References of "Mainil, Jacques"
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See detailStudy of the Virulence of Five Strains of Amyxomatous Myxoma Virus in Crossbred New Zealand White/Californian Conventional Rabbits, with Evidence of Long-Term Testicular Infection in Recovered Animals
Marlier, Didier ULg; Mainil, Jacques ULg; Sulon, Joseph ULg et al

in Journal of Comparative Pathology (2000), 122(2-3, Feb-Apr), 101-13

The virulence of five amyxomatous myxoma virus (MV) strains, the clinical and pathogenetic effects of which had been studied previously in specific pathogen-free (SPF) rabbits, was determined by ... [more ▼]

The virulence of five amyxomatous myxoma virus (MV) strains, the clinical and pathogenetic effects of which had been studied previously in specific pathogen-free (SPF) rabbits, was determined by inoculation of five groups of 10 crossbred New Zealand White/Californian conventional rabbits. A much more acute myxomatosis syndrome was produced in conventional rabbits than that reproduced previously in SPF animals. However, the main clinical signs were of the respiratory type. The MV strains MYX 254/95 and 801 appeared very virulent, killing all the inoculated animals. The strains MYX 217/95, MYX 555/94 and Saint Benoist were somewhat attenuated, killing only seven, six and six rabbits, respectively. Extensive lung lesions due to supervening bacterial infections were observed in 36 of the 39 rabbits that died. Lethality was found to be a better estimate of virulence than mean survival time. By 98 days after viral inoculation, all the surviving animals had completely recovered. At that time, they were immunosuppressed by treatment with adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) for 10 days to determine whether they still harboured the virus. After the ACTH treatment, eight of the 11 surviving rabbits showed clinical signs that resembled amyxomatous myxomatosis. All the virological examinations performed on naso-conjunctival exudate, on mononuclear cells, on eyelids and on ovaries remained negative but infectious virus was isolated from the testes of three of six surviving male rabbits. [less ▲]

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See detailInfectious Agents Associated with Rabbit Pneumonia: Isolation of Amyxomatous Myxoma Virus Strains
Marlier, Didier ULg; Mainil, Jacques ULg; Linden, Annick ULg et al

in Veterinary Journal (2000), 159(2), 171-8

Sixty-six rabbits, with no history of vaccination against myxomatosis and which had died of pulmonary lesions, were submitted for virological and serological tests for Myxoma virus (MV) infection and for ... [more ▼]

Sixty-six rabbits, with no history of vaccination against myxomatosis and which had died of pulmonary lesions, were submitted for virological and serological tests for Myxoma virus (MV) infection and for bacteriological examinations. At post mortem, the diagnoses based on observed lesions were as follows: acute haemorrhagic pneumonia (38%); acute suppurative bronchopneumonia (35%); and fibrinohaemorrhagic bronchopneumonia with fibrinous pleuritis (27%). MV was isolated from 10% of the rabbits, mainly from those with acute haemorrhagic pneumonia. Serological evidence of MV infection was demonstrated in 44% of rabbits. Pathogenic bacteria species isolated from lungs were Pasteurella (spp. and multocida), Escherichia coli, Bordetella bronchiseptica and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively, from 41, 11, 7 and 6% of samples. No relationship could be established between the presence of specific antibodies to MV and the observed pulmonary lesions or the results of the bacteriological examinations. A significant trend was established between the severity of the lesions and the results of the bacteriological examinations. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Efficacy of Two Vaccination Schemes against Experimental Infection with a Virulent Amyxomatous or a Virulent Nodular Myxoma Virus Strain
Marlier, Didier ULg; Mainil, Jacques ULg; Boucraut-Baralon, C. et al

in Journal of Comparative Pathology (2000), 122(2-3, Feb-Apr), 115-22

Two types of myxomatosis vaccine are available commercially, namely, vaccine prepared from the Shope fibroma virus (SFV) and that prepared from an attenuated myxoma virus (MV) strain, e.gSG33. An ... [more ▼]

Two types of myxomatosis vaccine are available commercially, namely, vaccine prepared from the Shope fibroma virus (SFV) and that prepared from an attenuated myxoma virus (MV) strain, e.gSG33. An experiment was designed to compare two vaccination schemes for their ability to protect rabbits against challenge with either a virulent amyxomatous MV strain or a virulent nodular MV strain. Apart from a difference in the cutaneous expression of the disease, the two challenge strains resembled each other in respect of mortality rate, naso-conjunctival shedding of virus, and tissue infection. Vaccination with SFV alone failed to prevent clinical signs, naso-conjunctival shedding or tissue infection. Vaccination with SFV followed by a booster inoculation with SG33 protected rabbits against the development of clinical signs and significantly reduced both viral shedding in naso-conjunctival exudates and viral infection of eyelids, lungs and testes; virus was, however, isolated from testes of some surviving animals. [less ▲]

