Behavioral assessment and diagnosis of disorders of consciousness.
; Majerus, Steve
in Schnakers, C; LAUREYS, Steven (Eds.) Coma and disorders of consiousness (2012)Detailed reference viewed: 6 (0 ULg)
Au-delà de la boucle phonologique : Implications pour l'évaluation de la mémoire à court terme.
Scientific conference (2012)Detailed reference viewed: 10 (1 ULg)
Using the daydreaming frequency scale to investigate the relationships between mind-wandering, psychological well-being, and present-moment awareness
Stawarczyk, David ; Majerus, Steve ; Van der Linden, Martial et al
in Frontiers in Psychology (2012), 3
Recent findings have shown that mind-wandering – the occurrence of stimulusindependent and task-unrelated thoughts – is associated with negative affect and lower psychological well-being. However, it ... [more ▼]
Recent findings have shown that mind-wandering – the occurrence of stimulusindependent and task-unrelated thoughts – is associated with negative affect and lower psychological well-being. However, it remains unclear whether this relationship is due to the occurrence of mind-wandering per se or to the fact that people who mind wander more tend to be generally less attentive to present-moment experience. In three studies, we first validate a French translation of a retrospective self-report questionnaire widely used to assess the general occurrence of mind-wandering in daily life – the Daydreaming Frequency Scale. Using this questionnaire, we then show that the relationship between mind-wandering frequency and psychological distress is fully accounted for by individual differences in dispositional mindful awareness and encoding style.These findings suggest that it may not be mind-wandering per se that is responsible for psychological distress, but rather the general tendency to be less aware and attentive to the present-moment. Thus, although mind-wandering and present-moment awareness are related constructs, they are not reducible to one another, and are distinguishable in terms of their relationship with psychological well-being. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 73 (14 ULg)
Evidence for a specific impairment of serial order short-term memory in dyslexic children
Martinez Perez, Trecy ; Majerus, Steve ; et al
in Dyslexia : The Journal of the British Dyslexia Association (2012), 18(2), 94-109Detailed reference viewed: 319 (27 ULg)
A sensitive scale to assess nociceptive pain in patients with disorders of consciousness.
Chatelle, Camille ; Majerus, Steve ; et al
in Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry (2012), 83(12), 1233-7
OBJECTIVE: To determine the sensitivity of the Nociception Coma Scale (NCS), the first scale developed to assess nociceptive pain in vegetative state and minimally conscious state patients, in comparing ... [more ▼]
OBJECTIVE: To determine the sensitivity of the Nociception Coma Scale (NCS), the first scale developed to assess nociceptive pain in vegetative state and minimally conscious state patients, in comparing behavioural changes in response to noxious versus non-noxious stimulation. METHODS: The NCS was administered to assess patients' responses in three conditions: (1) baseline (observation of spontaneous behaviours), (2) non-noxious/tactile stimulation (taps on the patient's shoulder), and (3) noxious stimulation (pressure on the nail bed). RESULTS: We included 64 patients (27 vegetative state and 37 minimally conscious state; age range 20-82 years; 22 traumatic brain injury; 21 in the acute stage). The NCS total scores and subscores (motor, verbal and facial) were higher for the noxious versus the non-noxious stimulation conditions. We did not observe a difference between the non-noxious and the noxious stimulation conditions for the visual subscale. We also found a NCS cut-off value of 4 differentiating the patients receiving a noxious stimulation from patients receiving a non-noxious stimulation. The exclusion of the visual subscale increased the cut-off sensitivity (from 46% to 73%; specificity of 97% and accuracy of 85%). CONCLUSION: We propose a new version of the NCS excluding the visual subscale, the NCS-R, which constitutes a highly sensitive tool to assess responses to nociceptive pain in severely brain injured patients. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 24 (1 ULg)
The Neural Substrates of Memory Suppression: A fMRI Exploration of Directed Forgetting
Bastin, Christine ; Feyers, Dorothée ; Majerus, Steve et al
in PLoS ONE (2012), 7(1), 29905
The directed forgetting paradigm is frequently used to determine the ability to voluntarily suppress information. However, little is known about brain areas associated with information to forget. The ... [more ▼]
The directed forgetting paradigm is frequently used to determine the ability to voluntarily suppress information. However, little is known about brain areas associated with information to forget. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to determine brain activity during the encoding and retrieval phases of an item-method directed forgetting recognition task with neutral verbal material in order to apprehend all processing stages that information to forget and to remember undergoes. We hypothesized that regions supporting few selective processes, namely recollection and familiarity memory processes, working memory, inhibitory and selection processes should be differentially activated during the processing of to-be-remembered and to-be-forgotten items. Successful encoding and retrieval of items to remember engaged the entorhinal cortex, the hippocampus, the anterior medial prefrontal cortex, the left inferior parietal cortex, the posterior cingulate cortex and the precuneus; this set of regions is well known to support deep and associative encoding and retrieval processes in episodic memory. For items to forget, encoding was associated with higher activation in the right middle frontal and posterior parietal cortex, regions known to intervene in attentional control. Items to forget but nevertheless correctly recognized at retrieval yielded activation in the dorsomedial thalamus, associated with familiarity-based memory processes and in the posterior intraparietal sulcus and the anterior cingulate cortex, involved in attentional processes. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 183 (14 ULg)
Functional neuroanatomy underlying the clinical subcategorization of minimally conscious state patients.
