ground-based follow-up campaigns for 19 targets holding great asteroseismic potential. These data are used to accurately estimate their fundamental parameters and the abundances of 16 chemical species in a self-consistent manner. Some powerful probes of mixing are investigated (the Li and CNO abundances, as well as the carbon isotopic ratio in a few cases). The information provided by the spectroscopic and seismic data is combined to provide more accurate physical parameters and abundances. The stars in our sample follow the general abundance trends as a function of the metallicity observed in stars of the Galactic disk. After an allowance is made for the chemical evolution of the interstellar medium, the observational signature of internal mixing phenomena is revealed through the detection at the stellar surface of the products of the CN cycle. A contamination by NeNa-cycled material in the most massive stars is also discussed. With the asteroseismic constraints, these data will pave the way for a detailed theoretical investigation of the physical processes responsible for the transport of chemical elements in evolved, low- and intermediate-mass stars. Based on observations collected at La Silla Observatory, ESO (Chile) with the FEROS and HARPS spectrograph at the 2.2 and 3.6-m telescopes under programs LP178.D-0361, LP182.D-0356, and LP185.D-0056.Appendix A is available in electronic form at <A href="http://www.aanda.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201322810/olm">http://www.aanda.org</A>Tables A.2 to A.6 are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr</A> (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/564/A119">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/564/A119</A> [less ▲]

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See detailSpectroscopic constraints for low-mass asteroseismic targets
Morel, Thierry ULg

in Asteroseismology of stellar populations in the Milky Way (2014, March 01)

A full exploitation of the observations provided by the CoRoT and Kepler missions depends on our ability to complement these data with accurate effective temperatures and chemical abundances. We review in ... [more ▼]

A full exploitation of the observations provided by the CoRoT and Kepler missions depends on our ability to complement these data with accurate effective temperatures and chemical abundances. We review in this contribution the major efforts that have been undertaken to characterise late-type, seismic targets based on spectra gathered as part of the ground-based, follow-up campaigns. A specific feature of the spectroscopic studies of these stars is that the gravity can be advantageously fixed to the more accurate value derived from the pulsation spectrum. We describe the impact that such an approach has on the estimation of Teff and [Fe/H]. The relevance of red-giant seismic targets for studies of internal mixing processes and stellar populations in our Galaxy is also briefly discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailA search for pulsations in the HgMn star HD 45975 with CoRoT photometry and ground-based spectroscopy
Morel, Thierry ULg; Briquet, Maryline ULg; Auvergne, M. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2014), 561

The existence of pulsations in HgMn stars is still being debated. To provide the first unambiguous observational detection of pulsations in this class of chemically peculiar objects, the bright star HD ... [more ▼]

The existence of pulsations in HgMn stars is still being debated. To provide the first unambiguous observational detection of pulsations in this class of chemically peculiar objects, the bright star HD 45975 was monitored for nearly two months by the CoRoT satellite. Independent analyses of the light curve provide evidence of monoperiodic variations with a frequency of 0.7572 d[SUP]-1[/SUP] and a peak-to-peak amplitude of ~2800 ppm. Multisite, ground-based spectroscopic observations overlapping the CoRoT observations show the star to be a long-period, single-lined binary. Furthermore, with the notable exception of mercury, they reveal the same periodicity as in photometry in the line moments of chemical species exhibiting strong overabundances (e.g., Mn and Y). In contrast, lines of other elements do not show significant variations. As found in otherHgMn stars, the pattern of variability consists in an absorption bump moving redwards across the line profiles. We argue that the photometric and spectroscopic changes are more consistent with an interpretation in terms of rotational modulation of spots at the stellar surface. In this framework, the existence of pulsations producing photometric variations above the ~50 ppm level is unlikely in HD 45975. This provides strong constraints on the excitation/damping of pulsation modes in this HgMn star. The CoRoT space mission was developed and is operated by the French space agency CNES, with participation of ESA's RSSD and Science Programmes, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Germany, and Spain. This work is based on observations collected at La Silla and Paranal Observatories, ESO (Chile), with the HARPS and UVES spectrographs at the 3.6-m and very large telescopes, under programmes LP185.D-0056 and 287.D-5066. It is also based on observations made with the Mercator Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma by the Flemish Community, at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias. Based on observations obtained with the HERMES spectrograph, which is supported by the Fund for Scientific Research of Flanders (FWO), Belgium, the Research Council of K.U. Leuven, Belgium, the Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique (FNRS), Belgium, the Royal Observatory of Belgium, the Observatoire de Genève, Switzerland, and the Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Germany. [less ▲]

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See detailThe gaia-ESO survey and massive stars
Blomme, R.; Fremat, Y.; Gosset, Eric ULg et al

in IAU Symposium 307 (2014)

As part of the Gaia-ESO Survey (GES), a number of clusters will be observed that were chosen speci cally for their massive-star content. We report on the procedures we followed to determine the stellar ... [more ▼]

As part of the Gaia-ESO Survey (GES), a number of clusters will be observed that were chosen speci cally for their massive-star content. We report on the procedures we followed to determine the stellar parameters from the massive-star spectra of this survey. We intercompare the results from the di erent techniques used by the nodes of our group to determine these parameters and discuss some of the problems encountered. We present preliminary results for NGC 6705, NGC 3293, and Trumpler 14. We study microturbulence in A-type stars, we use the repeat observation to investigate binarity, and we determine cluster membership from the radial velocity information. The large number of massive-star spectra obtained by the Gaia-ESO Survey will allow us to critically test stellar evolution modelling [less ▲]

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