References of "Mainil, Jacques"
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See detailFacteurs de virulence et propriétés spécifiques des souches invasives d'Escherichia coli : III) Production de toxines
Van Bost, S.; Mainil, Jacques ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2003), 147(5, OCT-NOV), 327-342

Escherichia coli bacterial species is subdivided into several strains that are pathogenic for man and animals, on the basis of their specific properties and factors which are responsible for their ... [more ▼]

Escherichia coli bacterial species is subdivided into several strains that are pathogenic for man and animals, on the basis of their specific properties and factors which are responsible for their pathogenic characters. The pathogenic strains are classically subdivided into strains with intestinal tropism (enterotoxigenic, enteropathogenic, enterohaemmorrhagic, verotoxigenic and enteroinvasive) and with extraintestinal tropism (uropathogenic and invasive). Invasive strains cause septicaemia and/or bacteraemia with localisations in different internal organs (systemic infections). If specific virulence properties and factors of strains with intestinal tropism are quite well known and described, those of strains with extraintestinal tropism are much less characterised, especially in animals. The purpose of this serie of review articles is to present the current knowledge on specific properties and factors of extraintestinal strains: adhesins and colonisation factors, transmucosal transfer and survival in blood and internal organs, toxicity. The fourth manuscript will deal with the invasive strains themselves, focusing on the necrotoxigenic strains. This third manuscript presents the current knowledge on toxins produced by invasive strains of E. coli: endotoxins, cytotoxic necrotising factors, cytolethal distending toxins and haemolytic toxins. [less ▲]

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See detailAdherence to various host cell lines of Mycoplasma bovis strains differing in pathogenic and cultural features
Thomas, Anne; Sachse, Konrad; Dizier, Isabelle ULg et al

in Veterinary Microbiology (2003), 91(2-3), 101-113

Mycoplasma bovis is known to be responsible for pneumonia and arthritis in calves, as well as mastitis in dairy cows. Despite clear evidence of its pathogenic potential, little is known about mechanisms ... [more ▼]

Mycoplasma bovis is known to be responsible for pneumonia and arthritis in calves, as well as mastitis in dairy cows. Despite clear evidence of its pathogenic potential, little is known about mechanisms of cytadherence and the molecular factors involved. The purpose of this work was to compare adherence rates of M. bovis field strains to different host cell lines and study the effects of cloning and sub-culturing M. bovis strains on their adherence properties. Eighteen metabolically labeled M. bovis strains isolated from different pathological backgrounds were examined in adherence trials using four different host cell lines, i.e. embryonic bovine lung (EBL), embryonic bovine trachea (EBTr), Madin Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) and rabbit kidney (RK) cells. Although large interstrain variations in adherence rates (3.4-19.1%) were measured they could not be correlated to the pathological background (pneumonia, arthritis or mastitis). Adherence rates to the fibroblast cell line (EBTr) were significantly lower than those to the three epithelial cell lines (EBL, MDBK and RK). The only non-pathogenic strain (221/89) exhibited lower adherence rates than three isolates from clinical mastitis. Interestingly, adherence rates were significantly reduced after in vitro passaging. In contrast, no effect of single cloning of strains on adherence was observed. There was no general correlation between expression of variable surface proteins (Vsps) as monitored by immunoblotting and adherence rates, although alterations in Vsp expression profiles were seen as a consequence of passaging. As there is probably a large number of adhesins, variable and non-variable, on the surface of M. bovis cells the issue is very complex, and the most active components have yet to be identified. [less ▲]

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See detailPrevalence and identity of cdt-related sequences in necrotoxigenic Escherichia coli
Mainil, Jacques ULg; Jacquemin, E.; Oswald, E.

in Veterinary Microbiology (2003), 94

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See detailIsolation of Mycoplasma species from the lower respiratory tract of healthy cattle and cattle with respiratory disease in Belgium
Thomas, Anne; Ball, H.; Dizier, Isabelle ULg et al

in Veterinary Record (2002), 151(16), 472-476

Between 1997 and 2000, a total of 150 healthy cattle and 238 animals with respiratory disease were examined for six Mycoplasma species. Attempts were made to detect Mycoplasma canis, Mycoplasma dispar and ... [more ▼]