Bruno, Marie-Aurélie ; Majerus, Steve ; Boly, Mélanie et al
in Journal of Neurology (2012), 259(6), 1087-98
Patients in a minimally conscious state (MCS) show restricted signs of awareness but are unable to communicate. We assessed cerebral glucose metabolism in MCS patients and tested the hypothesis that this ... [more ▼]
Patients in a minimally conscious state (MCS) show restricted signs of awareness but are unable to communicate. We assessed cerebral glucose metabolism in MCS patients and tested the hypothesis that this entity can be subcategorized into MCS- (i.e., patients only showing nonreflex behavior such as visual pursuit, localization of noxious stimulation and/or contingent behavior) and MCS+ (i.e., patients showing command following).Patterns of cerebral glucose metabolism were studied using [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET in 39 healthy volunteers (aged 46 +/- 18 years) and 27 MCS patients of whom 13 were MCS- (aged 49 +/- 19 years; 4 traumatic; 21 +/- 23 months post injury) and 14 MCS+ (aged 43 +/- 19 years; 5 traumatic; 19 +/- 26 months post injury). Results were thresholded for significance at false discovery rate corrected p < 0.05.We observed a metabolic impairment in a bilateral subcortical (thalamus and caudate) and cortical (fronto-temporo-parietal) network in nontraumatic and traumatic MCS patients. Compared to MCS-, patients in MCS+ showed higher cerebral metabolism in left-sided cortical areas encompassing the language network, premotor, presupplementary motor, and sensorimotor cortices. A functional connectivity study showed that Broca's region was disconnected from the rest of the language network, mesiofrontal and cerebellar areas in MCS- as compared to MCS+ patients.The proposed subcategorization of MCS based on the presence or absence of command following showed a different functional neuroanatomy. MCS- is characterized by preserved right hemispheric cortical metabolism interpreted as evidence of residual sensory consciousness. MCS+ patients showed preserved metabolism and functional connectivity in language networks arguably reflecting some additional higher order or extended consciousness albeit devoid of clinical verbal or nonverbal expression. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 227 (10 ULg)
Attention Supports Verbal Short-Term Memory via Competition between Dorsal and Ventral Attention Networks.
Majerus, Steve ; Attout, Lucie ; D'Argembeau, Arnaud et al
in Cerebral Cortex (2012), 22
Interactions between the neural correlates of short-term memory (STM) and attention have been actively studied in the visual STM domain but much less in the verbal STM domain. Here we show that the same ... [more ▼]
Interactions between the neural correlates of short-term memory (STM) and attention have been actively studied in the visual STM domain but much less in the verbal STM domain. Here we show that the same attention mechanisms that have been shown to shape the neural networks of visual STM also shape those of verbal STM. Based on previous research in visual STM, we contrasted the involvement of a dorsal attention network centered on the intraparietal sulcus supporting task-related attention and a ventral attention network centered on the temporoparietal junction supporting stimulus-related attention. We observed that, with increasing STM load, the dorsal attention network was activated while the ventral attention network was deactivated, especially during early maintenance. Importantly, activation in the ventral attention network increased in response to task-irrelevant stimuli briefly presented during the maintenance phase of the STM trials but only during low-load STM conditions, which were associated with the lowest levels of activity in the dorsal attention network during encoding and early maintenance. By demonstrating a trade-off between task-related and stimulus-related attention networks during verbal STM, this study highlights the dynamics of attentional processes involved in verbal STM. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 168 (34 ULg)
Two distinct origins of long-term learning effects in verbal short-term memory
Majerus, Steve ; Martinez Perez, Trecy ;
in Journal of Memory & Language (2012), 66
Verbal short-term memory (STM) is highly sensitive to learning effects: digit sequences or nonword sequences which have been rendered more familiar via repeated exposure are recalled more accurately. In ... [more ▼]
