References of "Monty, Arnaud"
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See detailCan Land Managers Control Japanese Knotweed? Lessons from Control Tests in Belgium
Delbart, Emmanuel; Mahy, Grégory ULg; Weickmans, Bernard et al

in Environmental Management (2012), 50

Japanese knotweed Fallopia japonica is an extremely abundant invasive plant in Belgium and surrounding countries. To date, no eradication method is available for land managers facing the invasion of this ... [more ▼]

Japanese knotweed Fallopia japonica is an extremely abundant invasive plant in Belgium and surrounding countries. To date, no eradication method is available for land managers facing the invasion of this rhizomatous plant. We tested different chemical herbicides with two application methods (spraying and stem injection), as well as mechanical treatments, on knotweed clones throughout southern Belgium. The tested control methods were selected to be potentially usable by managers, e.g., using legally accepted rates for herbicides. Stem volume, height and density reduction were assessed after one or two years, depending on the control method. Labor estimations were made for each control method. No tested control method completely eradicated the clones. Stem injection with glyphosate-based herbicide (3.6 kg ha-1 of acid equivalent glyphosate) caused the most damage, i.e., no sprouting shoots were observed the year following the injection. The following year, though, stunted shoots appeared. Among the mechanical control methods, repeated cuts combined with native tree transplanting most appreciably reduced knotweed development. The most efficient methods we tested could curb knotweed invasion, but are not likely to be effective in eradicating the species. As such, they should be included in a more integrated restoration strategy, together with prevention and public awareness campaigns. [less ▲]

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See detailEarly detection of alien plants in xeric Natura 2000 sites in Southern Belgium
Monty, Arnaud ULg; Frisson, Gwenn; Mahy, Grégory ULg

Poster (2012)

The Natura 2000 network consists of sites designated by the member States of the European Union, under the Habitats and Birds Directives. Setting up that network is one of the biggest challenge in nature ... [more ▼]

The Natura 2000 network consists of sites designated by the member States of the European Union, under the Habitats and Birds Directives. Setting up that network is one of the biggest challenge in nature conservation in Europe, since habitats and species for which Natura 2000 sites are designated must be maintained in a “favorable conservation status”. Little is known so far, however, about how Natura 2000 sites are invaded by exotics species. Xeric habitats of high biological value included in the Natura 2000 network are among the most species-rich in Southern Belgium. They include calcareous grasslands, sandy meadows, dry heathlands, boxwood stands, siliceous rocks and calcareous rocks. We randomly sampled 15% of sites in each of these six categories (with a minimum of five sites per category) , with a total of 86 sites out of 470 existing sites. In each site, we recorded the presence/absence of 63 alien plants know to develop in xeric habitats (species list based on Verloove (2006) and expert’s personnal observations.), and estimated species cover. 25 naturalized alien plant species were observed in xeric habitats of the Natura 2000 network in Southern Belgium. Generally, alien species populations were still limited. [less ▲]

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See detailFire promotes downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.) seed dispersal
Monty, Arnaud ULg; Brown, Cynthia; Johnston, Danielle

Poster (2012)

Particularly well-known among the many impacts of the invasive annual grass downy brome (Bromus tectorum, Poaceae) is its ability to alter fire cycles and increase in abundance after fire. However, little ... [more ▼]

Particularly well-known among the many impacts of the invasive annual grass downy brome (Bromus tectorum, Poaceae) is its ability to alter fire cycles and increase in abundance after fire. However, little is known about how fire influences B. tectorum dispersal. We quantified fire effects on B. tectorum dispersal using three recently burned areas in the western region of the Colorado Rocky Mountains by marking diaspores (seeds) with fluorescent powder, and then recovering them at night using ultraviolet lights. Diaspores were of two types: with and without sterile florets attached. We also characterized vegetation cover and near-surface wind speed in burned and unburned areas. Diaspores travelled much farther in burned areas than in nearby unburned areas (means ± standard error at the end of the experiment: 209 ± 16 cm and 38 ± 1 cm, respectively; maximal distance at the end of the experiment: 2274 cm and 150 cm, respectively), indicating an increase in dispersal distance after fire. Diaspores with sterile florets attached dispersed longer distances than those without sterile florets (means ± standard error at the end of the experiment: 141 ± 14 cm and 88 ± 7 cm, respectively). Vegetation cover was lower and wind speeds were higher in the burned areas. Our results indicate that at least one of the mechanisms by which the spread of B. tectorum is promoted by fire is through increased seed dispersal distance. Preventing movement of seeds from nearby infestations into burned areas may help avoid the rapid population expansion often observed. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamics of black-grass populations depending on the sowing time of winter wheat
Vandersteen, Joëlle; Jaunard, Delphine ULg; Mahy, Grégory ULg et al

in Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences (2011, May 24), 76(3), 485-490

Currently, economic, agronomic and environmental concerns, lead to reduce use of herbicides. This reduction can be help by cultural measures like delay of the sowing date. Four sowing dates of winter ... [more ▼]

Currently, economic, agronomic and environmental concerns, lead to reduce use of herbicides. This reduction can be help by cultural measures like delay of the sowing date. Four sowing dates of winter wheat from 15th of October to 26th of November were tested. Dynamic of black-grass populations and their reproduction rate were assessed as well as dynamic of winter wheat for each date. Delay of sowing could significantly reduce reproduction rate of blac-grass. It was shwn that the emergence rate (pl/m²), but also number of ears per plant and number of seeds per ear of black-grass decreased significantly with the sowing date. This reproduction of seeds productioin already is from sixty per cent of a delay of two weeks sowing. [less ▲]

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See detailL’adaptation au changement climatique en région wallonne
EcoRes-TEC Conseil; Amelung, Bas; Biernaux, Martin et al

Report (2011)

Climate change is now globally accepted. The 4th IPCC report, published in 2007, clearly indicates that this phenomenon is mostly the result of human activity. All parts of the globe are potentially at ... [more ▼]

Climate change is now globally accepted. The 4th IPCC report, published in 2007, clearly indicates that this phenomenon is mostly the result of human activity. All parts of the globe are potentially at risk. There are no activity sectors that will be left untouched. Adaptation is therefore necessary. Since 2006, the European Commission has been looking at the climate change adaptation issue. It first held a consultation on the European Commission Green Paper “adapting to climate change in Europe - options for EU action”. This led to the publication of the White Paper « Adapting to climate change: towards a European framework for action ». In this document, the EC puts forward the idea of a compulsory Adaptation Strategy at Member State level. Several EU countries have already done so: Finland, United Kingdom and France. Belgium, through the National Climate Commission, adopted its « National Climate Strategy » in late 2010. The objective is to recommend an operational action plan by 2012. This action plan will be the result of a merger between the action plans of the three regions and the federal governments. The Flemish region launched a study to start the development process of their action plan in 2010; the Walloon region has followed with this study and the Brussels region and the Federal should launch their studies during this year (2011). This study enabled to draw a complete review – characteristics, current vulnerabilities, future vulnerabilities - of the Walloon region on seven topics: Agriculture, water, infrastructure/ spatial planning, health, energy, biodiversity and forests. An enlarged experts’ consultation identified key measures to implement in order for Wallonia to adapt to climate change. Chapter 1, « climate change adaptation in European regions », is a stock-taking exercise of adaptation strategies found in Europe in order to draw relevant lessons for this study. Chapter 2: « the climate futures of Wallonia”, is an analysis of the climate projection specifically carried out for this study. Those projections were used to identify Wallonia’s vulnerabilities. Chapter 3 « Wallonia’s vulnerabilities to Climate change” explores the seven themes Agriculture, water, infrastructure/ spatial planning, health, energy, biodiversity and forests to describe the current and future risks and to put forward a time-dependent and sectoral hierarchy of impacts. Chapter 4 « Wallonia’s adaptation to climate change » states the core principles used to define the adaptation choices as well as the proposed guidelines for each theme. Chapter 5 « towards an action plan » presents the adaptation measures by theme along with the first elements of an evaluation procedure. Finally, the appendices contain the operational documents: the full thematic sheets, the action plan, the strategic guideline paper and the transversal analysis and the supporting documents: maps, climate projections database and the benchmarks. [less ▲]