Between 1997 and 2000, a total of 150 healthy cattle and 238 animals with respiratory disease were examined for six Mycoplasma species. Attempts were made to detect Mycoplasma canis, Mycoplasma dispar and Ureaplasma diversum in calves with recurrent disease, and all three of these species were identified in calves with recurrent disease and in healthy lungs. In healthy calves, 84 per cent of bronchoalveolar lavage fluids were mycoplasma free; when cultures were positive, Mycoplasma bovirhinis was the only species isolated. Mycoplasmas were isolated from 78 per cent of animals suffering recurrent respiratory disease and from 65 per cent of acute respiratory cases. Mycoplasma bovis was isolated from bronchoalveolar lavages from 35 per cent of calves suffering recurrent respiratory disease, and from 50 per cent of acute cases, and from 20 per cent of pneumonic cases examined postmortem. M bovis was associated with other Mycoplasma species in 44 per cent of cases. M dispar was also isolated from 45.5 per cent of calves suffering recurrent respiratory disease, often in association with M bovis. M canis was identified for the first time in diseased Belgian cattle. Other mycoplasmas, including Mycoplasma arginini, Mycoplasma alkalescens and U diversum, were isolated less frequently. Associations between mycoplasmas and other pathogens were often observed. Among lungs infected with Pasteurella and/or Mannheimia species, more than 50 per cent were mixed infections with M bovis. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of sampling procedures for isolating pulmonary mycoplasmas in cattle
Thomas, Anne; Dizier, Isabelle ULg; Trolin, A. et al

in Veterinary Research Communications (2002), 26(5), 333-339

Three sampling procedures were compared to determine the optimal technique for isolating mycoplasmas in cattle with respiratory diseases. The prevalence of mycoplasmas isolated from these animals is also ... [more ▼]

Three sampling procedures were compared to determine the optimal technique for isolating mycoplasmas in cattle with respiratory diseases. The prevalence of mycoplasmas isolated from these animals is also reported. In the first group, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and nasal swab cultures were compared with the corresponding lung cultures from cattle necropsied for fatal respiratory diseases (n = 20). In a second group, nasal swabs were compared with corresponding BAL cultures in living animals with recurrent respiratory pathologies (n = 49). There was complete agreement between the paired BAL and lung cultures. In contrast, nasal cultures were not representative of the mycoplasmas present in the lower respiratory airways. The relative sensitivity and specificity of the nasal swab technique compared to BAL in living animals confirmed that the nasal swab cultures were not predictive of lower respiratory airway pathogens, such as Mycoplasma bovis. BAL is considered to be the best method for isolating M. bovis in cattle with respiratory diseases as it combines reliability and feasibility under field sampling conditions. In the present study, Mycoplasma dispar (43%) and M. bovis (29%) were mainly isolated in mixed infections. This confirms the need to search for mycoplasmas in routine examinations and to take them into account in therapeutic strategies for respiratory diseases in cattle. [less ▲]

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See detailErysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infection in stranded harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) and harbour seal (Phoca vitulina)
Boseret, Géraldine ULg; Jauniaux, Thierry ULg; Mainil, Jacques ULg

in anton, erken (Ed.) Proceedings of the 4th scientific meeting of the European Association of Zoo and Wildlife Veterinarians and 5th meeting of the European Wildlife Disease Assocation : Heidelberg, Germany 2002 / editor Anton ERKEN. (2002, May 08)

An adult female harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena ) and a juvenile male harbour seal have been found dead on a Belgian beach in autumn 2001. The two bodies were in good condition (CC = 2). Pure and ... [more ▼]

