References of "Meulemans, Thierry"
     in
Bookmark and Share    
Peer Reviewed
See detailAcquisition of a new motor skill in preschool- and school-aged children
Lejeune, Caroline ULg; Merbah, Sarah ULg; Catale, Corinne ULg et al

in Books of Abstract: ASecond Meeting of The Federation of European Societies of Neuropsychology (2011, September)

It is generally admitted that procedural learning abilities are efficient early in childhood. However, few studies have been carried out in this area. The aim of this study was to explore, with a ... [more ▼]

It is generally admitted that procedural learning abilities are efficient early in childhood. However, few studies have been carried out in this area. The aim of this study was to explore, with a perceptivo-motor learning task, whether procedural learning abilities are present to the same extent in 4-, 7-, and 10-year-old children. Forty-five children were tested. The task included 4 blocks of 12 trials during which each subject had to “catch”, as quickly as possible, several toys presented successively on the screen with a computerized inverted mouse. Retention tests, composed of 2 blocks of 12 trials, were administered 15 minutes and 1 week later. The analyses showed an important difference between groups in the first block. This difference could be related to the low ability of young children to handle the mouse and to their less developed executive functioning. On the other hand, results showed a similar learning rate between 5- and 7-year-old children, supporting the idea that procedural learning abilities are efficient early in development. However, we observed no procedural learning in10-year-old children; this unexpected result is probably due to the fact that this task was too easy for this age group, which is confirmed by the ceiling effect already observed during the first learning blocks. So, this study confirms the early efficiency of procedural abilities in childhood, but also highlights the difficulty to develop procedural learning tasks adapted to children from a large age range. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 44 (7 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailL’apprentissage de nouvelles informations sémantiques par les patients amnésiques : une revue de la littérature.
Stefaniak, Nicolas ULg; Meulemans, Thierry ULg

in Année Psychologique (L') (2011), 111

The ability of amnesic patients to learn new semantic information is a topic of research that has a renewed interest for about 10 years, in particular following Vargha-Khadem’s and collaborators’ (1997 ... [more ▼]

The ability of amnesic patients to learn new semantic information is a topic of research that has a renewed interest for about 10 years, in particular following Vargha-Khadem’s and collaborators’ (1997) works and the impact of these results both on our understanding of the relations between semantic and episodic memory and, from a clinical point of view, on the way to consider rehabilitation possibilities for these patients. This review aims to present what is known about this topic, by trying to respond to 4 different questions: What are the relations between episodic and semantic memory? Does the study of amnesic patients provide contributive data regarding this debate? Are these patients really able to learn new semantic information and, if so, to what extent? What is the nature of the knowledge that amnesic patients can acquire? [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 39 (4 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailIncidental non linguistic regularities learning in Children with
Gabriel, Audrey ULg; Meulemans, Thierry ULg; Parisse, Christophe et al

Poster (2011, July)

Recent studies on specific language impairment (SLI) have suggested that language deficits could be partly explained by the Procedural Deficit hypothesis (PDH; Ullman & Pierpont, 2005). Tomblin et al ... [more ▼]

Recent studies on specific language impairment (SLI) have suggested that language deficits could be partly explained by the Procedural Deficit hypothesis (PDH; Ullman & Pierpont, 2005). Tomblin et al. (2007) and Lum et al. (2009; 2011) obtained data supporting this interpretation with the serial reaction time (SRT) task, as well as Evans et al. (2009) and Plante et al. (2002) with artificial grammar tasks. Recently, Gabriel et al. (2011) obtained contrasting results, showing that children with SLI were able to detect non linguistic regularities during a SRT task. The aim of this study was to assess the PDH by using a non-linguistic artificial grammar learning tasks in order to mimic real conditions of language acquisition. Twenty-three children with SLI and their typically developing (TD) peers are compared on a task in which the incidental learning sequence was presented through visual shapes via a laptop.These results confirm our previous study (Gabriel et al., 2011) by showing that children with SLI detect the rules in non-linguistic conditions. • So, contrary to results of previous studies (Evans et al., 2009; Lum et al., 2009; 2011; Plante et al., 2002; Tomblin et al., 2007), this study does not confirm the PDH in children with SLI, or at least suggests that, if present, the deficit of the procedural system in SLI is not going beyond the language system. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 95 (19 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailDevelopmental differences in the procedural learning of a perceptual-motor skill
Lejeune, Caroline ULg; Catale, Corinne ULg; Merbah, Sarah ULg et al

Poster (2011, May 27)

It is generally admitted that procedural learning is efficient early in childhood. However, few studies have brought empirical data confirming this assumption, and many questions remain regarding the ... [more ▼]

