References of "Meulemans, Thierry"
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See detailWhat can unilateral neglect tell us about the structure of visuospatial working memory?
Wansard, Murielle ULg; Meulemans, Thierry ULg

Conference (2015, May 28)

Some studies have proposed that deficits in visuospatial working memory (WM) could exacerbate the neglect syndrome, as reflected in the patients’ tendency to repeatedly search through items located on the ... [more ▼]

Some studies have proposed that deficits in visuospatial working memory (WM) could exacerbate the neglect syndrome, as reflected in the patients’ tendency to repeatedly search through items located on the right, as if they did not realize that they had previously examined the rightward locations favoured by their lateral attentional bias (e.g., Husain et al., 2001). However, we have recently shown that the efficiency level of spatial WM, as evaluated by the Corsi Block test, might not be sufficient to explain perseveration and omission behaviors in neglect patients (Wansard et al., 2014). Moreover, it appears that, until now, research has mostly focused on spatial sequential WM, addressing the study of visuospatial WM through tasks involving the recall of serial order. We will present data suggesting that other subcomponents of visuospatial WM, such as simultaneous-spatial or visual WM (Logie, 1995), could also be involved in the neglect syndrome. We will also present evidence of a double dissociation between the two aspects of visuospatial WM (simultaneous vs sequential) in neglect patients, confirming the dual dimension of visuospatial WM (Wansard et al., 2015). [less ▲]

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See detailCan the exploration of left space be induced implicitly in unilateral neglect?
Wansard, Murielle ULg; Bartolomeo, Paolo; Vanderaspoilden, Valérie et al

Poster (2015, March)

The purpose of the present study was to explore the ability of neglect patients to detect and exploit the predictive value of a cue to respond more quickly and accurately to targets on their ... [more ▼]

The purpose of the present study was to explore the ability of neglect patients to detect and exploit the predictive value of a cue to respond more quickly and accurately to targets on their contralesional side in a Posner spatial cueing task. The majority of the cues (i.e. 80%) were invalid, indicating that the target would appear on the opposite side, although patients were not informed of this bias. Our results demonstrate that some neglect patients were able to extract the cue’s predictability and use it to orient faster toward the left. This cueing effect was present even in patients who were subsequently unable to describe the predictive character of the cues, and thus was not modulated by reportable awareness of the cue-target relation. [less ▲]

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See detailCan the exploration of left space be induced implicitly in unilateral neglect?
Wansard, Murielle ULg; Bartolomeo, Paolo; Geurten, Marie ULg et al

in Consciousness & Cognition (2015), 31

The purpose of the present study was to explore the ability of neglect patients to detect and exploit the predictive value of a cue to respond more quickly and accurately to targets on their ... [more ▼]

The purpose of the present study was to explore the ability of neglect patients to detect and exploit the predictive value of a cue to respond more quickly and accurately to targets on their contralesional side in a Posner spatial cueing task. The majority of the cues (i.e. 80%) were invalid, indicating that the target would appear on the opposite side, although patients were not informed of this bias. Our results demonstrate that some neglect patients were able to extract the cue’s predictability and use it to orient faster toward the left. This cueing effect was present even in patients who were subsequently unable to describe the predictive character of the cues, and thus was not modulated by reportable awareness of the cue-target relation. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Childhood Executive Function Inventory (CHEXI): Confirmatory Factor Analyses and Cross-Cultural Clinical Validity in a Sample of 8- to 11-Year-Old Children
Catale, Corinne ULg; Meulemans, Thierry ULg; Thorell, Lisa B.

in Journal of Attention Disorders (2015)

The Childhood Executive Functioning Inventory (CHEXI) is a new rating instrument for executive functioning developed by Thorell and Nyberg (2008). Through exploratory factor analyses, this inventory has ... [more ▼]

