The relationship between serial order STM and vocabulary development: a longitudinal study.
Leclercq, Anne-Lise ; Majerus, Steve
in Developmental Psychology (2010), 46(2), 417-427Detailed reference viewed: 157 (38 ULg)
The nociception coma scale: A new tool to assess nociception in disorders of consciousness.
Schnakers, Caroline ; Chatelle, Camille ; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey et al
in Pain (2010), 148
Assessing behavioral responses to nociception is difficult in severely brain-injured patients recovering from coma. We here propose a new scale developed for assessing nociception in vegetative (VS) and ... [more ▼]
Assessing behavioral responses to nociception is difficult in severely brain-injured patients recovering from coma. We here propose a new scale developed for assessing nociception in vegetative (VS) and minimally conscious (MCS) coma survivors, the Nociception Coma Scale (NCS), and explore its concurrent validity, inter-rater agreement and sensitivity. Concurrent validity was assessed by analyzing behavioral responses of 48 post-comatose patients to a noxious stimulation (pressure applied to the fingernail) (28 VS and 20 MCS; age range 20-82years; 17 of traumatic etiology). Patients' were assessed using the NCS and four other scales employed in non-communicative patients: the 'Neonatal Infant Pain Scale' (NIPS) and the 'Faces, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability' (FLACC) used in newborns; and the 'Pain Assessment In Advanced Dementia Scale' (PAINAD) and the 'Checklist of Non-verbal Pain Indicators' (CNPI) used in dementia. For the establishment of inter-rater agreement, fifteen patients were concurrently assessed by two examiners. Concurrent validity, assessed by Spearman rank order correlations between the NCS and the four other validated scales, was good. Cohen's kappa analyses revealed a good to excellent inter-rater agreement for the NCS total and subscore measures, indicating that the scale yields reproducible findings across examiners. Finally, a significant difference between NCS total scores was observed as a function of diagnosis (i.e., VS or MCS). The NCS constitutes a sensitive clinical tool for assessing nociception in severely brain-injured patients. This scale constitutes the first step to a better management of patients recovering from coma. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 74 (8 ULg)
Das verbale Kurzzeitgedächtnis als Produkt der Interaktionen zwischen Aufmerksamkeitskapazitäten, Sequenzverarbeitung und Aktivierung des Sprachsystems.
in Psychologische Rundschau : Ueberblick Uber die Fortschritte der Psychologie in Deutschland, Oesterreich, und der Schweiz (2010), 61Detailed reference viewed: 34 (3 ULg)
Les multiples determinants de la mémoire à court terme verbale : implications théoriques et évaluatives
in Développements (2010), 4Detailed reference viewed: 113 (18 ULg)
Rétention de l’ordre sériel en mémoire verbale à court-terme chez des adultes dyslexiques
Martinez Perez, Trecy ; Poncelet, Martine ; Majerus, Steve
Poster (2009, December 04)
Les difficultés en mémoire verbale à court terme (MCTV) chez les dyslexiques sont interprétées comme le reflet de représentations phonologiques déficitaires (voir Snowling, 2000). Cependant, leurs ... [more ▼]
Les difficultés en mémoire verbale à court terme (MCTV) chez les dyslexiques sont interprétées comme le reflet de représentations phonologiques déficitaires (voir Snowling, 2000). Cependant, leurs capacités en MCTV sont généralement évaluées au moyen de tâches classiques (tâches d'empan) qui ne permettent pas de dissocier le stockage de l'information relative à l'identité des items (information « item ») du stockage de l'information concernant l'ordre de présentation de ces items (information « ordre sériel ») (Majerus et al., 2006). Or, ces deux aspects de la MCTV pourraient être différentiellement liés à l'apprentissage du langage écrit et être tous deux déficitaires dans la dyslexie. L’objectif de cette étude est de déterminer si les dyslexiques présentent des difficultés en MCTV non seulement pour l'information « item » mais également pour l'ordre sériel. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 207 (31 ULg)
Répétition de non-mots et rappel sériel immédiat : Des mesures équivalentes de la mémoire à court terme verbale?