An adult female harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena ) and a juvenile male harbour seal have been found dead on a Belgian beach in autumn 2001. The two bodies were in good condition (CC = 2). Pure and abundant growth of a small rod-shaped, Gram-labile bacterium was obtained aerobically and anaerobically on Columbia bloodagar from the heart blood, the mouth, the pharynx, the lungs, the intestine and the anus of the porpoise, and from the intestine, the pharynx, the mouth, the nose and the anus of the seal. The colonies were surrounded by a narrow zone of a-hemolysis. The catalase- and peroxydase-tests gave negative results. Rapid ID 32 Strepto (Biomérieux, France) sugar tests applied on porpoise’s heart blood, lungs and intestine, and on seal’s intestine and pharynx identified this isolate to Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is not reported as a common cause of infection and death in wild cetaceans and wild pinnipeds in opposite to respectively captive dolphins and sea lions. Nevertheless, E. rhusiopathiae can be considered as the cause of death of the stranded harbour porpoise as it was present in heart blood and internal organs, and the seal was carrying the bacterium with lesions of enteritis which could be associated with E. rhusiopathiae infectio [less ▲]

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See detailDivers problèmes bactériens rencontrés chez les animaux domestiques
Mainil, Jacques ULg; Devriese, L.

Learning material (2002)

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See detailLa colibacillose aviaire
Stordeur, Philippe; Mainil, Jacques ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2002), 146(1, FEB-MAR), 11-18

The avian pathogenic E. coli strains, although considered by almost like opportunist pathogen, represent actually one of the most important cause of economic losses in the poultry sector and is one of the ... [more ▼]

The avian pathogenic E. coli strains, although considered by almost like opportunist pathogen, represent actually one of the most important cause of economic losses in the poultry sector and is one of the most frequent cause of carcase rejection in the slaughter house. Colibacillosis, which the major way of penetration is the respiratory tract, affect essentially broilers and give variable lesions and manifestations in function of the age of the animals. Actually, some virulence factors have been studied and associated with avian pathogenic E. coli strains : P and F1 fimbriae, hemagglutination, serum resistance, aerobactin system. Recent studies have also showed that other virulence factors (F17 and Afa adhesins) were also present in the avian pathogenic E. coli, but their rule in the pathogenicity must to be established. Because of the diversity of virulence factors and the little of knowledge about us, no vaccine is actually available to protect efficacely poultries against colibacillosis. Thus, the antibiotherapy based on a good diagnostic and a good prevention remained the only things to do in order to overcome the disease, despite the augmentation of antibiotics resistance and the risk of transferring to humans. [less ▲]

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See detailLes souches pathogènes d'Escherichia coli chez les chiens et les chats : IV) Discussion générale
Mainil, Jacques ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2002), 146(4, AUG-SEP), 219

This manuscript reviews the current knowledge on the main classes of pathogenic Escherichia coli in dogs and cats: type 1 necrotoxigenic strains (NTEC1), adhesin-positive strains (AdEC), enteropathogenic ... [more ▼]

This manuscript reviews the current knowledge on the main classes of pathogenic Escherichia coli in dogs and cats: type 1 necrotoxigenic strains (NTEC1), adhesin-positive strains (AdEC), enteropathogenic strains (EPEC) and enterotoxigenic strains (ETEC). They represent primary or secondary (to other bacterial, parasitic and/or viral infections) infectious agents. NTEC1 and AdEC are the most frequent and are responsible for intestinal, urinary tract and invasive infections, while EPEC and ETEC limit their infections to the intestinal tract. ETEC are the less frequent but EPEC are more and more often observed. The specific virulence factors and other properties of these pathogenic E. coli strains are similar to those of their bovine, human and porcine counterparts, for their identity and their genetic determinism. This similarity allows the use of an identical approach in their diagnosis and typing. But for some NTEC1, AdEC and EPEC strains the similarity is so close that it also raises the question of their zoonotic potential, though there is up to now no epidemiological evidence of such cross contamination of man by canine or feline pathogenic E. coli (or vice versa). [less ▲]