The Childhood Executive Functioning Inventory (CHEXI) is a new rating instrument for executive functioning developed by Thorell and Nyberg (2008). Through exploratory factor analyses, this inventory has been shown to tap into working memory and inhibition-related behaviors in young children. In this study, we present the psychometric characteristics of the French adaptation of the CHEXI in 8- to 11-year-old children. In addition, we explore the cross-cultural validity of the CHEXI in discriminating between children with ADHD and normally developing children in two culturally different samples (Belgian and Swedish). Confirmatory factor analyses replicated the two-factor solution, referred to as inhibition and working memory, that was identified in the original study with Swedish children. Supplementary analyses indicated that both subscales have good psychometric properties. From a clinical point of view, the CHEXI was found to discriminate, with high sensitivity and specificity, between children with ADHD and normally developing controls in both cultural samples. Cross-cultural clinical implications are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailLess is more: The availability heuristic in early childhood
Geurten, Marie ULg; Willems, Sylvie ULg; Germain, Sophie ULg et al

in British Journal of Developmental Psychology (2015), 33(4), 405-410

This study examined whether young children are influenced by the subjective experience associated with an easy or difficult recall when making memory decisions. Seventy-one children, aged 4, 6, and 8 ... [more ▼]

This study examined whether young children are influenced by the subjective experience associated with an easy or difficult recall when making memory decisions. Seventy-one children, aged 4, 6, and 8 years, were asked to generate either a small (easy condition) or large (hard condition) number of first names. Statistical analyses revealed that participants in the hard condition were more likely to infer that they did not know many names than participants in the easy condition, contrary to what would be expected if children based their memory judgement on the objective number of recalled items. Overall, our results support the hypothesis that children as young as 4 years old rely on the subjective experience of ease to regulate their decision-making processes. Theoretical implications of these findings are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailMemorability in context: An heuristic story
Geurten, Marie ULg; Meulemans, Thierry ULg; Willems, Sylvie ULg

in Experimental Psychology (2015), 62(5), 306-319

We examined children’s ability to employ a metacognitive heuristic based on memorability expectations to reduce false recognitions, and explored whether these expectations depend on the context in which ... [more ▼]

We examined children’s ability to employ a metacognitive heuristic based on memorability expectations to reduce false recognitions, and explored whether these expectations depend on the context in which the items are presented. Specifically, 4-, 6-, and 9-year-old children were presented with high-, medium-, and low-memorability words, either mixed together (Experiment 1) or separated into two different lists (Experiment 2). Results revealed that only children with a higher level of executive functioning (9-year-olds) used the memorability-based heuristic when all types of items were presented within the same list. However, all children, regardless of age or executive level, implemented the metacognitive rule when high- and low-memorability words were presented in two separate lists. Moreover, the results of Experiment 2 showed that participants processed medium-memorability words more conservatively when they were presented in a low- than in a high-memorability list, suggesting that children’s memorability expectations are sensitive to list-context effects. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Influence of Context on Children’s Use of the Memorability Heuristic
Geurten, Marie ULg; Meulemans, Thierry ULg; Willems, Sylvie ULg

Poster (2015)

We examined children’s ability to employ a metacognitive heuristic based on memorability expectations to reduce false recognitions, and explored whether these expectations depend on the context in which ... [more ▼]

We examined children’s ability to employ a metacognitive heuristic based on memorability expectations to reduce false recognitions, and explored whether these expectations depend on the context in which the items are presented. Specifically, 4-, 6-, and 9-year-old children were presented with high-, medium-, and low-memorability words, either mixed together (Experiment 1) or separated into two different lists (Experiment 2). Results revealed that only children with a higher level of executive functioning (9-year-olds) used the memorability-based heuristic when all types of items were presented within the same list. However, all children, regardless of age or executive level, implemented the metacognitive rule when high- and low-memorability words were presented in two separate lists. Moreover, the results of Experiment 2 showed that participants processed medium-memorability words more conservatively when they were presented in a low- than in a high-memorability list, suggesting that children’s memorability expectations are sensitive to list-context effects. [less ▲]

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See detailWhen Children’s Knowledge of Memory Improves Children’s Performance in Memory
Geurten, Marie ULg; Catale, Corinne ULg; Meulemans, Thierry ULg

in Applied Cognitive Psychology (2015), 29

One of the strongest hypotheses in the field of metacognition research involves the positive effect of metamemory on memory performance. However, due to the lack of appropriate instruments to appraise ... [more ▼]

