References of "Monty, Arnaud"
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See detailWildflower strips: a help for crop protection ?
Hatt, Séverin ULg; Uyttenbroeck, Roel ULg; Bodson, Bernard ULg et al

Conference (2014, March 05)

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See detail3. Lutte contre les mauvaises herbes
Henriet, François; Jaunard, Delphine; Gilleman, Alice ULg et al

in Bodson, Bernard; Destain, Jean-Pierre (Eds.) Livre Blanc céréales (2014, February 26)

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See detailThree aspects, One concept: Agroecology. Agroecological practices and human interactions for a new approach for science. An example at the Univeristy of Liege.
Hatt, Séverin ULg; Artru, Sidonie ULg; Boeraeve, Fanny ULg et al

Poster (2014, February 07)

Critics are raising about conventional farming and its consequences on biodiversity, human health and society. As alternatives, novel models for agriculture are proposed, and among them Agroecology. Quite ... [more ▼]

Critics are raising about conventional farming and its consequences on biodiversity, human health and society. As alternatives, novel models for agriculture are proposed, and among them Agroecology. Quite often, Agroecology is seen as the application of ecological knowledge to the agricultural production. Indeed, this helps to develop more ecological farming practices favoring biodiversity to provide ecosystem services at multiple scales. Agroecology goes further in considering that the agricultural production is integrated in a food system guided by human interactions. This latter one takes into account socio-economic and political dimensions to develop new production systems. Doing so, it assures food security worldwide while preserving resources for future generations. Facing these ambitious objectives, academics are invited to elaborate a new approach for science in developing participatory and action-oriented approaches as well as multidisciplinarity. AgricultureIsLife is a research platform built up at the University of Liège (ULg). In 2013, 40 researchers (including 18 young researchers) from 16 research units of ULg were working in a multidisciplinary approach. About twenty research topics have been divided in four research axes of which objectives are to develop a more sustainable agriculture. The platform has the ambition to discuss its results to a large comity gathering the actors of the agricultural development. The aim of our work is firstly to present Agrocology as a concept made of three interrelated aspects. To illustrate it, the organization and objectives of the research platform AgricultureIsLife will be discussed in a second part. [less ▲]

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See detailBiodiversity and ecosystem services: think functional!
Uyttenbroeck, Roel ULg; Hatt, Séverin ULg; Paul, Aman ULg et al

Poster (2014, February 07)

During the last years, several studies and reviews have considered the relation between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning or the provision of ecosystem services. Many studies found that plant ... [more ▼]

During the last years, several studies and reviews have considered the relation between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning or the provision of ecosystem services. Many studies found that plant functional traits and plant functional diversity (FD) are key drivers in this relation in terrestrial ecosystems. Researchers used different methods to obtain a gradient in plant FD to examine the effect on ecosystem services, going from observational studies of natural communities to synthetic assemblages. Furthermore, different methods exist to quantify plant FD going from simple functional trait richness to indices, distance-based frameworks and the division into FD components. In the AgricultureIsLife project, we set up a field experiment aiming to examine the biodiversity – ecosystem service relation in agricultural context. The experiment consists of perennial wildflower strips with different plant functional diversities in an arable field with conventional crop production. The wildflower strips were sown as synthetic assemblages but are subject to natural succession during the following years. We monitor the evolution of FD from the sowing to the establishment of a typical wildflower strip using Rhao’s quadratic entropy index to quantify FD. In addition, the flower strips will be monitored for four ecosystem services they are expected to provide: pollination, pest control, biodiversity support and provision of valuable compounds. [less ▲]

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See detailIs the noxious Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. going to invade Belgium?
Ortmans, William ULg; Chauvel, Bruno; Mahy, Grégory ULg et al

Poster (2014, February 07)

Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. is an invasive species from North America, causing a health crisis in Europe due to its highly allergenic pollen. In France, there is a zone where the A. artemisiifolia ... [more ▼]

Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. is an invasive species from North America, causing a health crisis in Europe due to its highly allergenic pollen. In France, there is a zone where the A. artemisiifolia populations are naturalized and invasive. Outside this area, populations are more rare and do not seem to expand. We tested if the performances of A. artemisiifolia are varying with competition level, and among geographical zones. The results show that populations from Belgium and Netherlands are not less efficient than invasive populations for the measured traits. [less ▲]

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See detailThe voluntary Code of conduct on invasive alien plants in Belgium: results and lessons learned from the AlterIAS LIFE+ project
Halford, Mathieu ULg; Heemers, L.; van Wesemael, D. et al

in EPPO Bulletin (2014), 44(2), 1-11

Voluntary approaches have been recently used in the horticultural sector to deal with the introduction and spread of invasive alien plants. In Belgium, the first Code of conduct has been developed within ... [more ▼]

Voluntary approaches have been recently used in the horticultural sector to deal with the introduction and spread of invasive alien plants. In Belgium, the first Code of conduct has been developed within the frame of the AlterIAS project, a LIFE+ “Information & Communication” project aiming at raising the awareness of horticulture professionals and gardeners on the invasive plants issue. The Belgian Code was prepared in consultation with representatives from the ornamental sector, public authorities and the scientific community. The Code was promoted throughout the country with a specific communication campaign entitled “Plant different”. Thanks to communication efforts, a positive dynamic of involvement was observed over time. Surveys were performed to assess the changes of attitudes and the perception of the Code by the target audience of the project. Positive results were achieved for horticulture professionals. However, the Code will require more time to be widely adopted by the ornamental sector in Belgium. [less ▲]

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See detailCarrières & Biodiversité - Les pelouses sèches
Harzé, Mélanie ULg; Boisson, Sylvain ULg; Halford, Mathieu ULg et al

Learning material (2014)

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See detailCarrières & Biodiversité - Les plantes invasives
Halford, Mathieu ULg; Boisson, Sylvain ULg; Harzé, Mélanie ULg et al

Learning material (2014)

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See detailCarrières & Biodiversité - Les plans d'eau
Boisson, Sylvain ULg; Harzé, Mélanie ULg; Halford, Mathieu ULg et al

Learning material (2014)

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See detailCarrières & Biodiversité - Les falaises et éboulis
Seleck, Maxime ULg; Boisson, Sylvain ULg; Harzé, Mélanie ULg et al

Learning material (2014)

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See detailCarrières & Biodiversité - Les arènes minérales
Piqueray, Julien; Boisson, Sylvain ULg; Halford, Mathieu ULg et al

Learning material (2014)

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See detailHow to increase species diversity in phytostabilization strategies near Lubumbashi (D.R.C.)
Boisson, Sylvain ULg; Collignon, Julien ULg; Le Stradic, Soizig ULg et al

Conference (2013, October 08)

Copper contamination of soils represents a threat to natural areas and to human health. Phytostabilization, i.e using plants to immobilize contaminants, represents a well-known technology to hemper heavy ... [more ▼]

Copper contamination of soils represents a threat to natural areas and to human health. Phytostabilization, i.e using plants to immobilize contaminants, represents a well-known technology to hemper heavy metals spread across landscapes. In Katanga (Congo D.R.), Microchloa altera was recently identified as a candidate species to stabilize copper in soil. This grass naturally tolerates and accumulates high copper concentrations and belongs to the typical copper flora of Katanga. However more than 600 species compose this flora and other grasses may be used in phytostabilisation strategies. But little is known about the phenology reproductive strategy and demography of these species, which makes their use in current phytostabilization strategies difficult. The present study aims to characterize the reproduction capacity of seven other dominant grass species for future phytostabilisation tests. A total of 67 quadrats (1m²) were randomly placed across three sites. At two periods over the fruiting season, three inflorescences per species per quadrat were collected in order to estimate the number of spikes, spikelets and viable seeds. All species have sexual reproductive strategy and spikelets number presents little variation between populations. Three species are very common (Andropogon shirensis, Loudetia simplex and Eragrostis racemosa) and represent potential candidates to increase species diversity in phytostabilization strategies in Katanga. Further research, including germination tests and phytostabilization tests in situ, is planned in a near future. [less ▲]

