References of "Majerus, Steve"
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See detailSelf-reflection across time: cortical midline structures differentiate between present and past selves
D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg; Feyers, Dorothée ULg; Majerus, Steve ULg et al

in Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience (2008), 3(3), 244-252

The processing of personal changes across time and the ability to differentiate between representations of present and past selves are crucial for developing a mature sense of identity. In this study, we ... [more ▼]

The processing of personal changes across time and the ability to differentiate between representations of present and past selves are crucial for developing a mature sense of identity. In this study, we explored the neural correlates of self-reflection across time using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). College undergraduates were asked to reflect on their own psychological characteristics and those of an intimate other, for both the present time period (i.e. at college) and a past time period (i.e. high school years) that involved significant personal changes. Cortical midline structures (CMS) were commonly recruited by the four reflective tasks (reflecting on the present self, past self, present other and past other), relative to a control condition (making valence judgments). More importantly, however, the degree of activity in CMS also varied significantly according to the target of reflection, with the ventral and dorsal medial prefrontal cortex and the posterior cingulate cortex being more recruited when reflecting on the present self than when reflecting on the past self or when reflecting on the other person. These findings suggest that CMS may contribute to differentiate between representations of present and past selves. [less ▲]

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See detailShort-term memory and the left intraparietal sulcus: Focus of attention? Further evidence from a face short-term memory paradigm
Majerus, Steve ULg; Bastin, Christine ULg; Poncelet, Martine ULg et al

in NeuroImage (2007), 35(1), 353-367

This study explored the validity of an attentional account for the involvement of the left intraparietal sulcus (IPS) in visual STM tasks. This account considers that during STM tasks, the IPS acts as an ... [more ▼]

This study explored the validity of an attentional account for the involvement of the left intraparietal sulcus (IPS) in visual STM tasks. This account considers that during STM tasks, the IPS acts as an attentional modulator, maintaining activation in long-term memory networks that underlie the initial perception and processing of the specific information to be retained. In a recognition STM paradigm, we presented sequences of unfamiliar faces and instructed the participants to remember different types of information: either the identity of the faces or their order of presentation. We hypothesized that, if the left IPS acts as an attentional modulator, it should be active in both conditions, but connected to different neural networks specialized in serial order or face identity processing. Our results showed that the left IPS was activated during both order and identity encoding conditions, but for different reasons. During order encoding, the left IPS showed functional connectivity with order processing areas in the right IPS, bilateral premotor and cerebellar cortices, reproducing earlier results obtained in a verbal STM experiment. During identity encoding, the left IPS showed preferential functional connectivity with right temporal, inferior parietal and medial frontal areas involved in detailed face processing. These results not only support an attentional account of left IPS involvement in visual STM, but given their similarity with previous results obtained for a verbal STM task, they further highlight the importance of the left IPS as an attentional modulator in a variety of STM tasks. [less ▲]

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See detailWhat does a patient with semantic dementia remember in verbal short-term memory? Order and sound but not words
Majerus, Steve ULg; Norris, D.; Patterson, K.

in Cognitive Neuropsychology (2007), 24(2), 131-151

In this study, we explored capacities for three different aspects of short-term verbal memory in patients with semantic dementia. As expected, the two patients had poor recall for lexico-semantic item ... [more ▼]

In this study, we explored capacities for three different aspects of short-term verbal memory in patients with semantic dementia. As expected, the two patients had poor recall for lexico-semantic item information, as assessed by immediate serial recall of word lists. In contrast, their short-term memory for phonological information was preserved, as evidenced by normal performance for immediate serial recall of nonword lists, with normal or increased nonword phonotactic-frequency effects, and increased sensitivity to phonological lures in a delayed probe recognition task. Furthermore, the patients appeared to have excellent memory for the serial order of the words in a list. These data provide further support for the proposal that language knowledge is a major determining factor of verbal STM capacity, but they also highlight the necessary distinction of processes involved in item and order recall, as proposed by recent models of STM. [less ▲]