Verbal short-term memory (STM) is highly sensitive to learning effects: digit sequences or nonword sequences which have been rendered more familiar via repeated exposure are recalled more accurately. In this study we show that sublist-level, incidental learning of item co-occurrence regularities affects immediate serial recall of words and nonwords, but not digits. In contrast, list-level chunk learning affects serial recall of digits. In a first series of experiments, participants heard a continuous sequence of digits in which the co-occurrence of digits was governed by an artificial grammar. In a subsequent STM test participants recalled lists that were legal or illegal according to the rules of the artificial grammar. No advantage for legal lists over illegal lists was observed. A second series of experiments used the same incidental learning procedure with nonwords or non-digit words. An advantage for legal versus illegal list recall was observed. A final experiment used an incidental learning task repeating whole lists of digits; this led to a substantial recall advantage for legal versus illegal digit lists. These data show that serial recall of non-digit words is supported by sublist-level probabilistic knowledge, whereas serial recall of digits is only supported by incidental learning of whole lists. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 263 (24 ULg)
The impact of visual complexity on visual short-term memory in children with specific language impairment
Leclercq, Anne-Lise ; Maillart, Christelle ; et al
in Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society (2012), 18
Many studies have assessed visual short-term memory (VSTM) abilities in children with specific language impairment (SLI), with contrasting results: some studies observed preserved VSTM capacities while ... [more ▼]
Many studies have assessed visual short-term memory (VSTM) abilities in children with specific language impairment (SLI), with contrasting results: some studies observed preserved VSTM capacities while others reported impaired VSTM. The present study explores the hypothesis that the complexity of the visual information to be encoded and stored might underlie these discrepancies. Four VSTM conditions were administered to a group of 15 children with SLI, as well as to two groups of typically developing children, matched for chronological age and for VSTM capacity for visually simple stimuli, respectively. The stimuli to be remembered varied in their visual similarity and in the number of their visual features. Across the four VSTM conditions, children with SLI showed significantly reduced performance relative to an age-matched control group, and they were more strongly affected by visual similarity and number of features when compared to a control group matched for VSTM capacity for visually simple stimuli. The present results support the hypothesis that stimulus complexity is a determining factor of the poor VSTM performances in children with SLI. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 157 (17 ULg)
The contribution of short-term memory for serial order to early reading acquisition: Evidence from a longitudinal study
Martinez Perez, Trecy ; Majerus, Steve ; Poncelet, Martine
in Journal of Experimental Child Psychology (2012), 111
Early reading acquisition skills have been linked to verbal short-term memory (STM) capacity. However, the nature of this relationship remains controversial, since verbal STM, like reading acquisition ... [more ▼]
Early reading acquisition skills have been linked to verbal short-term memory (STM) capacity. However, the nature of this relationship remains controversial, since verbal STM, like reading acquisition, depends upon the complexity of underlying phonological processing skills. This longitudinal study addressed the relation between STM and reading decoding acquisition by distinguishing between STM for item and STM for order information, based on recent studies showing that STM for item information recruits underlying phonological representations, but not STM for order information. If there is a specific link between STM and reading decoding acquisition, STM for order information should be an independent predictor of reading decoding acquisition. Tasks maximizing STM for serial order or item information, measures of phonological abilities and reading tests were administered to children followed from kindergarten through 1st grade. We observed that order STM capacity but not item STM capacity predicted independent variance in reading decoding abilities one year later. These results highlight the specific role of STM for order in reading decoding acquisition, and argue for a causal role of order STM capacity in reading acquisition. Mechanisms relating STM for order information and reading acquisition will be discussed. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 276 (18 ULg)
Genetic determinants of verbal short-term memory : evidence from three neurogenetic disorders.
