Working memory for serial order and the development of verbal and numerical abilities.
Conference (2014, July 09)Detailed reference viewed: 18 (2 ULg)
Volitional electromyographic responses in disorders of consciousness
; Gosseries, Olivia ; Noirhomme, Quentin et al
in Brain Injury (2014)
The aim of the study was to validate the use of electromyography (EMG) for detecting responses to command in patients in vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (VS/UWS) or in minimally ... [more ▼]
The aim of the study was to validate the use of electromyography (EMG) for detecting responses to command in patients in vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (VS/UWS) or in minimally conscious state (MCS). Methods: Thirty-eight patients were included in the study (23 traumatic, 25 patients >1 year post-onset), 10 diagnosed as being in VS/UWS, eight in MCS- (no response to command) and 20 in MCS+ (response to command). Eighteen age-matched controls participated in the experiment. The paradigm consisted of three commands (i.e. 'Move your hands', 'Move your legs' and 'Clench your teeth') and one control sentence (i.e. 'It is a sunny day') presented in random order. Each auditory stimulus was repeated 4-times within one block with a stimulus-onset asynchrony of 30 seconds. Results: Post-hoc analyses with Bonferroni correction revealed that EMG activity was higher solely for the target command in one patient in permanent VS/UWS and in three patients in MCS+. Conclusion: The use of EMG could help clinicians to detect conscious patients who do not show any volitional response during standard behavioural assessments. However, further investigations should determine the sensitivity of EMG as compared to neuroimaging and electrophysiological assessments. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 32 (7 ULg)
The Impact of Dual-Tasking on Verbal Short-Term Memory in Children with Specific Language Impairment
Leclercq, Anne-Lise ; Maillart, Christelle ; et al
Poster (2014, June)
Limitations in general processing capacities have been proposed to account for poor verbal short-term memory (STM) performances in children with SLI. Previous studies observed that STM performances ... [more ▼]
Limitations in general processing capacities have been proposed to account for poor verbal short-term memory (STM) performances in children with SLI. Previous studies observed that STM performances decreased to a larger extent in children with SLI as compared to their unaffected peers when the processing demands of the task increased (e.g., Ellis Weismer, et al., 2005; Montgomery, 2000a,b). However, in these studies, the increase in attention processing demands went with an increase in linguistic processing demands. Since children with SLI experience language processing problems, it is not clear whether general attention problems or language processing problems are at the root of their larger performance decrease as compared to their unaffected peers. This study aims at directly assessing the hypothesis that limitations in general attentional capacity are at the root of poor STM performances in children with SLI, using an attention demanding visual search task administered concurrently with nonword repetition task. Twenty-three children with SLI, 23 age-matched children, and 23 nonword span-matched children performed immediate serial recall tasks of nonwords. The STM lists were presented either alone or concurrently with the target detection task. Moreover, the target detection task either stopped or continued when children had to recall the nonwords. Results show a main effect of dual task condition on both nonword repetition accuracy and target detection accuracy. Performances in children with SLI were not more affected than in controls by the necessity to perform a concurrent visual attention task during nonword lists presentation. However, nonword recall seemed to be more challenging for children with SLI than for age-matched controls. Indeed, performances in the visual task were lower in children with SLI than in their age-matched controls, but not as compared to nonword span-matched controls. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 113 (11 ULg)
Domain generality of serial order processing in short-term memory : Evidence from musical and verbal domains.
Majerus, Steve ; Gorin, Simon
Conference (2014, May 27)
Recent models of verbal short-term memory (STM) propose a distinction between item storage processes, which are viewed as domain-specific, and order storage processes, which are considered by some authors ... [more ▼]
Recent models of verbal short-term memory (STM) propose a distinction between item storage processes, which are viewed as domain-specific, and order storage processes, which are considered by some authors to be domain-general, at least as regards verbal and visual STM domains. Here we provide further evidence for domain-specific item STM processes and domain-general order STM processes by comparing item and order processing in verbal and musical STM domains. The musical domain is particularly relevant here given its reliance on different kinds of sequential processes (e.g., tones successions, rhythm). Using an interindividual differences approach, we administered to a group of young healthy adults different tasks requiring retention of item identity for words or tones, and tasks requiring retention of serial order information for word sequences or note sequences, as well as a task measuring retention abilities for rhythmic information. For the item STM tasks, we observed strong intercorrelations for within-domain WM measures, but not between-domain WM measures, after controlling for general WM abilities. For the serial order STM tasks, we observed a specific association with the rhythm STM task. These results highlight the importance of temporal sequential processes, as measured by the rhythm STM task, as a driving factor of domain-general STM processes in verbal and musical domains. They furthermore confirm the domain-specificity of item STM processes. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 138 (32 ULg)
The heterogeneity of working memory impairment in neurodevelopmental disorders : Evidence from three neurogenetic disorders.
