References of "Majerus, Steve"
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See detailNeural network involved in young and elderly adults
Feyers, Dorothée ULg; Collette, Fabienne ULg; D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg et al

in Proceedings of the Cognitive Aging Conference (2008, April 11)

In agreement with the literature, we have recently observed that the ventro-medial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) is activated both in young and elderly subjects during a adjective judgment task requiring ... [more ▼]

In agreement with the literature, we have recently observed that the ventro-medial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) is activated both in young and elderly subjects during a adjective judgment task requiring judgment about self vs. other in the context of a first (1PP) or third (3PP) perspective-taking (Ruby et al., submitted). Here, we have performed functional connectivity analyses to determine the network of cerebral areas associated to the performance of young and elderly subjects. Results indicate that, in the 1PP condition, activity of the VMPFC is related to the medial orbito-frontal, posterior and inferior temporal and parietal areas in elderly, but to the occipital cortex only in young subjects. In the 3PP condition, functional connectivity exist between the VMPFC and posterior temporal and lateral orbito-frontal areas in elderly, but with occipital and parietal areas only in young subjects. The cerebral areas associated to VMPFC activity in young subjects were previously described as involved both in autobiographic memory retrieval and mentalizing processes. With regard to elderly, the cerebral network evidenced is related to autobiographic memory retrieval (parietal and temporal areas) but also to the attribution of emotional valence to the adjectives (medial orbito-frontal) and perspective taking both in 1PP and 3PP conditions (lateral orbito-frontal). These results indicate (1) that the VMPFC is connected to a larger cerebral network in elderly than in young subjects during self judgements; (2) that young subjects perform the task on the basis of autobiographical information retrieval only, while elderly subjects use supplementary, more reflexive, cognitive processes. [less ▲]

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See detailVoluntary brain processing in disorders of consciousness
Schnakers, Caroline ULg; Perrin, F.; Schabus, M. et al

in Neurology (2008), 71(20), 1614-1620

Background: Disentangling the vegetative state from the minimally conscious state is often difficult when relying only on behavioral observation. In this study, we explored a new active evoked related ... [more ▼]

Background: Disentangling the vegetative state from the minimally conscious state is often difficult when relying only on behavioral observation. In this study, we explored a new active evoked related potentials paradigm as an alternative method for the detection of voluntary brain activity. Methods: The participants were 22 right-handed patients (10 traumatic) diagnosed as being in a vegetative state (VS) (n 8) or in a minimally conscious state (MCS) (n 14). They were presented sequences of names containing the patient’s own name or other names, in both passive and active conditions. In the active condition, the patients were instructed to count her or his own name or to count another target name. Results: Like controls, MCS patients presented a larger P3 to the patient’s own name, in the passive and in the active conditions. Moreover, the P3 to target stimuli was higher in the active than in the passive condition, suggesting voluntary compliance to task instructions like controls. These responses were even observed in patients with low behavioral responses (e.g., visual fixationand pursuit). In contrast, no P3 differences between passive and active conditions were observed for VS patients. Conclusions: The present results suggest that active evoked-related potentials paradigms may permit detection of voluntary brain function in patients with severe brain damage who present with a disorder of consciousness, even when the patient may present with very limited to questionablyany signs of awareness. [less ▲]

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See detailBewusstseinsstörungen - Diagnose und Prognose
Laureys, Steven ULg; FAYMONVILLE, Marie-Elisabeth ULg; BOLY, Mélanie ULg et al

in Junginger, T. (Ed.) Grenzsituationen der Intensivmedizin-Entscheidungsgrundlagen (2008)

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See detailMesurer la douleur chez le patient non communicant.
Chatelle, Camille ULg; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey ULg; Mergam, Anne-Nora ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2008), 63(5-6), 429-37

Pain is a subjective experience. Its assessment is based on the subject's direct verbal report. This method of assessment is, however, impossible in patients who cannot communicate their feelings. In this ... [more ▼]

