References of "Majerus, Steve"
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See detailImpaired semantic knowledge underlies the reduced verbal short-term storage capacity in Alzheimer's disease.
Peters, Frederic; Majerus, Steve ULg; De Baerdemaeker, Julie et al

in Neuropsychologia (2009), 47(14), 3067-73

A decrease in verbal short-term memory (STM) capacity is consistently observed in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although this impairment has been mainly attributed to attentional deficits during ... [more ▼]

A decrease in verbal short-term memory (STM) capacity is consistently observed in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although this impairment has been mainly attributed to attentional deficits during encoding and maintenance, the progressive deterioration of semantic knowledge in early stages of AD may also be an important determinant of poor STM performance. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of semantic knowledge on verbal short-term memory storage capacity in normal aging and in AD by exploring the impact of word imageability on STM performance. Sixteen patients suffering from mild AD, 16 healthy elderly subjects and 16 young subjects performed an immediate serial recall task using word lists containing high or low imageability words. All participant groups recalled more high imageability words than low imageability words, but the effect of word imageability on verbal STM was greater in AD patients than in both the young and the elderly control groups. More precisely, AD patients showed a marked decrease in STM performance when presented with lists of low imageability words, whereas recall of high imageability words was relatively well preserved. Furthermore, AD patients displayed an abnormal proportion of phonological errors in the low imageability condition. Overall, these results indicate that the support of semantic knowledge on STM performance was impaired for lists of low imageability words in AD patients. More generally, these findings suggest that the deterioration of semantic knowledge is partly responsible for the poor verbal short-term storage capacity observed in AD. [less ▲]

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See detailNeural substrates of phonological and lexicosemantic representations in Alzheimer's disease.
Peters, Frederic; Majerus, Steve ULg; Collette, Fabienne ULg et al

in Human Brain Mapping (2009), 30(1), 185-99

The language profile of patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized not only by lexicosemantic impairments but also by phonological deficits, as shown by an increasing number of ... [more ▼]

The language profile of patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized not only by lexicosemantic impairments but also by phonological deficits, as shown by an increasing number of neuropsychological studies. This study explored the functional neural correlates underlying phonological and lexicosemantic processing in AD. Using H(215)O PET functional brain imaging, a group of mild to moderate AD patients and a group of age-matched controls were asked to repeat four types of verbal stimuli: words, wordlike nonwords (WL+), non-wordlike nonwords (WL-) and simple vowels. The comparison between the different conditions allowed us to determine brain activation preferentially associated with lexicosemantic or phonological levels of language representations. When repeating words, AD patients showed decreased activity in the left temporo-parietal and inferior frontal regions relative to controls, consistent with distorted lexicosemantic representations. Brain activity was abnormally increased in the right superior temporal area during word repetition, a region more commonly associated with perceptual-phonological processing. During repetition of WL+ and WL- nonwords, AD patients showed decreased activity in the middle part of the superior temporal gyrus, presumably associated with sublexical phonological information; at the same time, AD patients showed larger activation than controls in the inferior temporal gyrus, typically associated with lexicosemantic levels of representation. Overall, the results suggest that AD patients use altered pathways to process phonological and lexicosemantic information, possibly related to a progressive loss of specialization of phonological and lexicosemantic neural networks. [less ▲]

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See detailDiagnostic accuracy of the vegetative and minimally conscious state: clinical consensus versus standardized neurobehavioral assessment.
Schnakers, Caroline ULg; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey ULg; Giacino, Joseph et al

in BMC Neurology (2009), 9

BACKGROUND: Previously published studies have reported that up to 43% of patients with disorders of consciousness are erroneously assigned a diagnosis of vegetative state (VS). However, no recent studies ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Previously published studies have reported that up to 43% of patients with disorders of consciousness are erroneously assigned a diagnosis of vegetative state (VS). However, no recent studies have investigated the accuracy of this grave clinical diagnosis. In this study, we compared consensus-based diagnoses of VS and MCS to those based on a well-established standardized neurobehavioral rating scale, the JFK Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R). METHODS: We prospectively followed 103 patients (55 +/- 19 years) with mixed etiologies and compared the clinical consensus diagnosis provided by the physician on the basis of the medical staff's daily observations to diagnoses derived from CRS-R assessments performed by research staff. All patients were assigned a diagnosis of 'VS', 'MCS' or 'uncertain diagnosis.' RESULTS: Of the 44 patients diagnosed with VS based on the clinical consensus of the medical team, 18 (41%) were found to be in MCS following standardized assessment with the CRS-R. In the 41 patients with a consensus diagnosis of MCS, 4 (10%) had emerged from MCS, according to the CRS-R. We also found that the majority of patients assigned an uncertain diagnosis by clinical consensus (89%) were in MCS based on CRS-R findings. CONCLUSION: Despite the importance of diagnostic accuracy, the rate of misdiagnosis of VS has not substantially changed in the past 15 years. Standardized neurobehavioral assessment is a more sensitive means of establishing differential diagnosis in patients with disorders of consciousness when compared to diagnoses determined by clinical consensus. [less ▲]