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See detailVerbal short-term memory in individuals with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion: Specific deficit in serial order retention capacities?
Majerus, Steve ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Braissand, V. et al

in American Journal on Mental Retardation (2007), 112(2), 79-93

Many researchers have recently explored the cognitive profile of velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), a neurodevelopmental disorder linked to a 22q11.2 deletion. However, verbal short-term memory has not yet ... [more ▼]

Many researchers have recently explored the cognitive profile of velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), a neurodevelopmental disorder linked to a 22q11.2 deletion. However, verbal short-term memory has not yet been systematically investigated. We explored verbal short-term memory abilities in a group of 11 children and adults presenting with VCFS and two control groups, matched on either CA or vocabulary knowledge, by distinguishing short-term memory for serial order and item information. The VCFS group showed impaired performance on the serial order short-term memory tasks compared to both control groups. Relative to the vocabulary-matched control group, item short-term memory was preserved. The implication of serial order short-term memory deficits on other aspects of cognitive development in VCFS (e.g., language development, numerical cognition) is discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation de la mémoire chez l’enfant
Catale, Corinne ULg; Closset, Annette; Majerus, Steve ULg

in Noël, Marie-Pascale (Ed.) Bilan neuropsychologique de l’enfant : Evaluation, Mesure et Diagnostic (2007)

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See detailA multicomponent exploration of verbal short-term storage deficits in normal aging and Alzheimer’s disease
Peters, Frédéric; Majerus, Steve ULg; Olivier, Laurence et al

in Journal of Clinical & Experimental Neuropsychology (2007), 29(4), 405-417

Although many studies have shown diminished performance in verbal short-term memory tasks in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD), the cognitive processes responsible for this verbal short-term ... [more ▼]

Although many studies have shown diminished performance in verbal short-term memory tasks in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD), the cognitive processes responsible for this verbal short-term storage (STS) impairment are still unclear for both populations. We explored verbal STS functioning in patients with AD, elderly participants, and young participants, by investigating a series of processes that could underlie STS impairments in normal elderly and AD populations. The processes we investigated were (a) the influence of lexical and sublexical language knowledge on short-term storage performance, (b) functioning of the phonological loop component via word length and phonological similarity effects, and (c) executive control processes (coordination and integration). For the AD and elderly groups, the influence of language knowledge on verbal STS performance and the functioning of the phonological loop were preserved. In contrast, the AD group showed deficits for coordination and integration processes. Our results suggest that the verbal STS deficit observed in AD patients is related to impaired executive control processes. On the other hand, language-related processes underlying passive storage capacity seem to be preserved. [less ▲]

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See detailMémoire de travail et vieillissement normal.
Collette, Fabienne ULg; Péters, Fréderic; Hogge, Michaël et al

in Aubin, Ghislaine; Coyette, Françoise; Pradat-Diehl, Pascale (Eds.) et al Neuropsychologie de la mémoire de travail (2007)

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See detailNaming actions and objects in bilingual aphasia : a multiple case study
Poncelet, Martine ULg; Majerus, Steve ULg; Raman, Ilhan et al

in Brain & Language (2007), 103

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See detailWorking memory dysfunctions in stroke patients
Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Poncelet, Martine ULg; Majerus, Steve ULg

in Godefroy, Olivier; Bogousslavsky, Julien (Eds.) The behavioural and cognitive neurology of stroke (2007)

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See detailExploring the relationship between new word learning and short-term memory for serial order recall, item recall, and item recognition
Majerus, Steve ULg; Poncelet, Martine ULg; Elsen, B. et al

in European Journal of Cognitive Psychology (2006), 18(6), 848-873

We reexplored the relationship between new word learning and verbal short-term memory (STM) capacities, by distinguishing STM for serial order information, item recall, and item recognition. STM ... [more ▼]

