Typing of O26 enterohaemorrhagic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from humans and cattle with IS621 multiplex PCR-based fingerprinting.
Mainil, Jacques ; Bardiau, Marjorie ; et al
in Journal of Applied Microbiology (2011), 111(3), 773-86
AIMS: This study evaluated a typing method of O26:H11 enterohaemorrhagic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EHEC and EPEC) based on the variation in genomic location and copy numbers of IS621. METHODS ... [more ▼]
AIMS: This study evaluated a typing method of O26:H11 enterohaemorrhagic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EHEC and EPEC) based on the variation in genomic location and copy numbers of IS621. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two multiplex PCRs, targeting either the left (5') or right (3') IS/chromosome junction of 12 IS621 insertion sites and one PCR specific of another truncated copy, were developed. Thirty-eight amplification profiles were observed amongst a collection of 69 human and bovine O26:H11 EHEC and EPEC. Seventy-one per cent of the 45 EHEC and EPEC with identical IS621 fingerprints within groups of two, three or four isolates had >85% pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profile similarity, including four groups of epidemiologically related EHEC or EPEC, while most of the groups had <85% similarity between each others. Epidemiologically related EHEC from each of three independent outbreaks in Japan and Belgium also exhibited identical IS621 fingerprints and PFGE profiles. CONCLUSIONS: The IS621 fingerprinting and the PFGE are complementary typing assays of EHEC and EPEC; though, the former is less discriminatory. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The IS621 printing method represents a rapid (24 h) first-line surveillance and typing assay, to compare and trace back O26:H11 EHEC and EPEC during surveys in farms, multiple human cases and outbreaks. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 31 (3 ULg)
Q Fever: Current State of Knowledge and Perspectives of Research of a Neglected Zoonosis
Porter, Sarah ; ; Mainil, Jacques et al
in International Journal of Microbiology (2011)Detailed reference viewed: 73 (9 ULg)
Epizootic rabbit enteropathy: Comparison of PCR-based RAPD fingerprints from virulent and non-virulent samples
Huybens, Nathalie ; Houeix, Julien ; et al
in Veterinary Journal (2011), 190(3), 416-417Detailed reference viewed: 35 (8 ULg)
Genotypic characterization by polymerase chain reaction of Staphylococcus aureus isolates associated with bovine mastitis
Ote, Isabelle ; Taminiau, Bernard ; Duprez, Jean-Noël et al
in Veterinary Microbiology (2011), 153Detailed reference viewed: 28 (8 ULg)
Study of polymorphisms in tir, eae and tccP2 genes in enterohaemorrhagic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli of serogroup O26.
Bardiau, Marjorie ; ; Mainil, Jacques
in BMC Microbiology (2011), 11
BACKGROUND: Enteropathogenic (EPEC) and enterohaemorrhagic (EHEC) Escherichia coli are responsible for food poisoning (enteritis and enterotoxaemia) in humans in developed countries. Cattle are considered ... [more ▼]
BACKGROUND: Enteropathogenic (EPEC) and enterohaemorrhagic (EHEC) Escherichia coli are responsible for food poisoning (enteritis and enterotoxaemia) in humans in developed countries. Cattle are considered to be an important reservoir of EHEC and EPEC strains for humans. Moreover, some of the strains, belonging to the O26, O111, O118 serogroups, for example, are also responsible for digestive disorders in calves. The Translocated intimin receptor (Tir), the intimin (Eae) and the Tir-cytoskeleton coupling protein (TccP) represent three virulence factors implicated in the intimate attachment of the bacteria to the eukaryotic cell. Major variants have already been described for these genes among the different serogroups but minor variations have not often been studied. In this study, we examined the polymorphisms of the tir, eae and tccP2 genes of O26 strains (EPEC and EHEC isolated from bovines and from humans) with the aim to determine whether these polymorphisms are host specific or not. RESULTS: Of the 70 tested strains, 10 strains (14% of the strains) presented one or several polymorphisms in the tir and eae genes, which have never previously been described. Concerning tccP2 detection, 47 of the 70 strains (67% of the strains) were found to be positive for this gene. Most of the strains were found to possess tccP2 variants described in strains of serogroup O26. Nevertheless, three strains had tccP2 genes respectively described in strains of serogroup O111, O103 and O55. Moreover, none of the polymorphisms was statistically specific to the bovine or the human isolates. Nevertheless, the two major variants of tccP2 were statistically associated with the pathotype (EPEC or EHEC). CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, tir and eae gene polymorphisms were found not to be numerous and not to be predominantly synonymous. Moreover, no difference was observed between human and bovine strains regarding the presence of polymorphisms. Finally, some tccP2 variants appeared to be pathotype specific. Further investigations need to be performed on a larger number of strains in order to confirm this specificity. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 16 (2 ULg)
Surgical hand antisepsis in veterinary practice: evaluation of soap scrubs and alcohol based rub techniques
Verwilghen, Denis ; Mainil, Jacques ; et al
in Veterinary Journal (2011), 190(3), 372-377
Recent evidence shows hydro-alcoholic solutions are more efficient than traditional medicinated soaps in the presurgical hand antisepsis of human surgeons. However, little veterinary literature is ... [more ▼]