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See detailDNA sequences coding for the F18 fimbriae and AIDA adhesin are localized on the same plasmid in Escherichia coli isolates from piglets
Mainil, Jacques ULg; Jacquemin, E.; Pohl, P. et al

in Veterinary Microbiology (2002), 86

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See detailExamination of Escherichia coli from poultry for selected adhesin genes important in disease caused by mammalian pathogenic E. coli
Stordeur, Philippe; Marlier, Didier ULg; Blanco, J. et al

in Veterinary Microbiology (2002), 84(3), 231-241

A collection of 1601 extraintestinal and intestinal Escherichia coli isolated from chickens, turkeys and ducks. in Belgium, France and Spain, was hybridised with gene probes specific for fimbrial and ... [more ▼]

A collection of 1601 extraintestinal and intestinal Escherichia coli isolated from chickens, turkeys and ducks. in Belgium, France and Spain, was hybridised with gene probes specific for fimbrial and afimbrial adhesins (F17, F18, S (Sfa/F1C), Bfp, Afa, Cs31A, Intimin (Eae), Aida-1) of intestinal, urinary and invasive E. coli of mammals and with a probe specific for the P (Pap/Prs) fimbrial adhesin of urinary and invasive E. coli of mammals and birds. Three hundred and eighty-three strains (23.9%) were P-positive, 76 strains (4.8%) were Afa-positive, 75 strains (4.7%) were F17-positive, 67 strains (4.2%) were S-positive, 23 (1.4%) were Intimin-positive. and all were F18-, Cs31A-, Aidal- and Bfp-negative. The 75 F17-positive strains harboured different major subunit A-encoding gene variants, but the f17Ac variant was the most frequent (52 strains, 69,3%) and seven strains (9.3%) were not typeable. The f17G gene variant coding for the GII adhesin was the most frequent (56 strains, 75.0%), whereas the f17GI gene variant was present in four strains (5%) and 15 strains (20.0%) were not typeable. All Afa-positive strains harboured the afa-8 variant. The 23 Intimin-positive E. coli tested positive for the beta -variant (16 strains; 69.6%) or for the gamma -variant (seven strains;, 30.4%) of the eae gene. Chicken and turkey E. coli were more frequently probe-positive (43.6 and 43.1 %, respectively) than duck E. coli 31.5%) and extraintestinal E. coli were also more frequently probe-positive (48.4%) than intestinal strains (18.5%). Different combinations of probe positive hybridisation results were observed in 72 of the 540 probe-positive E. coli (13.3%). The most frequent combinations were between AfaE-8 and F17 probes (47 strains; 8.7%) and between P and S probes (13 strains. 2.4%). Although f17- and afa-8-related DNA sequences can be plasmid-located in mammalian E. coli. they were not in avian E. coli. Besides the P fimbrial adhesin, F17 and S fimbrial and Afa-VIII and Intimin afimbrial adhesins may thus represent colonisation factors of avian pathogenic E. coli. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailPresence in bovine enteropathogenic (EPEC) and enterohaemorrhagic (EHEC) Escherichia coli of genes encoding for putative adhesins of human EHEC strains
Szalo, Ioan Mihai ULg; Goffaux, Frédéric; Pirson, Vinciane et al

in Research in Microbiology (2002), 153(10), 653-658

Enteropathogenic and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EPEC and EHEC) infections are characterised by the formation of attaching and effacing lesions on intestinal epithelial cells. The first step of ... [more ▼]

Enteropathogenic and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EPEC and EHEC) infections are characterised by the formation of attaching and effacing lesions on intestinal epithelial cells. The first step of EPEC and EHEC pathogenesis involves the initial adherence of the bacterium to the intestinal epithelium. A collection of bovine EPEC and EHEC strains belonging to different serogroups was tested by colony blot hybridization with gene probes for putative adhesins (BFPA, LPFA, IHA, LIFA) of human EPEC and EHEC, and also for fimbrial and afimbrial adhesins (AFA8, F17, Cs31A) of bovine necrotoxigenic E. coli (NTEC). In the bovine EPEC and EHEC strains tested, sequences homologous to lifA, ihA, and lpfA genes were detected, sometimes in association with particular serogroups. Bovine O26 EPEC also possessed a sequence homologous to a gene of the clp operon, coding for the CS31A adhesin, associated with bovine NTEC. Overall results showed that different genes encoding for putative adhesins of human EHEC strains are present in bovine EPEC and EHEC strains, but not one of them is present in all strains. [less ▲]