We reexplored the relationship between new word learning and verbal short-term memory (STM) capacities, by distinguishing STM for serial order information, item recall, and item recognition. STM capacities for order information were estimated via a serial order reconstruction task. A rhyme probe recognition task assessed STM for item recognition. Item recall capacities were derived from the proportion of item errors in an immediate serial recall task. In Experiment 1, strong correlations were observed between item recall and item recognition, but not between the item STM tasks and the serial order task, supporting recent theoretical positions that consider that STM for item and serial order rely on distinct capacities. Experiment 2 showed that only the serial order reconstruction task predicted independent variance in a paired associate word - nonword learning task. Our results suggest that STM capacities for serial order play a specific and causal role in learning new phonological information. [less ▲]

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See detailA multiple case study of verbal short-term memory in velo-cardio-facial syndrome
Majerus, Steve ULg; Glaser, B.; Van der Linden, Martial ULg et al

in Journal of Intellectual Disability Research (2006), 50(Pt 6), 457-469

Background: Velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS, 22q11.2 deletion) is characterized by severely delayed language development. The current study explored the integrity of verbal short-term memory (STM), a ... [more ▼]

Background: Velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS, 22q11.2 deletion) is characterized by severely delayed language development. The current study explored the integrity of verbal short-term memory (STM), a cognitive function critically involved in language development, in eight children with VCFS. Methods: Using a multiple case study design, we presented a series of STM tasks exploring immediate serial recall for word and non-word lists to eight children with VCFS (aged 8 - 12 years) and to chronological-age-matched control groups. A first task assessed the integrity of phonological coding in verbal STM by comparing recall for phonologically similar and dissimilar words. Subsequently, the interaction between verbal knowledge and STM capacity was investigated by comparing recall for high- and low-imageability words, for high- and low-frequency words, and for words and non-words. A final task assessed short-term serial order recognition for digit sequences. Results: When computing the number of items recalled in the word recall tasks, independently of their serial position, only one child presented consistent difficulties. Short-term recall of non-words was normal in each child. Phonological similarity and verbal knowledge influenced STM performance to a similar extent in children with VCFS and controls. On the other hand, when applying a strict serial recall criterion, difficulties with the word and non-word recall tasks were observed in most children. Half of the patients were also impaired in the serial order recognition task. Conclusions: Despite mild intellectual disability, it is possible for short-term retention capacities for verbal item information to be at an age-appropriate level in VCFS. However, STM for serial order information could be impaired more specifically. [less ▲]

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See detailRelations between vocabulary development and verbal short-term memory: The relative importance of short-term memory for serial order and item information
Majerus, Steve ULg; Poncelet, Martine ULg; Greffe, C. et al

in Journal of Experimental Child Psychology (2006), 93(2), 95-119

Although many studies have shown an association between verbal short-term memory (STM) and vocabulary development, the precise nature of this association is not yet clear. The current study reexamined ... [more ▼]

Although many studies have shown an association between verbal short-term memory (STM) and vocabulary development, the precise nature of this association is not yet clear. The current study reexamined this relation in 4- to 6-year-olds by designing verbal STM tasks that maximized memory for either item or serial order information. Although empirical data suggest that distinct STM processes determine item and serial order recall, these were generally confounded in previous developmental studies. We observed that item and order memory tasks were independently related to vocabulary development. Furthermore, vocabulary development was more strongly associated with STM for order information in 4- and 6-year-olds and with STM for item information in 5-year-olds. These data highlight the specificity of verbal STM for serial order and item information and suggest a causal association between order STM processes and vocabulary development, at least in 4- and 6-year-olds. (c) 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailThe left intraparietal sulcus and verbal short-term memory: Focus of attention or serial order ?
Majerus, Steve ULg; Poncelet, Martine ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg et al

in Neuroimage (2006), 32(2), 880-891

One of the most consistently activated regions during verbal short-term memory (STM) tasks is the left intraparietal sulcus (IPS). However, its precise role remains a matter of debate. While some authors ... [more ▼]

