References of "Meulemans, Thierry"
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See detailDevelopment and organization of executive functions in 4-to 11 year-old children: A factor study.
Catale, Corinne ULg; Collette, Fabienne ULg; Lejeune, Caroline ULg et al

in Books of Abstract: Annual Meeting of the Belgian Association for Psychological Science (2011)

Executive functioning (EF) is an umbrella term used to refer to the higher-order cognitive processes whose principal function is to facilitate the adaptation of an individual to new and non-routine ... [more ▼]

Executive functioning (EF) is an umbrella term used to refer to the higher-order cognitive processes whose principal function is to facilitate the adaptation of an individual to new and non-routine situations. In the present study, inhibition, mental flexibility, and working memory were assessed through 6 executive tasks administered to 329 children aged from 4 to 11 years, in order to examine the development and organization of executive functioning in both early and middle childhood. Results reveal specific developmental trends for each component, with a period of rapid general development during the preschool period. Confirmatory factor analyses were used to examine the organization of EF in our sample. First, the poorness of fit of the unitary model was found for both groups, confirming the fractionated nature of EF in preschoolers as well as in older children. Second, the analyses confirmed the adequacy of the fit of the three-dimensional model (i.e., inhibition, flexibility, and working memory), while also indicating that other specific two-dimensional models gave reasonable fits to the data from both age groups. The factor structure obtained supports both the unitary and diversity nature of the executive organisation during early and middle childhood. Furthermore, our data suggest a progressive differentiation of executive processes (in particular flexibility and working memory) in the course of development. [less ▲]

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See detailLearning a motor skill: Effects of Blocked vs. Random Practice. A review
Merbah, Sarah ULg; Meulemans, Thierry ULg

in Psychologica Belgica (2011), 51(1), 15-48

Procedural learning refers to the ability to learn new perceptual, motor or cognitive skills. While many studies have explored procedural learning abilities in patients with different types of brain ... [more ▼]

Procedural learning refers to the ability to learn new perceptual, motor or cognitive skills. While many studies have explored procedural learning abilities in patients with different types of brain damage, the cognitive mechanisms involved in the acquisition of a new skill are still not well understood. The present review focuses on the conditions that optimize skill acquisition, and more specifically on the contextual interference effect (CIE), which refers to the advantage of a ‘random’ over a ‘blocked’ practice condition in skill learning tasks. According to both the ‘elaboration’ and ‘reconstruction’ hypotheses, the CIE can be explained by the fact that the random schedule requires more cognitive activity than the blocked one. However, if the CIE has been consistently demonstrated in laboratory studies, it is not so clear in fieldbased studies. We discuss this ‘laboratory and field dilemma’, and suggest that two main factors – task complexity and individual variables – may explain the discrepancy between the two types of studies. [less ▲]

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See detailSensibilité et spécificité du CHildhood EXecutive functioning Inventory (CHEXI) chez des enfants avec troubles attentionnels
Catale, Corinne ULg; Lejeune, Caroline ULg; Merbah, Sarah ULg et al

in ANAE : Approche Neuropsychologique des Apprentissages chez l'Enfant (2011), 115

Thorell and Nyberg (2008) have recently developed the Childhood Executive Functioning Inventory (CHEXI), a new rating inventory of executive functioning for children that can be divided into four a priori ... [more ▼]

Thorell and Nyberg (2008) have recently developed the Childhood Executive Functioning Inventory (CHEXI), a new rating inventory of executive functioning for children that can be divided into four a priori subscales: working memory, planning, inhibition, and regulation The major goals of our study is to present a French adaptation of this questionnaire and to discuss its clinical interests in terms of sensibility and specificity with children with attentional deficits. [less ▲]

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See detailLearning a motor skill: Effects of blocked versus random practice. A review
Merbah, Sarah ULg; Meulemans, Thierry ULg

in Psychologica Belgica (2011), 51

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See detailImpaired Acquisition Of A Mirror-Reading Skill In Alzheimer’s Disease
Merbah, Sarah ULg; Salmon, Eric ULg; Meulemans, Thierry ULg

in Cortex : A Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System & Behavior (2011), 47