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See detailBacillus anthracis
Boseret, Géraldine ULg; Linden, Annick ULg; Mainil, Jacques ULg

Learning material (2002)

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See detailReplicon typing of the F18 fimbriae encoding plasmids of enterotoxigenic and verotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains from porcine postweaning diarrhoea and oedema disease
Fekete, PZs; Gérardin, J.; Jacquemin, E. et al

in Veterinary Microbiology (2002), 85

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See detailA role for the Clostridium perfringens beta 2 toxin in bovine enterotoxaemia?
Manteca, Christophe; Daube, Georges ULg; Jauniaux, Thierry ULg et al

in Veterinary Microbiology (2002), 86(3), 191-202

Non-enterotoxigenic type A Clostridium perfringens are associated with bovine enterotoxaemia, but the alpha toxin is not regarded as responsible for the production of typical lesions of necrotic and ... [more ▼]

Non-enterotoxigenic type A Clostridium perfringens are associated with bovine enterotoxaemia, but the alpha toxin is not regarded as responsible for the production of typical lesions of necrotic and haemorrhagic enteritis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the putative role of the more recently described beta2 toxin. Seven hundred and fourteen non-enterotoxigenic type A C. perfringens isolated from 133 calves with lesions of enterotoxaemia and high clostridial cell counts (study population) and 386 isolated from a control population of 87 calves were tested by a colony hybridisation assay for the beta2 toxin. Two hundred and eighteen (31%) C perfringens isolated from 83 calves (62%) of the study population and 113 (29%) C. perfringens isolated from 51 calves (59%) of the control population tested positive with the beta2 probe. Pure and mixed cultures of four C perfringens (one alpha+beta2+, one alpha+enterotoxin-1 and two alpha+) were tested in the ligated loop assay in one calf. Macroscopic haemorrhages of the intestinal wall, necrosis and haemorrhages of the intestinal content, and microscopic lesions of necrosis and polymorphonuclear and mononuclear cell infiltration of the intestinal villi were more pronounced in loops inoculated with the a and beta2-toxigenic C. perfringens isolate. These results suggest in vivo synergistic role of the alpha and beta2 toxins in the production of necrotic and haemorrhagic lesions of the small intestine in cases of bovine enterotoxaemia. However, isolation of beta2-toxigenic C. perfringens does not confirm the clinical diagnosis of bovine enterotoxaemia and a clostridial cell counts must still be performed. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailOrganisation and in Vitro Expression of Esp Genes of the Lee (Locus of Enterocyte Effacement) of Bovine Enteropathogenic and Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia Coli
Goffaux, Ffédéric; China, Bernard; Mainil, Jacques ULg

in Veterinary Microbiology (2001), 83(3), 275-86

Enteropathogenic (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic (EHEC) Escherichia coli infections are characterised by the formation of attaching and effacing (AE) lesions on intestinal epithelial cells. Secretion of ... [more ▼]

Enteropathogenic (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic (EHEC) Escherichia coli infections are characterised by the formation of attaching and effacing (AE) lesions on intestinal epithelial cells. Secretion of extracellular proteins (EspA, EspB, and EspD) via a type III secretion apparatus is necessary for the formation of the AE lesions by human EPEC. In this study, we show that bovine EPEC and EHEC are also able to secrete polypeptides homologous to the already described Esp proteins, most probably via a type III secretion system. Bovine EPEC and EHEC strains present two different secretion profiles of Esp proteins which correlate to the pathotypes of the esp genes as determined by PCR. We also demonstrate that genes encoding secreted proteins, present in the LEE of two bovine strains, are organised in the same way as in the human EPEC strain E2348/69. [less ▲]

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See detailLa virulence bactérienne : puis-je travailler uniquement in vitro?
Mainil, Jacques ULg

Scientific conference (2001, November)

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