One of the strongest hypotheses in the field of metacognition research involves the positive effect of metamemory on memory performance. However, due to the lack of appropriate instruments to appraise knowledge of memory, few studies have examined this effect among children. This study was conducted to create and validate an instrument to assess children’s metamemory knowledge and link this knowledge with their memory performance and strategy use. A sample of 166 children was given a new three-factor metamemory interview, and its psychometric properties were investigated. Regression analyses were carried out to investigate the link between metamemory and memory performance in a subgroup of 128 children from the validation study. Results confirmed the scale’s good psychometric properties and revealed its ability to predict children’s memory performance. However, none of the scale’s factors could predict children’s use of memory strategies. Implications for the study of children’s metamemory development are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailAre Children Conservative, Liberal or Metacognitive? Preliminary Evidence for the Involvement of the Distinctiveness Heuristic in Decision Making
Geurten, Marie ULg; Willems, Sylvie ULg; Meulemans, Thierry ULg

in Journal of Experimental Child Psychology (2015), 132

The present experiment investigates whether young children are able to reduce their false recognition rate after distinctive encoding by implementing a strategic metacognitive rule. Seventy-two children ... [more ▼]

The present experiment investigates whether young children are able to reduce their false recognition rate after distinctive encoding by implementing a strategic metacognitive rule. Seventy-two children, aged 4, 6, and 9 years, studied two lists of unrelated items. One of these lists was visually displayed (picture condition) while the other was presented auditorily (word condition). After each study phase, participants completed recognition tests. Finally, they answered questions about their explicit knowledge of the distinctive-encoding effect. The results revealed that even the youngest children in our sample showed a smaller proportion of intrusions in the picture condition than in the word condition. Furthermore, the results of the signal detection analyses were consistent with the hypothesis that the lower rate of false recognitions after picture encoding results from the implementation of a conservative response criterion based on metacognitive expectations (distinctiveness heuristic). Moreover, the absence of correlation between children’s explicit knowledge of the distinctiveness rule and their effective use of this metacognitive heuristic seems to indicate that its involvement in memory decisions could be mediated by implicit mechanisms. [less ▲]

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See detailLes difficultés d'apprentissage procédural chez les enfants dysphasiques
Desmottes, Lise ULg; Meulemans, Thierry ULg; Maillart, Christelle ULg

in ANAE : Approche Neuropsychologique des Apprentissages chez l'Enfant (2015)

Through a review of the literature, this paper shows that linguistic and non-linguistic disorders in children with specific language impairment might be linked to difficulties in procedural learning ... [more ▼]

Through a review of the literature, this paper shows that linguistic and non-linguistic disorders in children with specific language impairment might be linked to difficulties in procedural learning, especially regarding sequential abilities. Indeed, children with specific language impairment encounter difficulties to learn visuo-motor and linguistic sequences. These difficulties are not limited to initial learning but extend to the consolidation stage in long-term memory. Finally, recent studies show that it is possible to improve procedural learning abilities, suggesting new avenues for rehabilitation. [less ▲]

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See detailBeyond the Experience: Detection of Metamemorial Regularities
Geurten, Marie ULg; Willems, Sylvie ULg; Meulemans, Thierry ULg

in Consciousness & Cognition (2015), 33

We examined the mechanisms involved in the development of the easily learned, easily remembered (ELER) heuristic in three groups of young children (4–5 years, 6–7 years, and 8–9 years). A trial-to ... [more ▼]

We examined the mechanisms involved in the development of the easily learned, easily remembered (ELER) heuristic in three groups of young children (4–5 years, 6–7 years, and 8–9 years). A trial-to-acquisition procedure was used to evaluate how much these children’s judgment of learning depended on the ELER heuristic. Moreover, a new experimental paradigm, composed of six phases—a pretest, four training phases, and a posttest—was employed to implicitly influence the validity of the ELER association that underlies this metacognitive rule. Results revealed that the ELER heuristic develops early (4–5 years), but its use is reduced after implicit training. Furthermore, executive monitoring was found to account for the smaller changes observed in older children (8–9 years) after training. From a developmental perspective, these findings present a coherent picture of children’s learning of metacognitive heuristics, wherein early automatic and implicit learning is later followed by effortful control. [less ▲]