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See detailL’adaptation au changement climatique en région wallonne : Fiche thématique : Forêt
Frisson, Gwenn ULg; Monty, Arnaud ULg; Mahy, Grégory ULg et al

Report (2011)

• Les changements attendus sont importants mais difficiles à quantifier. Seules des tendances peuvent être dégagées. • Pour le domaine de la forêt, il est d’autant plus nécessaire d’anticiper les effets ... [more ▼]

• Les changements attendus sont importants mais difficiles à quantifier. Seules des tendances peuvent être dégagées. • Pour le domaine de la forêt, il est d’autant plus nécessaire d’anticiper les effets du changement climatique dès maintenant, étant donné la longévité importante des arbres forestiers. • Favoriser l’adaptation naturelle et augmenter la résilience au changement de la forêt peut se faire au moyen d’une sylviculture plus durable et plus proche du fonctionnement naturel de l’écosystème forestier. Diminuer les menaces d’ordre non climatique participe également à cela. • La forêt ne doit pas seulement se mesurer en termes de valeur intrinsèque mais également en termes de services écosystémiques. [less ▲]

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See detailL’adaptation au changement climatique en région wallonne : Fiche thématique : Biodiversité
Frisson, Gwenn ULg; Monty, Arnaud ULg; Mahy, Grégory ULg et al

Report (2011)

• Les changements attendus sont importants mais difficiles à quantifier. Seules des tendances peuvent être dégagées. • La fragmentation des habitats naturels est particulièrement poussée en Wallonie. Elle ... [more ▼]

• Les changements attendus sont importants mais difficiles à quantifier. Seules des tendances peuvent être dégagées. • La fragmentation des habitats naturels est particulièrement poussée en Wallonie. Elle constitue une lourde menace sur la biodiversité et une entrave aux changements d’aires de distribution attendus. • Développer le réseau écologique et diminuer les menaces qui pèsent actuellement sur la biodiversité est primordial pour donner une chance à la biodiversité de s’adapter au changement climatique. • Les impacts de la perte de biodiversité ne doivent pas seulement se mesurer en termes de valeur intrinsèque mais également en termes de services écosystémiques. [less ▲]

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See detailGestion de Crassula helmsii en Belgique plus difficile qu’il n’y paraît?
Delbart, Emmanuel ULg; Monty, Arnaud ULg; Mahy, Grégory ULg

in EPPO Bulletin (2011), 41

La crassule des e´tangs (Crassula helmsii) est une plante invasive (ou exotique envahissante) qui repre´sente un risque environnemental pour les milieux aquatiques en Belgique et, plus globalement, en ... [more ▼]

La crassule des e´tangs (Crassula helmsii) est une plante invasive (ou exotique envahissante) qui repre´sente un risque environnemental pour les milieux aquatiques en Belgique et, plus globalement, en Europe. Pour controˆler cette espe`ce, les acteurs de terrain disposent d’une litte´rature a priori abondante, ainsi que de plusieurs bases de donne´es relatives a` sa distribution spatiale. Néanmoins, les gestionnaires peuvent vite se sentir de´sarme´s, d’une part par le manque de clarte´ sur les moyens a` mettre en oeuvre afin d’endiguer la propagation de l’espe`ce et, d’autre part, par le manque d’exhaustivite´ des bases de donne´es. S’ajoute a` cela une insuffisance de litte´rature sur les vecteurs de dissémination a` travers les paysages. [less ▲]

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See detailWhich evolutionary mechanisms allow Senecio inaequidens DC. to face a changing climate? A synthesis
Monty, Arnaud ULg; Mahy, Grégory ULg

Poster (2010, September)

Plant populations are expected to face gradual climatic variation in the next decades. Understanding and quantifying evolutionary and non-evolutionary mechanisms allowing populations response to climate ... [more ▼]

Plant populations are expected to face gradual climatic variation in the next decades. Understanding and quantifying evolutionary and non-evolutionary mechanisms allowing populations response to climate is therefore crucial to anticipate the actual consequences of climate change on plants. However, studying the direct effects of climate change in wild populations is of little anticipating interest… there invasive plants can help! We studied the sources of phenotypic variation in populations that gradually invaded different climatic zones over the last century, and assessed the role of local adaptation, non-adaptive genetic differentiation, phenotypic plasticity and environmental maternal effects in plant population response to climate. [less ▲]