Recent evidence shows hydro-alcoholic solutions are more efficient than traditional medicinated soaps in the presurgical hand antisepsis of human surgeons. However, little veterinary literature is available on the subject. The aims of this study were to compare the efficiency of medicinated soaps and a hydro-alcoholic solution prior to surgery using an in use testing method in a veterinary setting. A preliminary trial was performed that compared the mean Log10 number of bacterial colony forming units (CFU) and the reduction factors (RF) between 2 five-minute hand-scrubbing sessions using different soaps (povidone iodine (PVP) and chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX)) and the 1.5-min application of a hydro-alcoholic rub (Sterillium). A clinical in use trial comparing mean log10 number of bacterial CFU’s and RF for Sterillium and CHX soap was performed in a surgical set-up. Sampling was performed using finger printing on agar plates. Sterillium and CHX had a similar immediate effect, although the sustained effect was significantly better for Sterillium. PVP showed a significantly lower immediate and sustained effect. Sterillium showed good efficiency in the clinical trial. This study shows that, as previously reported for human medicine, Sterillium can safely be considered as an attractive alternative method for surgical hand antisepsis in a veterinary surgical setting. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 159 (18 ULg)
Epizootic rabbit enteropathy inoculum (TEC4) antibiograms and antibiotic fractionation
Huybens, Nathalie ; Houeix, Julien ; et al
in Veterinary Research Communications (2011), 35Detailed reference viewed: 33 (8 ULg)
Farmer perceptions and pathological constraints in helmeted guinea fowl farming in the Borgou department in North-East Benin
; ; et al
in African Journal of Agricultural Research (2011), 6Detailed reference viewed: 9 (1 ULg)
In vivo assessment of the virulence of five Salmonella enterica serotypes isolated from helmeted guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) in Benin
; ; et al
in International Research Journal of Microbiology [=IRJM] (2011), 2Detailed reference viewed: 9 (1 ULg)
La maladie de l'oedème du porcelet : Qui? Comment? Pourquoi?
Scientific conference (2010, November)
Evaluation of a hydro-alcoholic solution as pre-surgical hand antisepsis in a veterinary setting.
Verwilghen, Denis ; ; Mainil, Jacques et al
Conference (2010, July 02)
Introduction: Despite the fact that presurgical antiseptic hand treatment of surgical staff has since become a worldwide accepted procedure, surgical site infection is still one of the most frequent types ... [more ▼]
Introduction: Despite the fact that presurgical antiseptic hand treatment of surgical staff has since become a worldwide accepted procedure, surgical site infection is still one of the most frequent types of nosocomial infections. Many products have been used for hand antisepsis, but the popularity of alcoholic rubs amongst human surgeons is increasing as they have shown to provide a rapid and immediate action, are considerably faster than disinfecting soap scrubs and cause less skin damage after repeated use. The purpose of this study was 1) to identify surgical hand antisepsis habits amongst veterinary surgery specialists in Europe (ECVS) and the United States (ACVS), 2) to compare povidone iodine and chlorhexidine gluconate scrubs with a hydro-alcoholic rub hand antisepsis protocol and 3) to evaluate the usefulness of a hydro-alcoholic rub solution in a veterinary surgical setting. Materials and Methods: Emails were sent to 1300 Diplomates to invite them to participate to an online survey in order to obtain an idea about pre-surgical hand disinfection techniques. In a preliminary trial the efficiency of 4% chlorhexidine gluconate, 7.5 % PVP-iodine and an alcoholic solution containing 45% 2-propanol, 30% 1-propanol, 0.2% mecetronium ethylsulphate (Sterillium®) in bacterial reduction on hands was compared. In a clinical trial, the suitability of Sterillium® was assessed in an equine and small animal set up during surgery procedures. Fingertips were pressed on blood agar plates and Gassner plates prior to hand antisepsis (PHA), after handantisepsis (AHA) and three hours after wearing sterile gloves (AG) in the preliminary trial or at the end of surgery (AS) in the clinical trial. Bacterial counts (colony forming units : CFU’s) were obtained after 24 h of incubation of the plates. The obtained values of CFU from PHA, AHA, AG and AS were expressed as log10 values. For each sample, a reduction factor (RF) was obtained from the difference of log10 pre-value and log10 post-value. An ANOVA comparison between the effects of the different antisepsis protocols on the mean log10 CFU values and RF’s in function of the different steps was established. Results: A 42.6% response rate was obtained for the survey. Most surgeons’ still use a disinfecting soap only (79.9%) for hand antisepsis prior to surgery, the majority based on chlorhexidine gluconate (81.4%). Significant differences were found between immediate and sustained activities of the different products tested. Sterillium® was shown to have significantly lower LSM log10 CFU at AG compared to both other products. At AHA, povidone iodine revealed to have significantly higher LSM log10 CFU than Sterillium® and chlorhexidine gluconate, with the last two products having comparable activities. Reduction factors for the Sterillium® were significantly greater than for the other products. Only RF1 was comparable between Sterillium® and chlorhexidine gluconate. In the clinical trial, no significant differences were found between surgeons regarding LSM log10 CFU after hand antisepsis, neither between RF from samples taken at the small animal versus the equine surgery theatre. Discussion: This study confirms that Sterillium® is more effective in reducing bacterial counts on hands prior to surgery in a veterinary setting as are chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) and povidone iodine soap. Moreover, they provide better tolerance and compliance to surgical hygiene protocols. Despite this, veterinary surgeons from all over the world still prefer the use of CHX soap, which has far more disadvantages than commonly accepted. Apart from the better skin tolerance and the absence of known resitance to the product, the use of Sterillium® offers the advantage of a fast (1.5 minute) surgical handantisepsis. This study shows that, as previously reported for human medicine, Sterillium® can safely be used in a veterinary surgical setting. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 156 (5 ULg)
Final year thesis at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of the University of Liège : A new requirement, a new challenge!