It is generally admitted that procedural learning is efficient early in childhood. However, few studies have brought empirical data confirming this assumption, and many questions remain regarding the cognitive mechanisms that sustain procedural learning in children. The aim of our study was to investigate whether perceptual-motor procedural learning was present to the same extent in 7-, 10-year-old children and in adults. We also examined the role of executive functions, working memory, general intelligence, and motor ability during the learning process. A total of 76 subjects divided into 3 age-groups were tested. The task included 4 blocks of 3 trials during which each subject had to trace the contour of a triangle with an inverted computer mouse. Analyses show an important difference between groups in the initial phase of the learning process. They also reveal that executive functions intervene during the first learning phase, which might explain the observed age effect. In addition, results show significant but different learning effects for the procedural task: while the improvement was equivalent between 10-year-olds and adults, 7-year-old children showed a greater learning slope than the other groups; despite their slowness during the first blocks, younger children showed an equivalent performance at the end of the learning phase. These results suggest that, if executive processes are important during the first learning steps, they are not a “necessary condition” for motor skill learning to occur. The role of compensatory strategies sustaining learning in younger children is discussed. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 30 (4 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEfficacy of errorless learning in the acquisition of a new procedural skill in Alzheimer's disease
Schmitz, Xavier ULg; Lejeune, Caroline ULg; Vervecken, Nancy et al

Poster (2011, May 27)

In Alzheimer’s disease (AD), implicit or procedural rehabilitation techniques would be more effective to train new skills than explicit or declarative learning methods (van Halteren-van Tilborg, 2007 ... [more ▼]

In Alzheimer’s disease (AD), implicit or procedural rehabilitation techniques would be more effective to train new skills than explicit or declarative learning methods (van Halteren-van Tilborg, 2007). Following Baddeley and Wilson (1994)’s assumption, Maxwell et al. (2001) showed that reducing errors during motor learning minimizes the building of declarative knowledge and would allow implicit knowledge accumulation. However, most studies on errorless learning focused on learning of face-name associations (Clare et al., , 2001), and very few studies have investigated errorless learning in procedural learning situations, even though some data suggest that errorless learning would be efficient for learning instrumental activities of daily living (e.g., Thivierge et al., 2008). The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of an error-reducing versus an errorfull method in motor skill learning. We examined the acquisition of a new motor skill in 24 patients with AD and 24 healthy older adults matched for age, sex, and education. In this task, subjects had to follow with a reversed mouse the contour of a form (a star) displayed on a computer screen. Half the subjects learned in an error-reducing condition, and the others in an errorfull condition. After the learning phase, all the subjects had to complete a novel form. Results show an advantage for the error-reducing condition in the AD group, whereas the performance of the healthy participants did not differ between the two conditions, confirming the efficiency of errorless learning principles in AD for procedural learning situations. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 66 (10 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailExploration of serial structure procedural learning in children with language impairment.
Gabriel, Audrey ULg; Maillart, Christelle ULg; Guillaume, mélody et al

in Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society (2011), 17

Recent studies on specific language impairment (SLI) have suggested that language deficits are directly associated with poor procedural learning abilities. Findings from our previous work are contrary to ... [more ▼]

Recent studies on specific language impairment (SLI) have suggested that language deficits are directly associated with poor procedural learning abilities. Findings from our previous work are contrary to this hypothesis; we found that children with SLI were able to learn eight-element-long sequences as fast and as accurately as children with normal language (NL) on a serial reaction time (SRT) task. A probabilistic rather than a deterministic SRT paradigm was used in the current study to explore procedural learning in children with SLI to mimic real conditions of language learning. Fifteen children with or without SLI were compared on an SRT task including a probabilistic eight-element-long sequence. Results show that children with SLI were able to learn this sequence as fast and as accurately as children with NL, and that similar sequence-specific learning was observed in both groups. These results are novel and suggest that children with SLI do not display global procedural system deficits. (JINS, 2011, 17, 1-8). [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 62 (16 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailIntérêts et limites du bilan neuropsychologique dans le cadre de l’expertise médicolégale
Meulemans, Thierry ULg

in Douleur et Analgésie (2011), 24(1), 41-55

Detailed reference viewed: 23 (5 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailConstruction and validation of a new perceptual priming task: The contrasted word task
Geurten, Marie ULg; Meulemans, Thierry ULg

Poster (2011)

In clinical neuropsychology, different rehabilitation techniques – e.g., vanishing cues, spaced retrieval, errorless learning – developed for patients with memory impairments are considered to make use of ... [more ▼]