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See detailReading disabilities in SLI and dyslexia result from distinct phonological impairments
Nithart, Christelle; Demont, Elisabeth; Majerus, Steve ULg et al

in Developmental Neuropsychology (2009), 34

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See detailThe impact of auditory selective attention on verbal short-term memory and vocabulary development
Majerus, Steve ULg; Heiligenstein, Lucie; Gautherot, N. et al

in Journal of Experimental Child Psychology (2009), 103

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See detailSerial order short-term memory capacities and specific language impairment: No evidence for a causal association
Majerus, Steve ULg; Leclercq, Anne-Lise ULg; Grossman, Aurélie et al

in Cortex : A Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System & Behavior (2009), 45

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See detailIs phonological short-term memory related to phonological analysis stages in auditory sentence processing?
Majerus, Steve ULg; Lorent, Julie

in European Journal of Cognitive Psychology (2009), 21

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See detailLocked-in syndrome in children: report of five cases and review of the literature
Bruno, Marie-Aurélie ULg; Schnakers, C.; Damas, François ULg et al

in Pediatric Neurology (2009), 41

The locked-in syndrome is a rare neurologic disorder defined by (1) the presence of sustained eye opening; (2) preserved awareness; (3) aphonia or hypophonia; (4) quadriplegia or quadriparesis; and (5) a ... [more ▼]

The locked-in syndrome is a rare neurologic disorder defined by (1) the presence of sustained eye opening; (2) preserved awareness; (3) aphonia or hypophonia; (4) quadriplegia or quadriparesis; and (5) a primary mode of communication that uses vertical or lateral eye movement or blinking. Five cases are reported here, and previous literature is reviewed. According to the literature, the most common etiology of locked-in syndrome in children is ventral pontine stroke, most frequently caused by a vertebrobasilar artery thrombosis or occlusion. In terms of prognosis, 35% of pediatric locked-in syndrome patients experienced some motor recovery, 26% had good recovery, 23% died, and 16% remained quadriplegic and anarthric. These findings raise important ethical considerations in terms of quality of life and end-of-life decisions in such challenging cases. [less ▲]

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See detailVerbal short-term memory and temporary activation of language representations: the importance of distinguishing item and order information
Majerus, Steve ULg

in Thorn, Annabel (Ed.) Interactions between short-term and long-term memory in the verbal domain (2009)

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See detailTraité de Neuropsychologie de l'Enfant
Poncelet, Martine ULg; Majerus, Steve ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg

Book published by SOLAL (2009)

La neuropsychologie de l’enfant concerne un champ d’étude relativement récent et en même temps très vaste. Le but de cet ouvrage est de fournir une vue d’ensemble des connaissances scientifiques qui se ... [more ▼]

La neuropsychologie de l’enfant concerne un champ d’étude relativement récent et en même temps très vaste. Le but de cet ouvrage est de fournir une vue d’ensemble des connaissances scientifiques qui se sont accumulées au cours de ces dernières années, et ceci pour les principales fonctions cognitives ainsi que les populations les plus fréquemment examinées en neuropsychologie de l’enfant, en passant des troubles développementaux avec ou sans cause cérébrale et génétique clairement définie aux lésions acquises telles que le traumatisme crânien ou l’accident vasculaire cérébral. Une première série de chapitres situera les troubles cognitifs dans le cadre de la dynamique développementale qui caractérise la neuropsychologie de l’enfant, permettant de fournir une compréhension la plus complète possible des difficultés constatées. Une deuxième série de chapitres sera de nature davantage syndromique, en présentant les troubles cognitifs associés aux traumatismes crâniens, aux troubles épileptiques, aux principaux syndromes génétiques ainsi qu’à d’autres troubles développementaux tels que les troubles attentionnels avec ou sans hyperactivité et l’autisme. Dans les cas pertinents, les principaux outils d’évaluation disponibles seront développés et des pistes rééducatives discutées. [less ▲]