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See detailInvolvement of the Distinctiveness Heuristic in Children's Decision Making
Geurten, Marie ULg; Willems, Sylvie ULg; Meulemans, Thierry ULg

in International Convention of Psychological Science: ICPS, Amsterdam 2015 (2015)

Over the past decades, researchers studying adult metacognition have placed a heavy emphasis on how expectations and naïve theories about memory functioning can improve memory accuracy through the ... [more ▼]

Over the past decades, researchers studying adult metacognition have placed a heavy emphasis on how expectations and naïve theories about memory functioning can improve memory accuracy through the implementation of some metacognitive rules. By contrasts, however, research on metacognition in children has only recently started to pay attention to the influence of these heuristic-based judgments on decision making. Generally, the results of these studies indicate that memory decisions are already based on some heuristics by the ages of 7-8 years. Thus far, the question of whether younger children can do the same has widely gone unexamined. The present experiment investigates whether young children are able to reduce their false recognitions rate after distinctive encoding through the implementation of a strategic metacognitive rule. Specifically, we examine the use of a retrieval strategy called the distinctiveness heuristic whereby people infer that an event has not occurred when they cannot remember expected memorial information about it. Seventy-two children, aged 4, 6, and 9 years, studied two lists of unrelated items. One of these lists was visually displayed (picture/dictinctive condition) while the other was presented auditorily (word/no-distinctive condition). After each study phase, participants completed recognition tests. Finally, they answered questions about their explicit knowledge of the distinctive-encoding effect. The results revealed that even the youngest children in our sample showed a smaller proportion of intrusions in the picture condition than in the word condition. Furthermore, the findings of the signal detection analyses are consistent with the hypothesis that the lower rate of false recognitions after picture encoding results from the implementation of a conservative response criterion based on the participants’ metacognitive expectations (distinctiveness heuristic). Moreover, the absence of correlation between children’s explicit knowledge of the distinctiveness rule and their effective use of this metacognitive heuristic seems to indicate that its involvement in memory decisions could be mediated by implicit mechanisms. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of “diagnosis threat” in clinical setting
Fresson, Megan ULg; Dardenne, Benoît ULg; Meulemans, Thierry ULg

Poster (2014, November 14)

Objective. When reminded of their neurological history, mild traumatic brain injured (TBI) students underperform on neuropsychological tests (Suhr & Gunstad, 2002). To date, this “diagnosis threat” (DT ... [more ▼]

Objective. When reminded of their neurological history, mild traumatic brain injured (TBI) students underperform on neuropsychological tests (Suhr & Gunstad, 2002). To date, this “diagnosis threat” (DT) phenomenon has mainly been studied with a non-clinical and high-functioning population (university students). The aim of this study was twofold: to study this phenomenon with neurological patients and to examine the mechanisms responsible for underperformance. Method. Patients (18-55 years-old) who had sustained a TBI or a stroke were recruited from ambulatory and hospitalized cares, and then assigned to one of three conditions : Patients attention was drawn on (1) their neurological disease and the neuropsychological components of the upcoming tasks (DT group) ; (2) their intact sensory capacities and the sensorial components of the tasks (Neutral group); or (3) their better cognitive abilities compared to Alzheimer disease patients (Stereotype boost group). After these instructions, patients carried out cognitive tasks and completed questionnaires. Results. Preliminary analyses (n=18) showed that, on the z-score of executive functioning, the DT group performed worse than both the neutral group (p=.03) and the stereotype boost group (p=.05), but did not differ for the attentional and memory scores. Instructions also had an impact on cognitive self-efficacy, with the neutral group demonstrating greater score than the negative one (p=.08). Furthermore, the self-efficacy score tended to correlate with the score of executive functioning (r=.37). Conclusions. Results show that the DT phenomenon has an impact on cognitive performances in clinical setting, at least on executive functions, which are usually demonstrated to be the most sensitive to stereotype effects. [less ▲]

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See detailIs there a global procedural learning deficit in children with Specific Language Impairment ?
Desmottes, Lise ULg; Maillart, Christelle ULg; Lejoly, Kelly ULg et al

Poster (2014, November 13)

The study of procedural learning abilities in children with Specific Language Impairment (Procedural Deficit Hypothesis, PDH; Ullman & Pierpont, 2005) remains a relatively unexplored field of research ... [more ▼]