In clinical neuropsychology, different rehabilitation techniques – e.g., vanishing cues, spaced retrieval, errorless learning – developed for patients with memory impairments are considered to make use of the preserved implicit memory abilities shown by these patients, and notably the perceptual priming effects (Harrison et al., 2007). It might be therefore important for clinician neuropsychologists to determine whether these abilities are preserved or not in their patients. However, and quite surprisingly, assessment tools aimed at assessing implicit memory abilities in brain damaged patients are lacking. The aim of this study was to build and validate a new perceptual priming task – the contrasted word task – which could be used by neuropsychologists in their clinical practice. Seventy-two young healthy participants were included in this study, and were administered the contrasted word task in which 60 words counterbalanced in 2 orders and 3 types of priming (Visual; Auditory; New) emerged gradually from a white background on a computer screen. Subjects were asked to press the response key when they thought they had recognized the word. Results show a perceptual priming effect which is specific to the exposure modality (i.e., no inter-modality transfer), proving the efficacy of the contrasted word task to highlight a facilitated identification for words that were shown previously, and confirming the perceptual specificity of the priming effect (Schacter, 1992). [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 27 (4 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailDevelopment and organization of executive functions in 4-to 11 year-old children: A factor study.
Catale, Corinne ULg; Collette, Fabienne ULg; Lejeune, Caroline ULg et al

in Books of Abstract: Annual Meeting of the Belgian Association for Psychological Science (2011)

Executive functioning (EF) is an umbrella term used to refer to the higher-order cognitive processes whose principal function is to facilitate the adaptation of an individual to new and non-routine ... [more ▼]

Executive functioning (EF) is an umbrella term used to refer to the higher-order cognitive processes whose principal function is to facilitate the adaptation of an individual to new and non-routine situations. In the present study, inhibition, mental flexibility, and working memory were assessed through 6 executive tasks administered to 329 children aged from 4 to 11 years, in order to examine the development and organization of executive functioning in both early and middle childhood. Results reveal specific developmental trends for each component, with a period of rapid general development during the preschool period. Confirmatory factor analyses were used to examine the organization of EF in our sample. First, the poorness of fit of the unitary model was found for both groups, confirming the fractionated nature of EF in preschoolers as well as in older children. Second, the analyses confirmed the adequacy of the fit of the three-dimensional model (i.e., inhibition, flexibility, and working memory), while also indicating that other specific two-dimensional models gave reasonable fits to the data from both age groups. The factor structure obtained supports both the unitary and diversity nature of the executive organisation during early and middle childhood. Furthermore, our data suggest a progressive differentiation of executive processes (in particular flexibility and working memory) in the course of development. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 90 (14 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLearning a motor skill: Effects of Blocked vs. Random Practice. A review
Merbah, Sarah ULg; Meulemans, Thierry ULg

in Psychologica Belgica (2011), 51(1), 15-48

Procedural learning refers to the ability to learn new perceptual, motor or cognitive skills. While many studies have explored procedural learning abilities in patients with different types of brain ... [more ▼]

Procedural learning refers to the ability to learn new perceptual, motor or cognitive skills. While many studies have explored procedural learning abilities in patients with different types of brain damage, the cognitive mechanisms involved in the acquisition of a new skill are still not well understood. The present review focuses on the conditions that optimize skill acquisition, and more specifically on the contextual interference effect (CIE), which refers to the advantage of a ‘random’ over a ‘blocked’ practice condition in skill learning tasks. According to both the ‘elaboration’ and ‘reconstruction’ hypotheses, the CIE can be explained by the fact that the random schedule requires more cognitive activity than the blocked one. However, if the CIE has been consistently demonstrated in laboratory studies, it is not so clear in fieldbased studies. We discuss this ‘laboratory and field dilemma’, and suggest that two main factors – task complexity and individual variables – may explain the discrepancy between the two types of studies. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 98 (13 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailSensibilité et spécificité du CHildhood EXecutive functioning Inventory (CHEXI) chez des enfants avec troubles attentionnels
Catale, Corinne ULg; Lejeune, Caroline ULg; Merbah, Sarah ULg et al

in ANAE : Approche Neuropsychologique des Apprentissages chez l'Enfant (2011), 115

Thorell and Nyberg (2008) have recently developed the Childhood Executive Functioning Inventory (CHEXI), a new rating inventory of executive functioning for children that can be divided into four a priori ... [more ▼]