Pain is a subjective experience. Its assessment is based on the subject's direct verbal report. This method of assessment is, however, impossible in patients who cannot communicate their feelings. In this context, indirect measurements such as behavioral observations or physiological measurements are needed. To facilitate the assessment of pain in non-communicative patients, numerous standardized behavioral scales have been developed. The aim of this review is to discuss the main validated pain scales employed in end-stage dementia, newborn and preverbal children, and severely brain damaged patients with a disorder of consciousness such as coma, the vegetative state or the minimally conscious state. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasuring the effect of amantadine in chronic anoxic minimally conscious state.
Schnakers, Caroline ULg; Hustinx, Roland ULg; Vandewalle, Gilles ULg et al

in Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry (2008), 79(2), 225-7

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See detailQuelle vie apres le Locked-In syndrome?
Bruno, Marie-Aurélie ULg; Pellas, F.; Bernheim, J. L. et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2008), 63(5-6), 445-51

The Locked-In Syndrome (LIS) is classically caused by an anterior pontine vascular lesion and characterized by quadriplegia and anarthria with preserved consciousness and intellectual functioning. We here ... [more ▼]

The Locked-In Syndrome (LIS) is classically caused by an anterior pontine vascular lesion and characterized by quadriplegia and anarthria with preserved consciousness and intellectual functioning. We here review the definition, etiologies, diagnosis and prognosis of LIS patients and briefly discuss the few studies on their quality of life and the challenging end-of-life decisions that can be encountered. Some clinicians may consider that LIS is worse than being in a vegetative or in a minimally conscious state. However, preliminary data from chronic LIS survivors show a surprisingly preserved self-scored quality of life and requests of treatment withdrawal or euthanasia, though not absent, are infrequent. [less ▲]

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See detailNeural networks for short-term memory for order differentiate high and low proficiency bilinguals
Majerus, Steve ULg; Belayachi, Sanaa ULg; De Smedt, Bert et al

in NeuroImage (2008), 42

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See detailA french validation study of the Coma Recovery Scaled-Revised (CRS-R)
Schnakers, Caroline ULg; Majerus, Steve ULg; Giacino, Joseph et al

in Brain Injury (2008), 22(10), 786-792

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See detailSelf-reflection across time: cortical midline structures differentiate between present and past selves
D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg; Feyers, Dorothée ULg; Majerus, Steve ULg et al

in Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience (2008), 3(3), 244-252

The processing of personal changes across time and the ability to differentiate between representations of present and past selves are crucial for developing a mature sense of identity. In this study, we ... [more ▼]

The processing of personal changes across time and the ability to differentiate between representations of present and past selves are crucial for developing a mature sense of identity. In this study, we explored the neural correlates of self-reflection across time using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). College undergraduates were asked to reflect on their own psychological characteristics and those of an intimate other, for both the present time period (i.e. at college) and a past time period (i.e. high school years) that involved significant personal changes. Cortical midline structures (CMS) were commonly recruited by the four reflective tasks (reflecting on the present self, past self, present other and past other), relative to a control condition (making valence judgments). More importantly, however, the degree of activity in CMS also varied significantly according to the target of reflection, with the ventral and dorsal medial prefrontal cortex and the posterior cingulate cortex being more recruited when reflecting on the present self than when reflecting on the past self or when reflecting on the other person. These findings suggest that CMS may contribute to differentiate between representations of present and past selves. [less ▲]

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See detailShort-term memory and the left intraparietal sulcus: Focus of attention? Further evidence from a face short-term memory paradigm
Majerus, Steve ULg; Bastin, Christine ULg; Poncelet, Martine ULg et al

in NeuroImage (2007), 35(1), 353-367

This study explored the validity of an attentional account for the involvement of the left intraparietal sulcus (IPS) in visual STM tasks. This account considers that during STM tasks, the IPS acts as an ... [more ▼]

This study explored the validity of an attentional account for the involvement of the left intraparietal sulcus (IPS) in visual STM tasks. This account considers that during STM tasks, the IPS acts as an attentional modulator, maintaining activation in long-term memory networks that underlie the initial perception and processing of the specific information to be retained. In a recognition STM paradigm, we presented sequences of unfamiliar faces and instructed the participants to remember different types of information: either the identity of the faces or their order of presentation. We hypothesized that, if the left IPS acts as an attentional modulator, it should be active in both conditions, but connected to different neural networks specialized in serial order or face identity processing. Our results showed that the left IPS was activated during both order and identity encoding conditions, but for different reasons. During order encoding, the left IPS showed functional connectivity with order processing areas in the right IPS, bilateral premotor and cerebellar cortices, reproducing earlier results obtained in a verbal STM experiment. During identity encoding, the left IPS showed preferential functional connectivity with right temporal, inferior parietal and medial frontal areas involved in detailed face processing. These results not only support an attentional account of left IPS involvement in visual STM, but given their similarity with previous results obtained for a verbal STM task, they further highlight the importance of the left IPS as an attentional modulator in a variety of STM tasks. [less ▲]