Several studies using the mirror-reading paradigm have shown that procedural learning and repetition priming may be preserved in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) (e.g., Deweer et al., 1994 ... [more ▼]

Several studies using the mirror-reading paradigm have shown that procedural learning and repetition priming may be preserved in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) (e.g., Deweer et al., 1994). According to the classical interpretation, improved reading time for repeated words is sustained by a repetition priming effect, while procedural learning is demonstrated when this improvement is also observed for new words. Following Masson (1986), the hypothesis tested in the present study was that improved reading of new words could also be due to a repetition priming effect rather than to the acquisition of a mirror-reading skill. Indeed, because the same letters are presented throughout the task, a repetition priming effect for the letters could suffice to explain the improvement in performance. To test this hypothesis, we administered to 30 healthy young and elderly subjects and to 30 AD patients a new mirror-reading task in two phases: an acquisition phase comprising pseudo-words constructed with one part of the alphabet, and a test phase in which both pseudo-words constructed with the same part of the alphabet and pseudo-words constructed with another part of the alphabet were presented. If the new pseudo-words composed with repeated letters were read faster, it would reflect a repetition priming effect; if pseudo-words composed of ‘new’ letters were read faster, it would reflect a procedural learning effect. The results show comparable repetition priming effects in AD patients and in healthy elderly subjects, whereas only healthy subjects showed a procedural learning effect. These results suggest, contrary to previous studies, that the learning of a new perceptual skill may not always be preserved in AD. [less ▲]

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See detailExploration of perceptual and motor inhibition in children with traumatic brain injury
Catale, Corinne ULg; Germain, Sophie ULg; Meulemans, Thierry ULg

in Perceptual & Motor Skills (2011), 113(3), 1-13

Perceptual and motor inhibition were examined using conflict resolution tasks for 12 children with traumatic brain injury and 24 matched controls. Direct comparisons of inhibition performances between the ... [more ▼]

Perceptual and motor inhibition were examined using conflict resolution tasks for 12 children with traumatic brain injury and 24 matched controls. Direct comparisons of inhibition performances between the two groups showed a specific and disproportionate impairment of motor inhibition (compared with perceptual inhibition) for the children with traumatic brain injury, which suggests that inhibition processes might be differentially impaired in children after traumatic brain injury. [less ▲]

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See detailOrganisation factorielle et évaluation des fonctions exécutives chez l’enfant en âge préscolaire et scolaire
Catale, Corinne ULg; Meulemans, Thierry ULg

in ANAE : Approche Neuropsychologique des Apprentissages chez l'Enfant (2011), 112-113

This paper aims to [1] review the main studies that have examined the factorial organization of executive functions, and particularly those relative to inhibition, flexibility, and working memory during ... [more ▼]

This paper aims to [1] review the main studies that have examined the factorial organization of executive functions, and particularly those relative to inhibition, flexibility, and working memory during early and middle childhood, and [2] present the executive tools that are mainly used in clinical settings with children. Most of the studies have shown evidence of a fractionation of executive functions in childhood. Moreover, some of these studies suggest a progressive and specific differentiation of these processes during development. Specific and adequate tools are therefore necessary to assess executive processes in clinical settings. [less ▲]

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See detailIs there a generalized procedural deficit in children with Specific Language Impairment?
Gabriel, Audrey ULg; Maillart, Christelle ULg; Guillaume, Mélody et al

Poster (2010, July 08)

Previous studies (Lum et al., 2009; Tomblin et al., 2007; Ullman & Pierpont, 2005) have suggested that difficulties in the procedural learning system could contribute, in part, to the language ... [more ▼]

Previous studies (Lum et al., 2009; Tomblin et al., 2007; Ullman & Pierpont, 2005) have suggested that difficulties in the procedural learning system could contribute, in part, to the language difficulties observed in children with SLI. However, we have recently shown, with an adapted serial reaction time (SRT) task, that children with SLI are able to learn implicitly non-linguistic regularities (Gabriel et al., submitted). In this research, we wanted to determine whether children with SLI are able to learn an 8-elements probabilistic sequence into which irregularities are inserted. Assessing probabilistic sequence learning in children with SLI should help us to better circumscribe the language difficulties of these children [less ▲]