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See detailEcology and evolution of invasive plants: what to study next?
Monty, Arnaud ULg; Brown, Cynthia; Tepolt, Carolyn et al

Poster (2010, September)

In recent decades, a growing number of studies have addressed connections between ecological and evolutionary concepts in biologic invasions. These connections may be crucial for understanding the ... [more ▼]

In recent decades, a growing number of studies have addressed connections between ecological and evolutionary concepts in biologic invasions. These connections may be crucial for understanding the processes underlying invaders’ success. However, the extent to which scientists have worked on the integration of the ecology and evolution of invasive plants is poorly documented, as few attempts have been made to evaluate these efforts in invasion biology research. Such analysis can facilitate recognize well-documented relationships and identify gaps in our knowledge. In this study, we used a network-based method for visualizing the connections between major aspects of ecology and evolution in the primary research literature. Using the family Poaceae as an example, we show that ecological concepts were more studied and better interconnected than were evolutionary concepts. Several possible connections were not documented at all, representing knowledge gaps between ecology and evolution of invaders. Among knowledge gaps, the concepts of plasticity, gene flow, epigenetics and human influence were particularly under-connected. We discuss five possible research avenues to better understand the relationships between ecology and evolution in the success of Poaceae, and of alien plants in general. [less ▲]

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See detailCan we really get rid of Japanese knotweed clones? Two years of management tests in Belgium
Monty, Arnaud ULg; Delbart, Emmanuel ULg; Mahy, Grégory ULg et al

Poster (2010, September)

Japanese knotweed Fallopia japonica is an extremely abundant invasive plant in Belgium and surrounding countries. To date, no eradication method is available for managers facing the invasion of this ... [more ▼]

Japanese knotweed Fallopia japonica is an extremely abundant invasive plant in Belgium and surrounding countries. To date, no eradication method is available for managers facing the invasion of this rhizomatous plant. We tested different chemical herbicides and two application methods (spraying and stem injection), as well as mechanical treatments, on Fallopia clones throughout southern Belgium. The tested methods were selected to be potentially usable by Belgian managers, e.g. using legally accepted rates for herbicides. Stem volume, height and density reduction was assessed after one or two years depending on the treatment. No tested method allowed a complete eradication of the clone. However, stem injection with glyphosate-based herbicide caused the highest damage. The year following injection, no sprouts were observed. Two following year, however, stunted shoots sprouted. Among mechanical control measures, repeated cuts combined with native trees cuttings plantations most appreciably reduced knotweed development. The most efficient methods we tested appear as tools for curbing knotweed invasion but are not likely to be used to eradicate the species. As such they should be included in a more integrated control strategy, together with prevention and public awareness campaigns. [less ▲]

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See detailLinking concepts in the ecology and evolution of invasive plants: network analysis shows what has been most studied and identifies knowledge gaps
Vanderhoeven, Sonia ULg; Brown, Cynthia; Tepolt, Carolyn et al

in Evolutionary Applications (2010), 3(2), 193-202

In recent decades, a growing number of studies have addressed connections between ecological and evolutionary concepts in biologic invasions. These connections may be crucial for understanding the ... [more ▼]

In recent decades, a growing number of studies have addressed connections between ecological and evolutionary concepts in biologic invasions. These connections may be crucial for understanding the processes underlying invaders' success. However, the extent to which scientists have worked on the integration of the ecology and evolution of invasive plants is poorly documented, as few attempts have been made to evaluate these efforts in invasion biology research. Such analysis can facilitate recognize well-documented relationships and identify gaps in our knowledge. In this study, we used a network-based method for visualizing the connections between major aspects of ecology and evolution in the primary research literature. Using the family Poaceae as an example, we show that ecological concepts were more studied and better interconnected than were evolutionary concepts. Several possible connections were not documented at all, representing knowledge gaps between ecology and evolution of invaders. Among knowledge gaps, the concepts of plasticity, gene flow, epigenetics and human influence were particularly under-connected. We discuss five possible research avenues to better understand the relationships between ecology and evolution in the success of Poaceae, and of alien plants in general. [less ▲]