Leclercq, Anne-Lise ; Majerus, Steve
Poster (2009, December 04)
En psychologie expérimentale et en neuropsychologie, les mesures classiques pour évaluer la mémoire à court terme verbale (MCTV) sont des tâches de rappel sériel immédiat (empan de chiffres ou de mots ... [more ▼]
En psychologie expérimentale et en neuropsychologie, les mesures classiques pour évaluer la mémoire à court terme verbale (MCTV) sont des tâches de rappel sériel immédiat (empan de chiffres ou de mots). Il a été démontré que cette même MCTV prédit les capacités de développement lexical, mais sur base d’une estimation de la MCTV à partir de tâches de répétition de non-mots. Même si ces deux procédures (répétition de non-mots, rappel sériel immédiat) sont censées mesurer la MCTV de façon équivalente, la répétition de non-mots recrute davantage de processus linguistiques tels que la segmentation phonologique et la coarticulation (Gathercole, 2006; Majerus, Van der Linden, Mulder, Meulemans, & Peters, 2004). Le but de cette étude est de déterminer dans quelle mesure ces deux types d’estimation de la MCTV sont des prédicteurs équivalents du développement lexical. Des tâches de rappel de syllabes présentées soit de manière sérielle (chaque syllabe étant séparée par une pause), soit de manière agglutinée (= répétition de non-mots) ont été administrées à des enfants de 4, 5, 6 et 8 ans (N=30 dans chaque groupe). Le niveau de vocabulaire a été évalué par le test EVIP (Dunn, Thériault-Whalen, & Dunn, 1993). Une analyse de variance sur les performances aux tâches de MCTV a montré un effet de l’âge (F(3,116)=26.87, p<.001) et un effet du type de tâche, avec de meilleures performances pour les syllabes présentées de façon agglutinée (F(1,116)=390.85, p<.001). Une analyse de régression sur le niveau de vocabulaire a indiqué qu’à la fois la répétition de non-mots et le rappel de séries de syllabes sont des prédicteurs significatifs, après contrôle de l’âge et du niveau intellectuel non-verbal. En outre, la répétition de non-mots reste un prédicteur significatif du niveau de vocabulaire après contrôle du rappel sériel de syllabes (Δ R²=.016). La relation inverse n’est pas significative. Cette étude montre que la répétition de non-mots et le rappel sériel immédiat ne reflètent pas des mesures identiques de la MCTV, et que la prédiction la plus robuste du niveau de vocabulaire est observée pour les tâches de MCTV recrutant un maximum de processus linguistiques. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 368 (24 ULg)
Phonological impairment as a decay-based impairment : New evidence from a single case study
Martinez Perez, Trecy ; Poncelet, Martine ; Boniver, Celine et al
Poster (2009, October 19)
Computational models of language processing such as the Martin and Saffran (1992) model assume two properties underlying language processing: decay rate of activated representations and strength of ... [more ▼]
Computational models of language processing such as the Martin and Saffran (1992) model assume two properties underlying language processing: decay rate of activated representations and strength of activation spread between phonological, lexical and semantic levels of representation. Despite the theoretical and epistemological advantages of these models, as opposed to box-and-arrow type models, empirical evidence for these models is currently based on a very limited number of case studies (e.g., patient NC, Martin & Saffran, 1992; patient CO, Majerus et al., 2001). We present here a new single case study providing further support for the existence of decay rate impairments as an underlying cause of language impairment. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 71 (16 ULg)
A theoretically motivated approach of receptive language assessment based on an interactive spreading activation account of language processing
Martinez Perez, Trecy ; Majerus, Steve ; Delvenne, Marie-Anne et al
Poster (2009, June 03)
In French language, existing tests do not provide a sensitive assessment of auditory comprehension impairments in aphasic patients. These tests don’t detect slight deficits because their a limited number ... [more ▼]
In French language, existing tests do not provide a sensitive assessment of auditory comprehension impairments in aphasic patients. These tests don’t detect slight deficits because their a limited number of tasks and items. Our aim was to construct a series of more sensible tasks to assess auditory perception. Our battery consists on of phonological, lexical, semantic and verbal short-term memory tasks with a high number of items for each test. The computerization of tasks allows to measure correct answers and time latency and allows a standardized assessment. Our poster will focus on our assessment tasks of auditory comprehension, performances pattern of our aphasic patient and underlying theoretical models. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 74 (26 ULg)
The neural correlates of verbal short-term memory in Alzheimer's disease: an fMRI study.