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See detailWhat does a patient with semantic dementia remember in verbal short-term memory? Order and sound but not words
Majerus, Steve ULg; Norris, D.; Patterson, K.

in Cognitive Neuropsychology (2007), 24(2), 131-151

In this study, we explored capacities for three different aspects of short-term verbal memory in patients with semantic dementia. As expected, the two patients had poor recall for lexico-semantic item ... [more ▼]

In this study, we explored capacities for three different aspects of short-term verbal memory in patients with semantic dementia. As expected, the two patients had poor recall for lexico-semantic item information, as assessed by immediate serial recall of word lists. In contrast, their short-term memory for phonological information was preserved, as evidenced by normal performance for immediate serial recall of nonword lists, with normal or increased nonword phonotactic-frequency effects, and increased sensitivity to phonological lures in a delayed probe recognition task. Furthermore, the patients appeared to have excellent memory for the serial order of the words in a list. These data provide further support for the proposal that language knowledge is a major determining factor of verbal STM capacity, but they also highlight the necessary distinction of processes involved in item and order recall, as proposed by recent models of STM. [less ▲]

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See detailVerbal short-term memory in individuals with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion: Specific deficit in serial order retention capacities?
Majerus, Steve ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Braissand, V. et al

in American Journal on Mental Retardation (2007), 112(2), 79-93

Many researchers have recently explored the cognitive profile of velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), a neurodevelopmental disorder linked to a 22q11.2 deletion. However, verbal short-term memory has not yet ... [more ▼]

Many researchers have recently explored the cognitive profile of velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), a neurodevelopmental disorder linked to a 22q11.2 deletion. However, verbal short-term memory has not yet been systematically investigated. We explored verbal short-term memory abilities in a group of 11 children and adults presenting with VCFS and two control groups, matched on either CA or vocabulary knowledge, by distinguishing short-term memory for serial order and item information. The VCFS group showed impaired performance on the serial order short-term memory tasks compared to both control groups. Relative to the vocabulary-matched control group, item short-term memory was preserved. The implication of serial order short-term memory deficits on other aspects of cognitive development in VCFS (e.g., language development, numerical cognition) is discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation de la mémoire chez l’enfant
Catale, Corinne ULg; Closset, Annette; Majerus, Steve ULg

in Noël, Marie-Pascale (Ed.) Bilan neuropsychologique de l’enfant : Evaluation, Mesure et Diagnostic (2007)

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See detailA multicomponent exploration of verbal short-term storage deficits in normal aging and Alzheimer’s disease
Peters, Frédéric; Majerus, Steve ULg; Olivier, Laurence et al

in Journal of Clinical & Experimental Neuropsychology (2007), 29(4), 405-417

Although many studies have shown diminished performance in verbal short-term memory tasks in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD), the cognitive processes responsible for this verbal short-term ... [more ▼]

Although many studies have shown diminished performance in verbal short-term memory tasks in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD), the cognitive processes responsible for this verbal short-term storage (STS) impairment are still unclear for both populations. We explored verbal STS functioning in patients with AD, elderly participants, and young participants, by investigating a series of processes that could underlie STS impairments in normal elderly and AD populations. The processes we investigated were (a) the influence of lexical and sublexical language knowledge on short-term storage performance, (b) functioning of the phonological loop component via word length and phonological similarity effects, and (c) executive control processes (coordination and integration). For the AD and elderly groups, the influence of language knowledge on verbal STS performance and the functioning of the phonological loop were preserved. In contrast, the AD group showed deficits for coordination and integration processes. Our results suggest that the verbal STS deficit observed in AD patients is related to impaired executive control processes. On the other hand, language-related processes underlying passive storage capacity seem to be preserved. [less ▲]

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See detailMémoire de travail et vieillissement normal.
Collette, Fabienne ULg; Péters, Fréderic; Hogge, Michaël et al

in Aubin, Ghislaine; Coyette, Françoise; Pradat-Diehl, Pascale (Eds.) et al Neuropsychologie de la mémoire de travail (2007)

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