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See detailThe afa-related gene cluster in necrotoxigenic and other Escherichia coli from animals belongs to the afa-8 variant
Gérardin, J.; Lalioui, L.; Jacquemin, E. et al

in Veterinary Microbiology (2000), 76

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See detailComparison of Eae, Tir, Esp a and Esp b Genes of Bovine and Human Attaching and Effacing Escherichia Coli by Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction
China, B.; Goffaux, F.; Pirson, V. et al

in FEMS Microbiology Letters (1999), 178(1), 177-82

Attaching and effacing Escherichia coli (AEEC) virulence genes include the eae, the tir, the espA and the espB genes. These genes have been sequenced from several AEEC strains. The sequences alignments ... [more ▼]

Attaching and effacing Escherichia coli (AEEC) virulence genes include the eae, the tir, the espA and the espB genes. These genes have been sequenced from several AEEC strains. The sequences alignments revealed the presence of constant and variable regions. Multiplex polymerase chain reactions were developed, in order to determine the subtype of each gene present in a particular isolate. AEEC strains isolated from calves dead of diarrhea, from healthy calves and from infected humans were compared. The same pathotypes were found in sick and healthy calves but in inverted proportion. These pathotypes were also found in human AEEC. Although, the human EHEC strains from serotype O157 possessed their own pathotype. [less ▲]

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See detailUse of a Monoclonal Antibody against an Escherichia coli O26 Surface Protein for Detection of Enteropathogenic and Enterohemorrhagic Strains
Kerr, Paul; Ball, Hywell; China, Bernard et al

in Clinical and Vaccine Immunology (1999), 6(4), 610-614

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See detailEtude du rôle présomptif des souches atypiques du virus de la myxomatose dans l’étiologie des lésions du système respiratoire chez le lapin
Marlier, Didier ULg; Linden, Annick ULg; Mainil, Jacques ULg et al

in Proceedings of the 8èmes Journées de la Recherche Cunicole (1999, June 09)

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See detailHeterogeneity of the eae Genes in Attaching/Effacing Escherichia Coli from Cattle: Comparison with Human Strains
China, B.; Jacquemin, E.; Devrin, A. C. et al

in Research in Microbiology (1999), 150(5), 323-332

Enteropathogenic (EPEC) and enterohaemorrhagic (EHEC) Escherichia coli isolated from cattle were studied by DNA colony hybridization to subtype their intimin-encoding (eae) gene with probes derived from ... [more ▼]

Enteropathogenic (EPEC) and enterohaemorrhagic (EHEC) Escherichia coli isolated from cattle were studied by DNA colony hybridization to subtype their intimin-encoding (eae) gene with probes derived from the variable parts of the eae alpha gene of the human EPEC strain E2348/69, the eae gamma gene of the human O157:H7 EHEC strain ATCC43888, and the eae beta gene of the bovine O26:H- EHEC strain 193, whose eae gene was first cloned and sequenced during this work. The EPEC and EHEC had been isolated from diarrhoeic calves (143 EPEC and 48 EHEC) and from healthy animals at the slaughterhouse (10 EPEC and 34 EHEC). The 191 bovine EPEC and EHEC isolated from diseased calves were positive with the Eae beta probe (55 and 27% respectively) and with the Eae gamma probe (9 and 73% respectively), whereas 52 EPEC (36%) were negative with the Eae alpha, Eae beta, and Eae gamma probes. The results were different for the 44 bovine EPEC and EHEC isolated from healthy cattle at slaughterhouses: most tested positive with the Eae gamma probe (80 and 82% respectively) and the remaining (20 and 18% respectively) with the Eae beta probe. Nine O26 human EHEC tested positive with the Eae beta probe and seven O111 with the Eae gamma probe. The bovine and human EPEC and EHEC belonging to these two serogroups gave identical results: the 18 bovine and human O26 isolates tested positive with the Eae beta probe, whereas the 13 O111 isolates were positive with the Eae gamma probe. In contrast, the isolates belonging to other serogroups (O5, O15, O18, O20, and O118) gave more variable results. The eae beta and eae gamma, but not the eae alpha, variants were thus distributed amongst bovine EPEC and EHEC. The eae beta variant seemed to be more frequently associated with the presence of clinical signs in calves, but one third of EPEC from diarrhoeic calves carried an eae gene variant other than the alpha, beta, or gamma variants. In addition, the use of these gene probes did not enable differentiation between bovine and human EHEC belonging to the same O serogroup. [less ▲]

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See detailL'antibiorésistance chez l'animal et ses conséquences
Mainil, Jacques ULg

Scientific conference (1999, May)

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See detailClostridium enterotoxemie bij kalveren
Mainil, Jacques ULg

Scientific conference (1999, April)

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See detailVerotoxigenic Escherichia coli in animals : Epidemiology and pahtogenesis
Mainil, Jacques ULg

Scientific conference (1999, April)

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See detailEtude du rôle de Clostridium perfringens dans l'entérotoxémie bovine
Manteca, Christophe; Daube, Georges ULg; Mainil, Jacques ULg

Conference (1999)