; Collette, Fabienne ; Degueldre, Christian et al
in Brain : A Journal of Neurology (2009), 132(7), 1833-1846
Although many studies have shown diminished performance in verbal short-term memory tasks in Alzheimer's disease, few studies have explored the neural correlates of impaired verbal short-term memory in ... [more ▼]
Although many studies have shown diminished performance in verbal short-term memory tasks in Alzheimer's disease, few studies have explored the neural correlates of impaired verbal short-term memory in Alzheimer's disease patients. In this fMRI study, we examined alterations in brain activation patterns during a verbal short-term memory recognition task, by differentiating encoding and retrieval phases. Sixteen mild Alzheimer's disease patients and 16 elderly controls were presented with lists of four words followed, after a few seconds, by a probe word. Participants had to judge whether the probe matched one of the items of the memory list. In both groups, the short-term memory task elicited a distributed fronto-parieto-temporal activation that encompassed bilateral inferior frontal, insular, supplementary motor, precentral and postcentral areas, consistent with previous studies of verbal short-term memory in young subjects. Most notably, Alzheimer's disease patients showed reduced activation in several regions during the encoding phase, including the bilateral middle frontal and the left inferior frontal gyri (associated with executive control processes) as well as the transverse temporal gyri (associated with phonological processing). During the recognition phase, we found decreased activation in the left supramarginal gyrus and the right middle frontal gyrus in Alzheimer's disease patients compared with healthy seniors, possibly related to deficits in manipulation and decision processes for phonological information. At the same time, Alzheimer's disease patients showed increased activation in several brain areas, including the left parahippocampus and hippocampus, suggesting that Alzheimer's disease patients may recruit alternative recognition mechanisms when performing a short-term memory task. Overall, our results indicate that Alzheimer's disease patients show differences in the functional networks underlying memory over short delays, mostly in brain areas known to support phonological processing or executive functioning. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 41 (9 ULg)
Detecting consciousness in a total Locked-in syndrome: an active event related paradigm
Schnakers, Caroline ; ; et al
in Neurocase : Case Studies in Neuropsychology, Neuropsychiatry & Behavioural Neurology (2009), 25
Total locked-in syndrome is characterized by tetraplegia, anarthria and paralysis of eye motility. In this study, consciousness was detected in a 21-year-old woman who presented a total locked-in syndrome ... [more ▼]
Total locked-in syndrome is characterized by tetraplegia, anarthria and paralysis of eye motility. In this study, consciousness was detected in a 21-year-old woman who presented a total locked-in syndrome after a basilar artery thrombosis (49 days post-injury) using an active event-related paradigm. The patient was presented sequences of names containing the patient's own name and other names. The patient was instructed to count her own name or to count another target name. Similar to 4 age- and gender-matched healthy controls, the P3 response recorded for the voluntarily counted own name was larger than while passively listening. This P3 response was observed 14 days before the first behavioral signs of consciousness. This study shows that our active event-related paradigm allowed to identify voluntary brain activity in a patient who would behaviorally be diagnosed as comatose. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 62 (9 ULg)
Impaired semantic knowledge underlies the reduced verbal short-term storage capacity in Alzheimer's disease.
; Majerus, Steve ; et al
in Neuropsychologia (2009), 47(14), 3067-73
A decrease in verbal short-term memory (STM) capacity is consistently observed in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although this impairment has been mainly attributed to attentional deficits during ... [more ▼]
A decrease in verbal short-term memory (STM) capacity is consistently observed in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although this impairment has been mainly attributed to attentional deficits during encoding and maintenance, the progressive deterioration of semantic knowledge in early stages of AD may also be an important determinant of poor STM performance. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of semantic knowledge on verbal short-term memory storage capacity in normal aging and in AD by exploring the impact of word imageability on STM performance. Sixteen patients suffering from mild AD, 16 healthy elderly subjects and 16 young subjects performed an immediate serial recall task using word lists containing high or low imageability words. All participant groups recalled more high imageability words than low imageability words, but the effect of word imageability on verbal STM was greater in AD patients than in both the young and the elderly control groups. More precisely, AD patients showed a marked decrease in STM performance when presented with lists of low imageability words, whereas recall of high imageability words was relatively well preserved. Furthermore, AD patients displayed an abnormal proportion of phonological errors in the low imageability condition. Overall, these results indicate that the support of semantic knowledge on STM performance was impaired for lists of low imageability words in AD patients. More generally, these findings suggest that the deterioration of semantic knowledge is partly responsible for the poor verbal short-term storage capacity observed in AD. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 61 (20 ULg)
Neural substrates of phonological and lexicosemantic representations in Alzheimer's disease.
; Majerus, Steve ; Collette, Fabienne et al
in Human Brain Mapping (2009), 30(1), 185-99
The language profile of patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized not only by lexicosemantic impairments but also by phonological deficits, as shown by an increasing number of ... [more ▼]
The language profile of patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized not only by lexicosemantic impairments but also by phonological deficits, as shown by an increasing number of neuropsychological studies. This study explored the functional neural correlates underlying phonological and lexicosemantic processing in AD. Using H(215)O PET functional brain imaging, a group of mild to moderate AD patients and a group of age-matched controls were asked to repeat four types of verbal stimuli: words, wordlike nonwords (WL+), non-wordlike nonwords (WL-) and simple vowels. The comparison between the different conditions allowed us to determine brain activation preferentially associated with lexicosemantic or phonological levels of language representations. When repeating words, AD patients showed decreased activity in the left temporo-parietal and inferior frontal regions relative to controls, consistent with distorted lexicosemantic representations. Brain activity was abnormally increased in the right superior temporal area during word repetition, a region more commonly associated with perceptual-phonological processing. During repetition of WL+ and WL- nonwords, AD patients showed decreased activity in the middle part of the superior temporal gyrus, presumably associated with sublexical phonological information; at the same time, AD patients showed larger activation than controls in the inferior temporal gyrus, typically associated with lexicosemantic levels of representation. Overall, the results suggest that AD patients use altered pathways to process phonological and lexicosemantic information, possibly related to a progressive loss of specialization of phonological and lexicosemantic neural networks. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 108 (18 ULg)
Diagnostic accuracy of the vegetative and minimally conscious state: clinical consensus versus standardized neurobehavioral assessment.