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See detailUnimpaired Implicit Learning abilities in Children with Specific Language Impairment.
Gabriel, Audrey ULg; Fauconnier, Leslie; Meulemans, Thierry ULg et al

Poster (2010, June 26)

Previous studies (Lum et al., 2009; Tomblin et al., 2007; Ullman & Pierpont, 2005) have suggested that difficulties in the procedural learning system could contribute, in part, to the language ... [more ▼]

Previous studies (Lum et al., 2009; Tomblin et al., 2007; Ullman & Pierpont, 2005) have suggested that difficulties in the procedural learning system could contribute, in part, to the language difficulties observed in children with SLI. However, we have recently shown, with a classical serial reaction time (SRT) task, that children with SLI are able to learn implicitly non-linguistic statistical regularities (Gabriel et al., 2010). The aim of the present study was to explore whether children with SLI could learn similar statistical regularities with non-linguistic auditory stimuli. For this purpose, we compared performance of children with SLI and controls in two adapted SRT tasks: a visual SRT task and a non-verbal auditory SRT task. [less ▲]

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See detailWhat is the impact of the sequence structure on implicit learning in children?
Lejeune, Caroline ULg; Schmitz, Xavier ULg; Lempereur, Stéphanie et al

Poster (2010, May 28)

It is generally admitted that implicit learning abilities are efficient early in childhood. However, few studies have explored the impact of the structure of the sequence on children’s performance in ... [more ▼]

It is generally admitted that implicit learning abilities are efficient early in childhood. However, few studies have explored the impact of the structure of the sequence on children’s performance in implicit learning tasks. The current research was intended to examine sequence learning abilities in children by comparing sequences of different structural characteristics. [less ▲]

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See detailSemantic Hyperpriming in Normal Aging: A Consequence of Instructions?
Stefaniak, Nicolas ULg; Meulemans, Thierry ULg; Willems, Sylvie ULg

in Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition (2010), 17(5), 615-632

Semantic hyperpriming has consistently been found in normal aging. However, <br />because the standard instructions to test semantic priming are generally ambiguous <br />(focusing on both accuracy and ... [more ▼]

Semantic hyperpriming has consistently been found in normal aging. However, <br />because the standard instructions to test semantic priming are generally ambiguous <br />(focusing on both accuracy and speed), it is difficult to account for hyperpriming in <br />older adults. By using the direct and mediated priming paradigms, this study investigates <br />whether older adults’ response mode at testing may explain hyperpriming. First, we <br />show that, under identical conditions, inducing a response mode that favors speed leads <br />to greater priming effects in older adults. The pattern of results is similar to what is <br />observed under standard instructions. Second, prompting a response mode that favors <br />accuracy leads to greater priming effects in younger adults. We discuss various explanations <br />for these findings and conclude, in accordance with the Ratcliff, Thapar, <br />Gomez, and McKoon (2004a) diffusion model, that hyperpriming in normal aging is <br />contingent on older adults’ response mode at testing. [less ▲]

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See detailExploration of perceptual and motor inhibition in children with traumatic brain injury
Catale, Corinne ULg; Lejeune, Caroline ULg; Meulemans, Thierry ULg

Poster (2010)

Inhibitory control, which is commonly considered as one of the essential components of executive functions (Barkley, 1997; Miyake et al., 2000), is not considered as an unitary construct (for example ... [more ▼]

Inhibitory control, which is commonly considered as one of the essential components of executive functions (Barkley, 1997; Miyake et al., 2000), is not considered as an unitary construct (for example, Friedman & Miyake, 2004; Nassauer & Halperin, 2003). In this study, perceptual and motor inhibition were studied in 12 children who had sustained a moderate to severe traumatic brain injury and in 24 matched control children, with the Conflict Resolution task (Nassauer & Halperin, 2003). The perceptual inhibition task required the children to respond to the direction of an arrow while ignoring the conflicting arrow location. In the motor inhibition task, the subject had to press a key corresponding to the opposite direction of a centrally located arrow. Direct comparisons of inhibition performances between traumatic brain injury children and matched controlled subjects showed a specific and disproportionate impairment for motor inhibition (compared to perceptive inhibition) in the traumatic brain injury children, suggesting that inhibition processes might be differentially impaired after traumatic brain injury in children. Interestingly, impairments in behavioural inhibition in day-to-day activities (as reported by the parents), was found to strongly correlate with both types of inhibition. [less ▲]