Thorell and Nyberg (2008) have recently developed the Childhood Executive Functioning Inventory (CHEXI), a new rating inventory of executive functioning for children that can be divided into four a priori subscales: working memory, planning, inhibition, and regulation The major goals of our study is to present a French adaptation of this questionnaire and to discuss its clinical interests in terms of sensibility and specificity with children with attentional deficits. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 93 (18 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLearning a motor skill: Effects of blocked versus random practice. A review
Merbah, Sarah ULg; Meulemans, Thierry ULg

in Psychologica Belgica (2011), 51

Detailed reference viewed: 34 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailImpaired Acquisition Of A Mirror-Reading Skill In Alzheimer’s Disease
Merbah, Sarah ULg; Salmon, Eric ULg; Meulemans, Thierry ULg

in Cortex : A Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System & Behavior (2011), 47

Several studies using the mirror-reading paradigm have shown that procedural learning and repetition priming may be preserved in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) (e.g., Deweer et al., 1994 ... [more ▼]

Several studies using the mirror-reading paradigm have shown that procedural learning and repetition priming may be preserved in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) (e.g., Deweer et al., 1994). According to the classical interpretation, improved reading time for repeated words is sustained by a repetition priming effect, while procedural learning is demonstrated when this improvement is also observed for new words. Following Masson (1986), the hypothesis tested in the present study was that improved reading of new words could also be due to a repetition priming effect rather than to the acquisition of a mirror-reading skill. Indeed, because the same letters are presented throughout the task, a repetition priming effect for the letters could suffice to explain the improvement in performance. To test this hypothesis, we administered to 30 healthy young and elderly subjects and to 30 AD patients a new mirror-reading task in two phases: an acquisition phase comprising pseudo-words constructed with one part of the alphabet, and a test phase in which both pseudo-words constructed with the same part of the alphabet and pseudo-words constructed with another part of the alphabet were presented. If the new pseudo-words composed with repeated letters were read faster, it would reflect a repetition priming effect; if pseudo-words composed of ‘new’ letters were read faster, it would reflect a procedural learning effect. The results show comparable repetition priming effects in AD patients and in healthy elderly subjects, whereas only healthy subjects showed a procedural learning effect. These results suggest, contrary to previous studies, that the learning of a new perceptual skill may not always be preserved in AD. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 46 (10 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailExploration of perceptual and motor inhibition in children with traumatic brain injury
Catale, Corinne ULg; Germain, Sophie ULg; Meulemans, Thierry ULg

in Perceptual & Motor Skills (2011), 113(3), 1-13

Perceptual and motor inhibition were examined using conflict resolution tasks for 12 children with traumatic brain injury and 24 matched controls. Direct comparisons of inhibition performances between the ... [more ▼]

Perceptual and motor inhibition were examined using conflict resolution tasks for 12 children with traumatic brain injury and 24 matched controls. Direct comparisons of inhibition performances between the two groups showed a specific and disproportionate impairment of motor inhibition (compared with perceptual inhibition) for the children with traumatic brain injury, which suggests that inhibition processes might be differentially impaired in children after traumatic brain injury. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 26 (4 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailOrganisation factorielle et évaluation des fonctions exécutives chez l’enfant en âge préscolaire et scolaire
Catale, Corinne ULg; Meulemans, Thierry ULg

in ANAE : Approche Neuropsychologique des Apprentissages chez l'Enfant (2011), 112-113

This paper aims to [1] review the main studies that have examined the factorial organization of executive functions, and particularly those relative to inhibition, flexibility, and working memory during ... [more ▼]

This paper aims to [1] review the main studies that have examined the factorial organization of executive functions, and particularly those relative to inhibition, flexibility, and working memory during early and middle childhood, and [2] present the executive tools that are mainly used in clinical settings with children. Most of the studies have shown evidence of a fractionation of executive functions in childhood. Moreover, some of these studies suggest a progressive and specific differentiation of these processes during development. Specific and adequate tools are therefore necessary to assess executive processes in clinical settings. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 155 (28 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailIs there a generalized procedural deficit in children with Specific Language Impairment?
Gabriel, Audrey ULg; Maillart, Christelle ULg; Guillaume, Mélody et al

Poster (2010, July 08)

Previous studies (Lum et al., 2009; Tomblin et al., 2007; Ullman & Pierpont, 2005) have suggested that difficulties in the procedural learning system could contribute, in part, to the language ... [more ▼]

Previous studies (Lum et al., 2009; Tomblin et al., 2007; Ullman & Pierpont, 2005) have suggested that difficulties in the procedural learning system could contribute, in part, to the language difficulties observed in children with SLI. However, we have recently shown, with an adapted serial reaction time (SRT) task, that children with SLI are able to learn implicitly non-linguistic regularities (Gabriel et al., submitted). In this research, we wanted to determine whether children with SLI are able to learn an 8-elements probabilistic sequence into which irregularities are inserted. Assessing probabilistic sequence learning in children with SLI should help us to better circumscribe the language difficulties of these children [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 179 (14 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailUnimpaired Implicit Learning abilities in Children with Specific Language Impairment.
Gabriel, Audrey ULg; Fauconnier, Leslie; Meulemans, Thierry ULg et al