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See detailEvolution de l'espèce invasive Senecio inaequidens en réponse aux variations de climat
Monty, Arnaud ULg

Scientific conference (2010, January 21)

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See detailPhenotypic traits variation among native diploid, native tetraploid and invasive tetraploid Senecio inaequidens DC. (Asteraceae)
Monty, Arnaud ULg; Maurice, Sandrine; Mahy, Grégory ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2010), 14(4), 627-632

Senecio inaequidens DC. is a rapidly spreading plant invader in Europe. In its native range, it occurs at two co-existing diploid and tetraploid cytotypes. To date, only tetraploids are reported in Europe ... [more ▼]

Senecio inaequidens DC. is a rapidly spreading plant invader in Europe. In its native range, it occurs at two co-existing diploid and tetraploid cytotypes. To date, only tetraploids are reported in Europe, even though invasive diploids were recorded in other parts of the world. We compared native diploid and both native and invasive tetraploid populations in common gardens in Europe for a suite of life history traits. Diploids were able to develop, showed high biomass production and produced more flower heads than tetraploids. In contrast, winter survival was null for diploids. It was low for native tetraploids, but reached 40% in invasive tetraploids. Results suggested that diploid cytotype tends to an annual life form when grown in Western Europe, with earlier and more abundant flowering. In contrast, the tetraploid cytotype was mainly perennial which may enhance its invasiveness. [less ▲]

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See detailEvolution of dispersal traits along an invasion route in the wind-dispersed Senecio inaequidens (Asteraceae)
Monty, Arnaud ULg; Mahy, Grégory ULg

in Oikos (2010), 119

In introduced organisms, dispersal propensity is expected to increase during range expansion. This prediction is based on the assumption that phenotypic plasticity is low compared to genetic diversity ... [more ▼]

In introduced organisms, dispersal propensity is expected to increase during range expansion. This prediction is based on the assumption that phenotypic plasticity is low compared to genetic diversity, and an increase in dispersal can be counteracted by the Allee effect. Empirical evidence in support of these hypotheses is however lacking. The present study tested for evidence of differentiation in dispersal-related traits and the Allee effect in the wind-dispersed invasive Senecio inaequidens (Asteraceae). We collected capitula from individuals in ten field populations, along an invasion route including the original introduction site in southern France. In addition, we conducted a common garden experiment from field-collected seeds and obtained capitula from individuals representing the same ten field populations. We analysed phenotypic variation in dispersal traits between field and common garden environments as a function of the distance between populations and the introduction site. Our results revealed low levels of phenotypic differentiation among populations. However, significant clinal variation in dispersal traits was demonstrated in common garden plants representing the invasion route. In field populations, similar trends in dispersal-related traits and evidence of an Allee effect were not detected. In part, our results supported expectations of increased dispersal capacity with range expansion, and emphasized the contribution of phenotypic plasticity under natural conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailHistorical landscape structure affects plant species richness in wet heathlands with complex landscape dynamics
Cristofoli, Sara; Monty, Arnaud ULg; Mahy, Grégory ULg

in Landscape & Urban Planning (2010), 98

The spatio-temporal dynamics of wet heathlands from two landscapes in high Ardenne (Belgium), as well as the consequences of such dynamics on plant communities were investigated. Past and present ... [more ▼]

The spatio-temporal dynamics of wet heathlands from two landscapes in high Ardenne (Belgium), as well as the consequences of such dynamics on plant communities were investigated. Past and present destruction and origin of habitat patches have resulted in a complex network of different aged habitat patches. Current specialist and generalist species richness were assessed in 59 patches and analyzed with respect to present and past patch spatial metrics (controlled for habitat quality). Current patch area affected specialist species richness and current patch connectivity influenced both specialist and generalist species richness. Thirteen of the 59 patches were historical patches, i.e. patches that have remained since the 1770s. In these historical patches, including past landscape structure in the analysis explained more of the variability in current species richness than the current landscape structure alone, suggesting the existence of an extinction debt. [less ▲]

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