Schnakers, Caroline ; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey ; et al
in BMC Neurology (2009), 9
BACKGROUND: Previously published studies have reported that up to 43% of patients with disorders of consciousness are erroneously assigned a diagnosis of vegetative state (VS). However, no recent studies ... [more ▼]
BACKGROUND: Previously published studies have reported that up to 43% of patients with disorders of consciousness are erroneously assigned a diagnosis of vegetative state (VS). However, no recent studies have investigated the accuracy of this grave clinical diagnosis. In this study, we compared consensus-based diagnoses of VS and MCS to those based on a well-established standardized neurobehavioral rating scale, the JFK Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R). METHODS: We prospectively followed 103 patients (55 +/- 19 years) with mixed etiologies and compared the clinical consensus diagnosis provided by the physician on the basis of the medical staff's daily observations to diagnoses derived from CRS-R assessments performed by research staff. All patients were assigned a diagnosis of 'VS', 'MCS' or 'uncertain diagnosis.' RESULTS: Of the 44 patients diagnosed with VS based on the clinical consensus of the medical team, 18 (41%) were found to be in MCS following standardized assessment with the CRS-R. In the 41 patients with a consensus diagnosis of MCS, 4 (10%) had emerged from MCS, according to the CRS-R. We also found that the majority of patients assigned an uncertain diagnosis by clinical consensus (89%) were in MCS based on CRS-R findings. CONCLUSION: Despite the importance of diagnostic accuracy, the rate of misdiagnosis of VS has not substantially changed in the past 15 years. Standardized neurobehavioral assessment is a more sensitive means of establishing differential diagnosis in patients with disorders of consciousness when compared to diagnoses determined by clinical consensus. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 35 (4 ULg)
The problem of aphasia in the assessment of consciousness in brain damaged patients.
Majerus, Steve ; Bruno, Marie-Aurélie ; Schnakers, Caroline et al
in Progress in Brain Research (2009), 177Detailed reference viewed: 56 (13 ULg)
Reading disabilities in SLI and dyslexia result from distinct phonological impairments
; ; Majerus, Steve et al
in Developmental Neuropsychology (2009), 34Detailed reference viewed: 82 (18 ULg)
The impact of auditory selective attention on verbal short-term memory and vocabulary development
Majerus, Steve ; ; et al
in Journal of Experimental Child Psychology (2009), 103Detailed reference viewed: 109 (14 ULg)
Serial order short-term memory capacities and specific language impairment: No evidence for a causal association
Majerus, Steve ; Leclercq, Anne-Lise ; et al
in Cortex : A Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System & Behavior (2009), 45Detailed reference viewed: 224 (32 ULg)
Is phonological short-term memory related to phonological analysis stages in auditory sentence processing?
Majerus, Steve ;
in European Journal of Cognitive Psychology (2009), 21Detailed reference viewed: 38 (13 ULg)
Locked-in syndrome in children: report of five cases and review of the literature
Bruno, Marie-Aurélie ; ; Damas, François et al
in Pediatric Neurology (2009), 41
The locked-in syndrome is a rare neurologic disorder defined by (1) the presence of sustained eye opening; (2) preserved awareness; (3) aphonia or hypophonia; (4) quadriplegia or quadriparesis; and (5) a ... [more ▼]
The locked-in syndrome is a rare neurologic disorder defined by (1) the presence of sustained eye opening; (2) preserved awareness; (3) aphonia or hypophonia; (4) quadriplegia or quadriparesis; and (5) a primary mode of communication that uses vertical or lateral eye movement or blinking. Five cases are reported here, and previous literature is reviewed. According to the literature, the most common etiology of locked-in syndrome in children is ventral pontine stroke, most frequently caused by a vertebrobasilar artery thrombosis or occlusion. In terms of prognosis, 35% of pediatric locked-in syndrome patients experienced some motor recovery, 26% had good recovery, 23% died, and 16% remained quadriplegic and anarthric. These findings raise important ethical considerations in terms of quality of life and end-of-life decisions in such challenging cases. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 127 (7 ULg)
Verbal short-term memory and temporary activation of language representations: the importance of distinguishing item and order information
in Thorn, Annabel (Ed.) Interactions between short-term and long-term memory in the verbal domain (2009)Detailed reference viewed: 173 (69 ULg)