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See detailLes principales techniques de neuroimagerie fonctionnelle et leur utilité pour l’étude du substrat neuronal du développement cognitif typique et atypique
Majerus, Steve ULg; Metz-Lutz, Marie-Noelle

in Poncelet, Martine; Majerus, Steve; Van der Linden, Martial (Eds.) Traité de Neuropsychologie de l'Enfant (2009)

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See detailLes troubles spécifiques du développement du langage.
Majerus, Steve ULg; Zesiger, Pascal

in Poncelet, Martine; Majerus, Steve; Van der Linden, Martial (Eds.) Traité de Neuropsychologie de l'Enfant (2009)

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See detailApproche neuropsychologique du syndrome de Williams : Introduction générale et aspects langagiers.
Majerus, Steve ULg; Poncelet, Martine ULg; Barisnikov, Koviljka et al

in Poncelet, Martine; Majerus, Steve; Van der Linden, Martial (Eds.) Traité de Neuropsychologie de l'Enfant (2009)

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See detailTroubles de la rétention à court terme
Majerus, Steve ULg; Poncelet, Martine ULg

in Poncelet, Martine; Majerus, Steve; Van der Linden, Martial (Eds.) Traité de Neuropsychologie de l'Enfant (2009)

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See detailLexical Learning in Bilingual Adults: The Relative Importance of Short-Term Memory for Serial Order and Phonological Knowledge
Majerus, Steve ULg; Poncelet, Martine ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg et al

in Cognition (2008)

Studies of monolingual speakers have shown a strong association between lexical learning and short-term memory (STM) capacity, especially STM for serial order information. At the same time, studies of ... [more ▼]

Studies of monolingual speakers have shown a strong association between lexical learning and short-term memory (STM) capacity, especially STM for serial order information. At the same time, studies of bilingual speakers suggest that phonological knowledge is the main factor that drives lexical learning. This study tested these two hypotheses simultaneously in participants with variable levels of English-French bilingual proficiency. A word-nonword paired-associate learning task was administered, with nonwords obeying French phonotactic patterns. French phonological knowledge was estimated by a composite French proficiency score summarizing productive and receptive French vocabulary knowledge as well as quantitative and qualitative measures of French exposure. STM measures maximized retention of order information (serial order reconstruction) or retention of phonological item information (single nonword delayed repetition). The French proficiency score and the serial order STM measure independently predicted performance on the paired-associate learning task. These results highlight the conjoined role of phonological knowledge and serial order STM in lexical learning. Importantly, serial order STM remains a strong predictor of lexical learning, even for bilingual individuals who have broad phonological knowledge. [less ▲]

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See detailExploration du réseau cérébral impliqué dans des jugements sur soi chez les personnes jeunes et âgées
Feyers, Dorothée ULg; Collette, Fabienne ULg; D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg et al

Poster (2008, September 04)

Nous avons récemment observé que le cortex préfrontal ventro-médial (CPFVM) est activé à la fois chez des sujets jeunes et âgés dans une tâche de jugement d’adjectifs nécessitant d’évaluer sa propre ... [more ▼]