Conference (2014, April 18)Detailed reference viewed: 14 (1 ULg)
Relationships between mind-wandering and attentional control abilities in young adults and adolescents
Stawarczyk, David ; Majerus, Steve ; Catale, Corinne et al
in Acta Psychologica (2014), 148
Recent findings suggest that mind-wandering—the occurrence of thoughts that are both stimulus-independent and task-unrelated—corresponds to temporary failures in attentional control processes involved in ... [more ▼]
Recent findings suggest that mind-wandering—the occurrence of thoughts that are both stimulus-independent and task-unrelated—corresponds to temporary failures in attentional control processes involved in maintaining constant task-focused attention. Studies supporting this proposal are, however, limited by a possible confound between mind-wandering episodes and other kinds of conscious experiences, such as external distractions (i.e., interoceptive sensations and exteroceptive perceptions). In the present study, we addressed this issue by examining, in adolescents and young adults, the relations between tasks measuring attentional control abilities and a measure of mind-wandering that is distinct from external distractions. We observed (1) that adolescents experienced more frequent external distractions, but not more mind-wandering, than young adults during the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) and (2) that, in young adults, the influence of external distractions on SART performance was fully accounted for by attentional control abilities, whereas mind-wandering was associated with decreases in SART performance above and beyond what was explained by attentional control abilities. These results show that mind-wandering cannot be entirely reduced to failures in the ability to maintain one’s attention focused on task, and suggest that external distractions rather than mind-wandering are due to attentional control failures. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 57 (11 ULg)
The impact of lexical frequency on sentence comprehension in children with specific language impairment
Leclercq, Anne-Lise ; Majerus, Steve ; et al
in Research in Developmental Disabilities (2014), 35
Children with SLI generally exhibit poor sentence comprehension skills. We examined the specific impact of grammatical complexity and lexical frequency on comprehension performance, yielding contrasting ... [more ▼]
Children with SLI generally exhibit poor sentence comprehension skills. We examined the specific impact of grammatical complexity and lexical frequency on comprehension performance, yielding contrasting results. The present study sheds new light on sentence comprehension in children with SLI by investigating a linguistic factor which has attracted little research interest: the impact of the lexical frequency of known words on sentence comprehension. We also examined the impact of grammatical complexity and sentence length by independently varying these two factors. Fifteen children with SLI, 15 age- and IQ-matched controls, and 15 controls matched on lexical and grammatical skills, performed sentence comprehension tasks in which three linguistic factors were manipulated: lexical frequency (sentences containing words of either low or high lexical frequency), grammatical complexity (sentence containing either a subject relative clause or an object relative clause) and sentence length (either short or long sentences). Results indicated that children with SLI performed more poorly overall compared to age- and IQmatched children and to lexical and morphosyntactic age-matched children. However, their performance was not more affected by either sentence length or clause type than that of control children. Only lexical frequency affected sentence comprehension to a greater extent in children with SLI relative to the control groups, revealing that SLI children’s sentence comprehension abilities are particularly affected by the presence of lowfrequency but familiar words. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 77 (16 ULg)
Preserved Covert Cognition in Noncommunicative Patients With Severe Brain Injury?
; ; et al
in Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair (2014)Detailed reference viewed: 37 (11 ULg)
Memoire de travail verbale ou Comment s'en sortir des méandres théoriques.
Conference (2014)Detailed reference viewed: 49 (5 ULg)
The Mental Whiteboard Hypothesis on Serial Order in Working Memory
; ; Majerus, Steve et al
in Frontiers in Human Neuroscience (2014), 8Detailed reference viewed: 20 (2 ULg)
La mémoire à court terme/de travail : Hétérogénéité des déficits à travers les syndromes neurogénétiques?
Scientific conference (2014)Detailed reference viewed: 21 (1 ULg)
Decoding neural correlates of verbal working memory by attention-based visual working memory.
Majerus, Steve ; ; et al
Scientific conference (2014)Detailed reference viewed: 29 (7 ULg)
Rééducation des déficits de la mémoire à court terme: Quo vadimus?
Scientific conference (2014)Detailed reference viewed: 25 (3 ULg)
The genetic heterogeneity of verbal short-term memory deficits: Evidence from three syndromes
Conference (2014)Detailed reference viewed: 21 (2 ULg)
Better neuronal efficiency after emotional competences training: an fMRI study
Hansenne, Michel ; ; Feyers, Dorothée et al
in Psychologica Belgica (2014), 54Detailed reference viewed: 19 (2 ULg)
Common neural substrates for ordinal representation in short-term memory, numerical and alphabetical cognition
Attout, Lucie ; ; Salmon, Eric et al
in PLoS ONE (2014), 9Detailed reference viewed: 34 (5 ULg)
The impact of aging and hearing status on verbal working memory
Verhaegen, Clémence ; Collette, Fabienne ; Majerus, Steve
in Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition (2014), 21(4), 464-482Detailed reference viewed: 36 (18 ULg)
The relationship between working memory for serial order and numerical development: a longitudinal study
Attout, Lucie ; ; Majerus, Steve
in Developmental Psychology (2014), 50(6), 1667-1679Detailed reference viewed: 66 (25 ULg)