One of the most consistently activated regions during verbal short-term memory (STM) tasks is the left intraparietal sulcus (IPS). However, its precise role remains a matter of debate. While some authors consider the IPS to be a specific store for serial order information, other data suggest that it serves a more general function of attentional focalization. In the current fMRI experiment, we investigated these two hypotheses by presenting different verbal STM conditions that probed recognition for word identity or word order and by assessing functional connectivity of the left IPS with distant brain areas. If the IPS has a role of attentional focalization, then it should be involved in both order and item conditions, but it should be connected to different brain regions, depending on the neural substrates involved in processing the different types of information (order versus phonological/orthographic) to be remembered in the item and order STM conditions. We observed that the left IPS was activated in both order and item STM conditions but for different reasons: during order STM, the left IPS was functionally connected to serial/temporal order processing areas in the right IPS, premotor and cerebellar cortices, while during item STM, the left IPS was connected to phonological and orthographic processing areas in the superior temporal and fusiform gyri. Our data support a position considering that the left IPS acts as an attentional modulator of distant neural networks which themselves are specialized in processing order or language representations. More generally, they strengthen attention-based accounts of verbal STM. [less ▲]

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See detailAn exploration of the relationships between short-term memory for serial order information, item information and new word learning in adults
Majerus, Steve ULg; Poncelet, Martine ULg; Elsen, B. et al

in European Journal of Cognitive Psychology (2006), 18(6), 848-873

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See detailResidual cognitive function in comatose, vegetative and minimally conscious states
Laureys, Steven ULg; Perrin, F.; Schnakers, Caroline ULg et al

in Current Opinion In Neurology (2005), 18(6), 726-733

Purpose of review The clinical evaluation of cognition in non-communicative severely brain-damaged patients is inherently difficult. In addition to novel behavioural 'consciousness-scales', the role of ... [more ▼]

Purpose of review The clinical evaluation of cognition in non-communicative severely brain-damaged patients is inherently difficult. In addition to novel behavioural 'consciousness-scales', the role of para-clinical markers of consciousness, such as event related potentials and functional neuroimaging is reviewed. Recent findings New behavioural scales for vegetative and minimally conscious patients have been shown to reduce diagnostic error but regrettably remain underused in clinical routine. Electrophysiological studies have confirmed their role in estimating outcome and possibly cognition. Several recent functional neuroimaging studies have shown residual cortical function in undeniably vegetative patients. This cortical activation, however, seems limited to primary 'low-level' areas and does not imply 'higher-order' integration, considered necessary for conscious perception. Minimally conscious patients show large-scale high-order cerebral activation, apparently dependent upon the emotional relevance of the stimulation. Summary Careful clinical assessment of putative 'conscious behaviour' in vegetative and minimally conscious patients is the first requirement for their proper diagnosis and management. Complementary functional neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies will have a major impact on future clinical decision making and may guide selective therapeutic options. At present, more experimental evidence and the elucidation of methodological and ethical controversies are awaited prior to their routine clinical use. [less ▲]

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See detailTreating verbal short-term memory deficits by increasing the duration of temporary phonological representations : a case study
Majerus, Steve ULg; Van Der Kaa, M. A.; Renard, Cécile ULg et al

in Brain & Language (2005), 95(1), 174-175

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See detailModulation of brain activity during phonological familiarization
Majerus, Steve ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Collette, Fabienne ULg et al

in Brain & Language (2005), 92(3), 320-331

We measured brain activity in 12 adults for the repetition of auditorily presented words and nonwords, before and after repeated exposure to their phonological form. The nonword phoneme combinations were ... [more ▼]

We measured brain activity in 12 adults for the repetition of auditorily presented words and nonwords, before and after repeated exposure to their phonological form. The nonword phoneme combinations were either of high (HF) or low (LF) phonotactic frequency. After familiarization, we observed, for both word and nonword conditions, decreased activation in the left posterior superior temporal gyrus, in the bilateral temporal pole and middle temporal gyri. At the same time, interaction analysis showed that the magnitude of decrease of activity in bilateral posterior temporal lobe was significantly smaller for LF nonwords, relative to words and HF nonwords. Decrease of activity in this area also correlated with the size of behavioral familiarization effects for LF nonwords. The results show that the posterior superior temporal gyrus plays a fundamental role during phonological learning. Its relationship to sublexical and lexical phonological processing as well as to phonological short-term memory is discussed. (c) 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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