Nous avons récemment observé que le cortex préfrontal ventro-médial (CPFVM) est activé à la fois chez des sujets jeunes et âgés dans une tâche de jugement d’adjectifs nécessitant d’évaluer sa propre personnalité par rapport à celle d’un autre dans le contexte d’un prise de perspective à la première (1PP) et à la troisième (3PP) personne (Ruby et al., submitted). Nous avons poursuivi l’analyse de ces données par des analyses de connectivité fonctionnelle afin de déterminer le réseau des régions cérébrales associées à la performance des sujets jeunes et âgés. Les résultats montrent qu’en 1PP, l’activité du CPFVM est associée à celle du gyrus frontal inférieur et du gyrus parahippocampique chez les sujet âgés, mais uniquement à celle du cortex occipital chez les sujets jeunes. En 3PP, une connectivité fonctionnelle existe entre le CPFVM et le gyrus frontal médial, le gyrus frontal inférieur et les régions temporales supérieures chez les sujets âgées ; mais uniquement avec les régions occipitale et pariétale chez les sujets jeunes. Les régions cérébrales associées à l’activité du CPFVM chez les sujets jeunes ont été décrites comme impliquées dans la récupération en mémoire autobiographique ainsi que dans les processus de « mentalizing ». En ce qui concerne les personne âgées, le réseau cérébral découvert est relié à la récupération de souvenirs sémantique et épisodique (gyrus parahippocampique et temporal supérieur) mais aussi à l’attribution d’une valence émotionnelle à l’adjectif (gyrus frontal inférieur) et à la prise de perspective (gyrus frontal médial). Ces résultats indiquent (1) que le CPFVM est connecté à un réseau cérébral plus important chez les personnes âgées que chez les jeunes lors de jugement sur soi ; (2) que les sujets jeunes réalisent la tâche sur base d’informations autobiographiques seulement alors que les personnes âgées recrutent en plus des processus cognitifs de nature plus réflexive. [less ▲]

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See detailNeural network involved in self-judgment in young and elderly adults
Feyers, Dorothée ULg; Collette, Fabienne ULg; D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg et al

Poster (2008, May 29)

In agreement with the literature, we have recently observed that the ventro-medial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) is activated both in young and elderly subjects during a adjective judgment task requiring ... [more ▼]

In agreement with the literature, we have recently observed that the ventro-medial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) is activated both in young and elderly subjects during a adjective judgment task requiring judgment about self vs. other in the context of a first (1PP) or third (3PP) perspective-taking (Ruby et al., submitted). Here, we have performed functional connectivity analyses to determine the network of cerebral areas associated to the performance of young and elderly subjects. <br />Results indicate that, in the 1PP condition, activity of the VMPFC is related to the inferior frontal gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus in elderly but to the occipital cortex only in young subjects. In the 3PP condition, functional connectivity exist between the VMPFC and medial frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus and superior temporal areas in elderly, but with occipital and parietal areas only in young subjects. <br />The cerebral areas associated to VMPFC activity in young subjects were previously described as involved both in autobiographical memory retrieval and mentalizing processes. With regard to elderly, the cerebral network evidenced is related to retrieval of semantic and episodic memories (parahippocampal and superior temporal) but also to the attribution of emotional valence to the adjectives (inferior frontal) and perspective taking (medial frontal gyrus). <br />These results indicate (1) that the VMPFC is connected to a larger cerebral network in elderly than in young subjects during self judgements; (2) that young subjects perform the task on the basis of autobiographical information retrieval only, while elderly subjects use supplementary, more reflexive, cognitive processes. [less ▲]

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See detailNeural network involved in young and elderly adults
Feyers, Dorothée ULg; Collette, Fabienne ULg; D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg et al

in Proceedings of the Cognitive Aging Conference (2008, April 11)

In agreement with the literature, we have recently observed that the ventro-medial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) is activated both in young and elderly subjects during a adjective judgment task requiring ... [more ▼]

In agreement with the literature, we have recently observed that the ventro-medial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) is activated both in young and elderly subjects during a adjective judgment task requiring judgment about self vs. other in the context of a first (1PP) or third (3PP) perspective-taking (Ruby et al., submitted). Here, we have performed functional connectivity analyses to determine the network of cerebral areas associated to the performance of young and elderly subjects. Results indicate that, in the 1PP condition, activity of the VMPFC is related to the medial orbito-frontal, posterior and inferior temporal and parietal areas in elderly, but to the occipital cortex only in young subjects. In the 3PP condition, functional connectivity exist between the VMPFC and posterior temporal and lateral orbito-frontal areas in elderly, but with occipital and parietal areas only in young subjects. The cerebral areas associated to VMPFC activity in young subjects were previously described as involved both in autobiographic memory retrieval and mentalizing processes. With regard to elderly, the cerebral network evidenced is related to autobiographic memory retrieval (parietal and temporal areas) but also to the attribution of emotional valence to the adjectives (medial orbito-frontal) and perspective taking both in 1PP and 3PP conditions (lateral orbito-frontal). These results indicate (1) that the VMPFC is connected to a larger cerebral network in elderly than in young subjects during self judgements; (2) that young subjects perform the task on the basis of autobiographical information retrieval only, while elderly subjects use supplementary, more reflexive, cognitive processes. [less ▲]

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