The study of procedural learning abilities in children with Specific Language Impairment (Procedural Deficit Hypothesis, PDH; Ullman & Pierpont, 2005) remains a relatively unexplored field of research. Since most evidence comes from studies using tasks which involve learning of sequenced patterns, research using other procedural learning paradigms (like motor adaptation tasks) is needed to further evaluate the PDH in children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Therefore, in this study, we examined the ability of children with and without SLI to learn, consolidate and generalize a mirror-tracing task, a paradigm that does not involve sequence learning and had never been used in SLI. Children with SLI and typical developing (TD) matched children participated in the study. Children with SLI were included if they scored below -1.25 SD of the expected normative performance in at least 2 language areas. Both groups had to trace ten 5-pointed stars seen only in mirror-reversed view in two learning sessions separated by a one-week delay. The transfer phase consisted in tracing a new figure. The time required to complete the tracing, and the number of errors committed were recorded. Full results will be presented and discussed during the presentation of the paper. [less ▲]

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See detailAutomatization of mirror - tracing skill in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder
Lejeune, Caroline ULg; Meulemans, Thierry ULg; Desmottes, Lise ULg et al

Poster (2014, September)

Aim: This study investigated the hypothesis of a skill automatization deficit in Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). Method: Thirty children (15 with DCD and 15 control children), aged between 7 ... [more ▼]

Aim: This study investigated the hypothesis of a skill automatization deficit in Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). Method: Thirty children (15 with DCD and 15 control children), aged between 7 and 12 years old, were administered the mirror-tracing task during two 10-trials sessions separated by one week. An auditory interference task was introduced at the end of the procedural learning phase to test skill automatization. Results: Interestingly, no between-group difference was revealed in learning and automatization measures except for a specific subgroup of DCD children (n=5) who experienced difficulties in skill automatization. Conclusion: The results of our preliminary study highlighted the heterogeneity of the deficit presented in DCD and they emphasized the importance to explore further the lack of automatization in DCD. [less ▲]

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See detailConstruction d’un référentiel de compétences pour la formation de psychologues
Peters, Stéphanie ULg; Meulemans, Thierry ULg; Maillart, Christelle ULg et al

Conference (2014, May 19)

L’élaboration de ce référentiel de compétences pour les psychologues répond à trois motivations principales, relevées lors de démarches d’évaluation de la qualité de notre enseignement : accompagner le ... [more ▼]

L’élaboration de ce référentiel de compétences pour les psychologues répond à trois motivations principales, relevées lors de démarches d’évaluation de la qualité de notre enseignement : accompagner le parcours identitaire et pédagogique des étudiants, faciliter le travail partenarial entre enseignants, et répondre aux obligations institutionnelles. Le modèle théorique qui a guidé la construction du référentiel est celui proposé par J. Tardif (2006). Il présente notamment comme avantages de préciser les situations professionnelles dans lesquelles sont mobilisées les compétences et leurs composantes, de définir des trajectoires de développement qui témoignent ainsi de la progression de l’étudiant dans son parcours de formation, et de lier les apprentissages à des domaines de ressources permettant donc de faire le lien avec les cours du programme. Pour construire ce référentiel, trois sources ont été mobilisées : (1) les pratiques des psychologues professionnels (Hansez, Côte & Mormont, 2008), (2) la littérature existante concernant les compétences des psychologues (Batram & Roe, 2005 ; Europsy, 2005 ; Tuning, s.d.) et les critères de qualité d’une formation universitaire en psychologie (APA, 2008, 2013 ; Mayo, 2008), et (3) l’expertise des enseignants du cursus. Cette communication présentera le référentiel, composé de cinq compétences. Elle s’arrêtera également sur deux points de discussion qui ont émergé lors de la construction de ce référentiel, et qui le colorent largement : (1) la maîtrise de savoirs théoriques et méthodologiques, et (2) l’importance de développer chez les étudiants des réflexes et outils d’analyse des enjeux et effets sociétaux des pratiques et des savoirs du psychologue. Les implications de ce référentiel dans la conception du parcours de formation seront annoncées. [less ▲]

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