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See detailExtent of intra-population functional variability along a local environmental gradient for four calcareous grasslands species
Harzé, Mélanie ULg; Monty, Arnaud ULg; Mahy, Grégory ULg

Conference (2013, August 19)

In the last few years, an increasing body of evidence has highlighted the role of functional traits as reliable predictors of species resistance to disturbance and response to environmental gradients ... [more ▼]

In the last few years, an increasing body of evidence has highlighted the role of functional traits as reliable predictors of species resistance to disturbance and response to environmental gradients. However, most studies focused on functional comparisons at the interspecific level while intraspecific functional trait variation has received remarkably little attention. As intraspecific traits variability is a necessary condition for species to adapt to environmental changes, studying intraspecific functional traits variation along environmental gradients is a major issue in a context of global change. The aim of our study was to evaluate the extent of intraspecific functional variability of four species along an environmental gradient of water stress at a local scale and to compare species response to the gradient. Calcareous grasslands species are present along a xeric gradient from mesophilous to xerophilous grasslands. Changes of exposure, slope and soil depth lead to differences of water availability for plants along the gradient. We measured the maximum vegetative height (MVH), the specific leaf area (SLA, one side area of a fresh leaf divided by its oven-dry mass) and the leaf dry matter content (LDMC, leaf oven-dry mass divided by its water-saturated fresh mass) on randomly selected individuals along a gradient of xericity on three study sites located in south Belgium. Functional traits were measured on about 60 individuals per site and per species. The soil depth was measured around each individual. The exposure and the slope were measured in order to calculate a heat load index for each individual. The extent of local intraspecific functional variability of our data was compared to data covering the species European range. Results are species dependent but for some study species intraspecific functional variability at local scale is not negligible compared to European data. Species functional responses to the gradient (soil depth and heat load index) showed a decrease in SLA and MVH and an increase in LDMC with increasing xericity for all study species. Response extent was species dependent. Main implications for species resistance to disturbance and climate change adaptation will be discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailPlant ecological niche distribution along heavy metal gradients
Boisson, Sylvain ULg; Monty, Arnaud ULg; Seleck, Maxime ULg et al

Conference (2013, June 26)

Why species do not occur everywhere? The concept of ecological niche is central to understand relationships among biotic/abiotic factors and species distribution. Gradients of environmental stress ... [more ▼]

Why species do not occur everywhere? The concept of ecological niche is central to understand relationships among biotic/abiotic factors and species distribution. Gradients of environmental stress associated to interspecific interactions generate testable patterns of specie’s response curves. Distribution of response curves have been seldom tested along toxicity gradient, in contrast to resource gradients. On Katangan copper hills (south R.D.C.), natural copper and cobalt concentrations span a large range: 2 - 1000 mg kg-1 for cobalt and 30 - 10 000 mg kg-1 for copper. In this study, we evaluate three hypotheses related to niche distributions and shapes along metal toxic gradients: (1) Species optima are uniformly distributed over copper-cobalt gradient. (2) Realized niche width varies in relation to the niche optimum along copper and cobalt gradient. (3) Absolute values of skewness coefficient are higher when plant species optima are in the extremes of cobalt gradient with a niche tails toward mesic conditions. Realized niches of 80 taxa were modeled with general additive models (GAM) using presence/absence data in 172 1m² plots. Niche optima, niche widths and skewness coefficients were estimated from species response curves. The three hypotheses were globally validated. Three groups of species were distinguished according to their optima position along metal gradient with packed optima on intermediate concentrations suggesting higher interspecific competition in low metal concentrations. Niche width increased with metal concentrations. Highest metal tolerant plant species had broader niches. Skewness coefficient was inversely related to niche optima positions. Our study demonstrates that species distribution pattern on toxicity gradient presents similarities with resource gradient. Broad realized amplitude of species adapted to high levels of copper cobalt concentrations suggests that fundamental niche of specialist metallophytes may be larger than expected. This should be further tested in controlled conditions in association to competition tests. [less ▲]