Poster (2010, June 26)

Previous studies (Lum et al., 2009; Tomblin et al., 2007; Ullman & Pierpont, 2005) have suggested that difficulties in the procedural learning system could contribute, in part, to the language ... [more ▼]

Previous studies (Lum et al., 2009; Tomblin et al., 2007; Ullman & Pierpont, 2005) have suggested that difficulties in the procedural learning system could contribute, in part, to the language difficulties observed in children with SLI. However, we have recently shown, with a classical serial reaction time (SRT) task, that children with SLI are able to learn implicitly non-linguistic statistical regularities (Gabriel et al., 2010). The aim of the present study was to explore whether children with SLI could learn similar statistical regularities with non-linguistic auditory stimuli. For this purpose, we compared performance of children with SLI and controls in two adapted SRT tasks: a visual SRT task and a non-verbal auditory SRT task. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 232 (12 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailWhat is the impact of the sequence structure on implicit learning in children?
Lejeune, Caroline ULg; Schmitz, Xavier ULg; Lempereur, Stéphanie et al

Poster (2010, May 28)

It is generally admitted that implicit learning abilities are efficient early in childhood. However, few studies have explored the impact of the structure of the sequence on children’s performance in ... [more ▼]

It is generally admitted that implicit learning abilities are efficient early in childhood. However, few studies have explored the impact of the structure of the sequence on children’s performance in implicit learning tasks. The current research was intended to examine sequence learning abilities in children by comparing sequences of different structural characteristics. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 161 (34 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailSemantic Hyperpriming in Normal Aging: A Consequence of Instructions?
Stefaniak, Nicolas ULg; Meulemans, Thierry ULg; Willems, Sylvie ULg

in Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition (2010), 17(5), 615-632

Semantic hyperpriming has consistently been found in normal aging. However, <br />because the standard instructions to test semantic priming are generally ambiguous <br />(focusing on both accuracy and ... [more ▼]

Semantic hyperpriming has consistently been found in normal aging. However, <br />because the standard instructions to test semantic priming are generally ambiguous <br />(focusing on both accuracy and speed), it is difficult to account for hyperpriming in <br />older adults. By using the direct and mediated priming paradigms, this study investigates <br />whether older adults’ response mode at testing may explain hyperpriming. First, we <br />show that, under identical conditions, inducing a response mode that favors speed leads <br />to greater priming effects in older adults. The pattern of results is similar to what is <br />observed under standard instructions. Second, prompting a response mode that favors <br />accuracy leads to greater priming effects in younger adults. We discuss various explanations <br />for these findings and conclude, in accordance with the Ratcliff, Thapar, <br />Gomez, and McKoon (2004a) diffusion model, that hyperpriming in normal aging is <br />contingent on older adults’ response mode at testing. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 58 (7 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailExploration of perceptual and motor inhibition in children with traumatic brain injury
Catale, Corinne ULg; Lejeune, Caroline ULg; Meulemans, Thierry ULg

Poster (2010)

Inhibitory control, which is commonly considered as one of the essential components of executive functions (Barkley, 1997; Miyake et al., 2000), is not considered as an unitary construct (for example ... [more ▼]

Inhibitory control, which is commonly considered as one of the essential components of executive functions (Barkley, 1997; Miyake et al., 2000), is not considered as an unitary construct (for example, Friedman & Miyake, 2004; Nassauer & Halperin, 2003). In this study, perceptual and motor inhibition were studied in 12 children who had sustained a moderate to severe traumatic brain injury and in 24 matched control children, with the Conflict Resolution task (Nassauer & Halperin, 2003). The perceptual inhibition task required the children to respond to the direction of an arrow while ignoring the conflicting arrow location. In the motor inhibition task, the subject had to press a key corresponding to the opposite direction of a centrally located arrow. Direct comparisons of inhibition performances between traumatic brain injury children and matched controlled subjects showed a specific and disproportionate impairment for motor inhibition (compared to perceptive inhibition) in the traumatic brain injury children, suggesting that inhibition processes might be differentially impaired after traumatic brain injury in children. Interestingly, impairments in behavioural inhibition in day-to-day activities (as reported by the parents), was found to strongly correlate with both types of inhibition. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 19 (0 ULg)