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See detailThe impact of culture on cognitive performance in neuropsychological tests.
Schmitz, Xavier ULg; Mardaga, Julie; Meulemans, Thierry ULg

Poster (2009, September 17)

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See detailChildren with specific language impairment are impaired on implicit higher-order sequence learning, but not on implicit spatial context learning.
Gabriel, Audrey ULg; Schmitz, Xavier; Maillart, Christelle ULg et al

Poster (2009, June 05)

In a recent review of the SLI literature it has been suggested that low language and grammatical abilities would be directly associated with poor learning abilities of nonverbal sequences (Ullman ... [more ▼]

In a recent review of the SLI literature it has been suggested that low language and grammatical abilities would be directly associated with poor learning abilities of nonverbal sequences (Ullman & Pierpont, 2005; Tomblin et al., 2007). Therefore, one could hypothesize that a general purpose sequential pattern tracker could determine some aspects of language and grammar learning. In the present study, 15 children with SLI and 15 matched control children were compared on two implicit learning tasks: an alternating serial response time task in which sequential dependencies exist across non-adjacent elements, and a spatial context learning task in which the global configuration of a display cues the location of a searched target (Chun & Jiang, 1998). We predict that children with SLI will show impaired sequence learning and normal spatial context learning. By confirming the presence of a specific deficit in sequential learning processes, the present study should contribute to better understand the language abilities, and in particular the grammatical difficulties, of individuals with specific language impairment. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of time of day on age-related differences in cognitive tests.
Schmitz, Xavier ULg; Willems, Sylvie ULg; Meulemans, Thierry ULg

Poster (2009, June 03)

Previous studies have shown a shift in the circadian rhythm – and more particularly in the optimal time of day (OTD) – across the adult life span (May et al., 1993). The aim of this study was to ... [more ▼]

Previous studies have shown a shift in the circadian rhythm – and more particularly in the optimal time of day (OTD) – across the adult life span (May et al., 1993). The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between cognitive efficiency and OTD in 113 healthy old adults (Age: M = 69, SD = 6.1, Range = 60-80) and 175 younger adults (M = 40.8, SD = 12.9, Range = 20-59). Participants performed a large battery of cognitive tests that assessed episodic memory, working memory, executive and attentional functions. Results on the MEQ (Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire; Horne & Östberg, 1976) confirmed the age-related shift toward a self-reported morning preference in older adults. Second, the categorization of participants according to their MEQ scores and the time of testing revealed that the OTD has a greater impact upon cognitive performance in older than in younger adults. Third, the age-related OTD impact was more striking in working memory (Brown-Peterson and Pasat) and episodic memory tasks (Buschke) than in other aspects of the cognitive functioning. In conclusion, older participants tested during their peak circadian periods tend to show greater performance on memory tasks that require careful or strategic processing relative to older participants who are tested at off-peak times of day. Taken together, these findings indicate that care must be taken when investigators are considering the effects of age on effortful memory tasks, which are particularly modulated by OTD in older adults. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation des troubles de la mémoire et de l'attention dans le cadre de l'examen neuropsychologiques
Catale, Corinne ULg; Meulemans, Thierry ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2009)

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See detailFonctions attentionnelles et exécutives dans la dyspraxie développementale
Lejeune, Caroline ULg; Catale, Corinne ULg; Meulemans, Thierry ULg

Conference (2009)

La dyspraxie développementale se manifeste principalement par des difficultés motrices qui interfèrent avec différentes situations de la vie quotidienne (écriture, dessin, habillage, …). Ces troubles du ... [more ▼]