Conference (2011, December 10)Detailed reference viewed: 4 (3 ULg)
Capacités perspectives auditives langagières dans le syndrome de Williams et proposition de remédiation pour l'apprentissage de la lecture
Conference (2011, November 26)Detailed reference viewed: 1 (0 ULg)
The importance of distinguishing item and order memory for understanding short-term memory deficits in brain-damaged patients
Attout, Lucie ; VAN DER KAA, Marie-Anne ; GEORGE, Mercédès et al
Poster (2011, October 18)
Selective verbal short-term memory (STM) deficits are rare and are often associated with a history of aphasia, raising doubts about the selectivity of these deficits. We explore here the distinction ... [more ▼]
Selective verbal short-term memory (STM) deficits are rare and are often associated with a history of aphasia, raising doubts about the selectivity of these deficits. We explore here the distinction between STM for item information (the items and their phonological and semantic characteristics) and STM for order information (the order of items within a list) to separate STM and language impairment. Recent models of STM consider that STM for item information depends upon activation of the language system, and hence item STM deficits should be associated with language impairment. By contrast, STM for order information is considered to recruit a specific system, distinct from the language system. Hence, order STM should be impaired in patients with language-independent STM deficits. We applied this rationale to the exploration of STM profiles of two patients with a history of aphasia, MB and CG. At the time of this study, patient MB showed poor digit and word STM spans associated with a mild impairment at the level of phonological input processing. Patient CG showed poor STM spans with no residual language impairment. A first experiment assessed STM for order and item information, using order and item probe recognition tasks. Patient MB showed severely impaired performance in the item condition (Z=-4.71; p<.001) but a milder deficit in the order condition (Z=-2.17; p<.05). CG on the other hand showed perfectly preserved performance for the item condition (Z=-0.43) but significantly slowed response times for the order condition (Z=-2.20; p<.05). In a second experiment determining item and order error proportions in an immediate serial recall task for six-word lists, MB showed a significantly increased proportion of item errors (Z=-3.24 and -2.6 for positions 5 and 6, respectively; p<.05) but not of order errors (Z=-1.47), while CG showed perfectly preserved item recall (Z=0.22) but an increase of order errors especially in final list positions (Z =-2.57 for position 6; p<.05). A third experiment assessed reconstruction of serial order for digit lists showing perfectly preserved performance in patient MB (Z=1.32) but severely impaired performance in patient CG (Z=-3.49; p<.05). A final experiment assessed new word learning performance, given that STM for order has been shown to be a critical determinant of vocabulary acquisition in children and adults. CG showed impaired new word learning performance in a paired associate word-new word learning experiment (Z=-3.29; p<.05) but not in a word-word learning control experiment (Z=0.13), while MB showed a more general verbal learning impairment (word-nonword: Z=-3.09, p<.05; word-word: Z=-4.8, p<.05). This study provides the first demonstration of a dissociation between STM for order and STM for item information in patients with a history of aphasia, and further shows that patients with residual language impairment are more likely to present impaired STM for item information which is considered to depend on the integrity of the language system. Order STM deficits on the other hand may represent what is commonly referred to as selective STM impairment, highlighting the importance of distinguishing between item and order STM processes when exploring STM deficits in aphasic patients. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 76 (17 ULg)
Adaptation de la rééducation langagière aux troubles de la mémoire à court terme verbale.
Leclercq, Anne-Lise ; Maillart, Christelle ; Majerus, Steve
Conference (2011, September 29)Detailed reference viewed: 12 (1 ULg)
Neuroimaging and neuropsychological evidence for distinct cerebral correlates underlying item STM and order STM.
Conference (2011, August 04)Detailed reference viewed: 6 (1 ULg)
Semantic knowledge supports verbal short-term memory : The case of emotional words.
Majerus, Steve ; D'Argembeau, Arnaud
Conference (2011, August 01)Detailed reference viewed: 6 (0 ULg)
Incidental non linguistic regularities learning in Children with
Gabriel, Audrey ; Meulemans, Thierry ; et al
Poster (2011, July)
Recent studies on specific language impairment (SLI) have suggested that language deficits could be partly explained by the Procedural Deficit hypothesis (PDH; Ullman & Pierpont, 2005). Tomblin et al ... [more ▼]
Recent studies on specific language impairment (SLI) have suggested that language deficits could be partly explained by the Procedural Deficit hypothesis (PDH; Ullman & Pierpont, 2005). Tomblin et al. (2007) and Lum et al. (2009; 2011) obtained data supporting this interpretation with the serial reaction time (SRT) task, as well as Evans et al. (2009) and Plante et al. (2002) with artificial grammar tasks. Recently, Gabriel et al. (2011) obtained contrasting results, showing that children with SLI were able to detect non linguistic regularities during a SRT task. The aim of this study was to assess the PDH by using a non-linguistic artificial grammar learning tasks in order to mimic real conditions of language acquisition. Twenty-three children with SLI and their typically developing (TD) peers are compared on a task in which the incidental learning sequence was presented through visual shapes via a laptop.These results confirm our previous study (Gabriel et al., 2011) by showing that children with SLI detect the rules in non-linguistic conditions. • So, contrary to results of previous studies (Evans et al., 2009; Lum et al., 2009; 2011; Plante et al., 2002; Tomblin et al., 2007), this study does not confirm the PDH in children with SLI, or at least suggests that, if present, the deficit of the procedural system in SLI is not going beyond the language system. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 100 (19 ULg)