Duchesnes, Christiane ; ; Mainil, Jacques
Conference (2010)Detailed reference viewed: 5 (0 ULg)
Antibiorésistance: une maladie génétique des bactéries.
Mainil, Jacques ; Mainil-Duchesnes, Christiane ; Muylaert, Adeline
Conference (2010)Detailed reference viewed: 9 (0 ULg)
Mécanismes de résistance des bactéries aux antibiotiques
Conference (2010)Detailed reference viewed: 5 (0 ULg)
Principales maladies bactériennes zoonotiques des animaux de compagnie (chiens et chats).
Conference (2010)Detailed reference viewed: 8 (1 ULg)
Enterotoxaemia-like syndrome and Clostridium perfringens in veal calves
Muylaert, Adeline ; ; Duprez, Jean-Noël et al
in Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association (2010), 167Detailed reference viewed: 27 (2 ULg)
Initial adherence of EPEC, EHEC and VTEC to host cells.
Bardiau, Marjorie ; Szalo, Ioan Mihai ; Mainil, Jacques
in Veterinary Research (2010), 41(5), 57
Initial adherence to host cells is the first step of the infection of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) and verotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) strains ... [more ▼]
Initial adherence to host cells is the first step of the infection of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) and verotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) strains. The importance of this step in the infection resides in the fact that (1) adherence is the first contact between bacteria and intestinal cells without which the other steps cannot occur and (2) adherence is the basis of host specificity for a lot of pathogens. This review describes the initial adhesins of the EPEC, EHEC and VTEC strains. During the last few years, several new adhesins and putative colonisation factors have been described, especially in EHEC strains. Only a few adhesins (BfpA, AF/R1, AF/R2, Ral, F18 adhesins) appear to be host and pathotype specific. The others are found in more than one species and/or pathotype (EPEC, EHEC, VTEC). Initial adherence of EPEC, EHEC and VTEC strains to host cells is probably mediated by multiple mechanisms. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 15 (4 ULg)
Prevalence, molecular typing, and antibiotic sensitivity of enteropathogenic, enterohaemorrhagic, and verotoxigenic Escherichia coli isolated from veal calves.
Bardiau, Marjorie ; Muylaert, Adeline ; Duprez, Jean-Noël et al
in Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde (2010), 135(14-15), 554-8
Cattle are considered to be an important reservoir of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) and verotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) strains that can cause disease in humans, and numerous studies of ... [more ▼]
Cattle are considered to be an important reservoir of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) and verotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) strains that can cause disease in humans, and numerous studies of the prevalence of these strains in cattle (focusing mainly on dairy and beef cattle) have been carried out in different regions of Europe, Asia, and America. To date, only a few studies of veal calves have been published focusing on EHEC strains belonging to the O157 serogroup EHEC, whereas EHEC and VTEC can belong to hundreds of different serotypes (many of which are as dangerous to humans as the O157:H7 EHEC, such as strains of the O26, O91, O103, O111, O113 and O145 serogroups). The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), EHEC, and VTEC strains in veal calves in Belgium and to characterize the positive isolates (serogroups, virulence-associated factor-encoding genes and antibiotic resistance profiles). The prevalence of EPEC, EHEC, and VTEC strains in faecal samples from veal calves in Belgium was found to be 11.7% (6.5% of the calves were found to be positive for EPEC strains, 2.6% for EHEC, and 3.9% for VTEC strains). No O157:H7 EHEC Strain was identified, but three calves were found to carry strains belonging to the O26 and O111 serogroups. The results of antibiotic sensitivity tests showed a high level of resistance (83% of strains were resistant or intermediate resistant to five or more antibiotics of the 13 tested antibiotics), which might be caused by the frequent use of antibiotics in veterinary practice. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 18 (1 ULg)
Enteropathogenic (EPEC), enterohaemorragic (EHEC) and verotoxigenic (VTEC) Escherichia coli in wild cervids
Bardiau, Marjorie ; Grégoire, Fabien ; Muylaert, Adeline et al
in Journal of Applied Microbiology (2010), 109(6), 2214-2222Detailed reference viewed: 27 (6 ULg)