La dyspraxie développementale se manifeste principalement par des difficultés motrices qui interfèrent avec différentes situations de la vie quotidienne (écriture, dessin, habillage, …). Ces troubles du geste, qui touchent environ 6 % des enfants de 5 à 11 ans, entraînent de lourdes conséquences sur les plans familial, scolaire et social. Plusieurs études ont montré qu’un déficit des capacités d’inhibition, de planification et de mémoire de travail était fréquemment observé chez les enfants souffrant de dyspraxie. Toutefois, en raison des nombreux problèmes méthodologiques rencontrés dans ces recherches (et plus particulièrement liés à l’absence de contrôle de la présence ou non du trouble de l’attention avec/sans hyperactivité – TDA/H - chez la population d’enfants dyspraxiques), les relations entre les troubles attentionnels et les troubles moteurs restent encore à l’heure actuelle mal comprises. L’objectif de cette étude vise à dégager, au travers d’une évaluation du fonctionnement attentionnel et exécutif, le profil neuropsychologique d’enfants diagnostiqués dyspraxiques, et ce en contrôlant la présence d’un TDA/H. Nous avons administré à 23 enfants dyspraxiques âgés de 6 à 12 ans et 23 enfants de contrôle (appariés sur base de l’âge, du sexe et du niveau d’études des parents) des tâches attentionnelles (alerte, attention sélective et divisée) de la batterie TEA et des épreuves exécutives (inhibition [Stroop et Go/No Go], flexibilité cognitive [TEA], mémoire de travail [BTT et mise à jour de TEA] et planification [Tour de Londres]). Les analyses de comparaison de moyennes indiquent que les enfants dyspraxiques présentent des performances inférieures à celles des enfants de contrôle pour l’essentiel des tests neuropsychologiques administrés. Toutefois, deux tiers des enfants dyspraxiques de notre échantillon présentent un trouble de l’attention (critères du DSM-IV). L’analyse des résultats au sein du groupe « dyspraxique sans TDA », permet de montrer que les difficultés de planification, d’attention sélective visuelle, d’inhibition motrice, de mémoire à court terme (BTT et mise à jour) sont spécifiques à la dyspraxie et donc indépendant de la présence d’un trouble de l’attention. En conclusion, cette étude préliminaire montre qu’une grande proportion d’enfants qui présentent une dyspraxie souffre également d’un trouble de l’attention. L’analyse du profil des enfants dyspraxiques montre des difficultés qui touchent l’ensemble des fonctions attentionnelles et exécutives. Toutefois, les difficultés d’analyse visuelle, de planification et de mémoire de travail semblent, quant à elles, spécifiques à la dyspraxie développementale. Des études futures réalisées sur un plus grand nombre de participants permettraient de confirmer cette hypothèse. [less ▲]

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See detailParental socio-educational influence on executive measures and socio-adaptative behaviours in preschooler
Catale, Corinne ULg; Schmitz, Xavier ULg; Lejeune, Caroline ULg et al

in Books of Conference Abstract: The10th European Conference on Psychological Assessment, (2009)

The influence of educational variables on cognitive development, and particularly on the development of executive functions, remains poorly understood. In this study, we examined the parental socio ... [more ▼]

The influence of educational variables on cognitive development, and particularly on the development of executive functions, remains poorly understood. In this study, we examined the parental socio-educational influence on both executive functioning and social/emotional behaviours in preschoolers. We administered to 77 children (2 age groups: 4 and 5-year-old) divided into two educational levels (HL vs. LL, i.e. High Level vs. Low Level of parental socio-educational status) several tasks measuring different aspects of the executive functioning (cognitive flexibility, inhibition, logico-deductive reasoning, and working memory). Questionnaires were also completed by the teaching staff in order to assess the children’s social (e.g., loneliness), emotional (e.g., anxiety), and adaptative (e.g., tolerance) behaviours at school. Results reveal that children from high socio-educational status performed significantly better on some specific verbal (fluency, verbal reasoning) and non-verbal executive tasks (deductive reasoning, inhibition) than children from lower socio-educational status (ps<.05). On the other hand, no significant socio-educational effect was found for working memory and cognitive flexibility. Regarding their social, emotional, and adaptative behaviours, LL children did not significantly differ from HL children, except for the anxiety scale, in which LL children were described as less confident than their HL peers. So, our results confirm that educational variables can significantly influence the development of specific executive functions, and that this can already be observed in preschool children. On the contrary, regarding the socio-adaptative behaviours, our results indicate that the parental socio-educational status does not seem to have a significant influence on the preschoolers’ behaviour at school. [less ▲]

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