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See detailIntegrated management of wild chamomile populations by tillage
Jaunard, Delphine ULg; Monty, Arnaud ULg; Mahy, Grégory ULg et al

in Agricultural and Apllied Biological Sciences (2013, May 21)

Gembloux, Belgium Chemical weeding in agriculture increasingly raises environmental, health and economic preoccupations. European authorities has set up legislations (directive 91/414, settlement 1107 ... [more ▼]

Gembloux, Belgium Chemical weeding in agriculture increasingly raises environmental, health and economic preoccupations. European authorities has set up legislations (directive 91/414, settlement 1107/2009, directive 2009/128) aiming to reduce risks related to the use of pesticides and encouraging integrated pest management. This situation leads professionals and scientists to take interest in the biology and population dynamics of weeds and to study the impacts of integrated pest management on weeds and crops. Tillage can potentially be an efficient weed control method in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). We studied wild chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) population dynamics and crop yields in an experimental winter wheat crop, in relation to tillage methods. Five modalities (i.e. different combinations of a stubble cultivator and/or a moldboard plow, including a no-tillage control) were applied during three years (2009-2012), with four replications, in Gembloux (Belgium). In each plot, M. chamomilla density was recorded throughout the seasons. In summer 2012, wild chamomile density was significantly lower in plots tilled with a moldboard plow. The use of a stubble cultivator did not significantly affect M. chamomilla density. In addition, we found higher wheat yields in ploughed plots, indicating that the decrease in M. chamomilla density reduced competition for wheat. To confirm these results, experiments are still under investigation in similar conditions. [less ▲]

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See detail3. Contrôle des populations de mauvaises herbes
Jaunard, Delphine ULg; Monty, Arnaud ULg; Mahy, Grégory ULg et al

in Bodson, Bernard; Destain, Jean-Pierre (Eds.) Livre Blanc - Céréales (2013, February 27)

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See detailFire promotes downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.) seed dispersal
Monty, Arnaud ULg; Brown, Cynthia S.; Johnston, Danielle B.

in Biological Invasions (2013), 15(5), 1113-1123

Particularly well-known among the many impacts of the invasive annual grass downy brome (Bromus tectorum, Poaceae) is its ability to alter fire cycles and increase in abundance after fire. However, little ... [more ▼]

Particularly well-known among the many impacts of the invasive annual grass downy brome (Bromus tectorum, Poaceae) is its ability to alter fire cycles and increase in abundance after fire. However, little is known about how fire influences B. tectorum dispersal. We quantified fire effects on B. tectorum dispersal using three recently burned areas in the western region of the Colorado Rocky Mountains by marking diaspores (seeds) with fluorescent powder, and then recovering them at night using ultraviolet lights. Diaspores were of two types: with and without sterile florets attached. We also characterized vegetation cover and near-surface wind speed in burned and unburned areas. Diaspores travelled much farther in burned areas than in nearby unburned areas (mean ± standard error at the end of the experiment: 209 ± 16 cm and 38 ± 1 cm, respectively; maximal distance at the end of the experiment: 2,274 cm and 150 cm, respectively), indicating an increase in dispersal distance after fire. Diaspores with sterile florets attached dispersed longer distances than those without sterile florets (mean ± standard error at the end of the experiment: 141 ± 14 cm and 88 ± 7 cm, respectively). Vegetation cover was lower and wind speeds were higher in the burned areas. Our results indicate that at least one of the mechanisms by which the spread of B. tectorum is promoted by fire is through increased seed dispersal distance. Preventing movement of seeds from nearby infestations into burned areas may help avoid the rapid population expansion often observed. [less ▲]

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