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See detailEtude du role de Clostridium perfringens dans l'entérotoxémie bovine
Manteca, Christophe; Daube, Georges ULg; Mainil, Jacques ULg

in Bulletin et Mémoires de l'Académie Royale de Médecine de Belgique (1999), 154(6, Pt 2),

Bovine enterotoxaemia is an acute to peracute syndrome occurring mainly in calves and characterized by the sudden or very rapid death of the calf, with colics, convulsions and nervous disorders as ... [more ▼]

Bovine enterotoxaemia is an acute to peracute syndrome occurring mainly in calves and characterized by the sudden or very rapid death of the calf, with colics, convulsions and nervous disorders as clinical signs, if any. The most pronounced lesion is a necrohaemorrhagic enteritis of the jejunum, the ileum, and sometimes the colon. Suckling beef calves are the most frequently affected ones. In 67% of the 78 field cases investigated, some kind of stress was observed 24 to 36 hours prior to the death: change in diet or pasture, vaccination... The most frequently isolated bacteria, and the one isolated in highest numbers, was non-sporulated non-enterotoxigenic toxinotype A Clostridium perfringens. Reproduction of the lesions was successful in a ligated intestinal loop assay in one calf with a few of these strains, more especially with one of them, which was shown later to produce another recently described toxin, the beta 2 toxin. A role for this beta 2 toxin in bovine enterotoxaemia is thus speculated for future research. [less ▲]

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See detailReproduction of Lesions and Clinical Signs with a Cnf2-Producing Escherichia Coli in Neonatal Calves
Van Bost, S.; Mainil, Jacques ULg

in Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology (1999), 473

CNF2-producing necrotoxigenic E. coli (NTEC2) are associated with diarrhoea and septicaemia in calves. We orally inoculated neonatal calves with a NTEC2 strain in order to reproduce clinical signs and ... [more ▼]

CNF2-producing necrotoxigenic E. coli (NTEC2) are associated with diarrhoea and septicaemia in calves. We orally inoculated neonatal calves with a NTEC2 strain in order to reproduce clinical signs and lesions. We observed diarrhoea in each inoculated calf, bacteraemia (80%), the presence of CNF2+ bacteria in the lungs (80%) and in the liver (20%). The observed lesions were inflammation of the entire gut, hypertrophy of the mesenteric lymph nodes and hepatisation of the lungs. We were unable to detect characteristic lesions that are classical signs of septicaemia. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Locus for Enterocyte Effacement (Lee) of Enteropathogenic Escherichia Coli (Epec) from Dogs and Cats
Goffaux, F.; China, B.; Janssen, L. et al

in Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology (1999), 473

Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) produce attaching and effacing lesions. The genes responsible for this lesion are clustered on the chromosome forming a 35.5 kilobase pathogenesis island called ... [more ▼]

Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) produce attaching and effacing lesions. The genes responsible for this lesion are clustered on the chromosome forming a 35.5 kilobase pathogenesis island called LEE. The LEE was identified, characterized and completely sequenced from the human EPEC strain E2348/69. The LEE carries genes coding for: a type III secretion system (genes esc and sep), the translocated intimin receptor (gene tir), the outer membrane protein intimin (gene eae) and the E. coli secreted proteins EspA, EspB, and EspD (genes esp). In addition to man and farm animals, EPEC are also isolated from dogs and cats. We studied structurally and functionally the LEE of dog and cat EPEC. First, we used four probes scattered along the LEE to identify the presence of a LEE in canine and feline EPEC isolates. Second, by PCR, we checked the presence of genes homologous to eae, sep, esp, and tir genes in these strains. Third, since the four types of eae and tir genes were described, we developed a multiplex PCR in order to determine the type of eae and tir genes present in each strain. Fourth, we determined by PCR the site of the LEE insertion on the chromosome. Fifth, we tested several of the canine EPEC in their capacity to induce attaching and effacing lesions in the rabbit intestinal loop assay. We can conclude from this study: first, that the a LEE-like structure is present in all tested strains and that it contains genes homologous to esp, sep, tir, and eae genes; second, that there is some preferential associations between the type of eae gene and the type of tir gene present in a strain; third, that the majority of the tested strains contained a LEE located elsewhere on the chromosome in comparison to the human EPEC strain E2348/69; and fourth that dog EPEC were able to induce attaching and effacing lesions in rabbit ileal loop assay. [less ▲]

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See detailShiga/Verocytotoxins and Shiga/Verotoxigenic Escherichia coli in Animals
Mainil, Jacques ULg

in Veterinary Research (1999), 30(2-3, Mar-Jun), 235-257

Vero/Shiga toxins (VT/Stx) have an A-B structure: the A subunit carries the enzymatic activity and the B subunit binds the toxin to the membrane receptor (Gb3 or Gb4). The VT/Stx inhibit protein synthesis ... [more ▼]

Vero/Shiga toxins (VT/Stx) have an A-B structure: the A subunit carries the enzymatic activity and the B subunit binds the toxin to the membrane receptor (Gb3 or Gb4). The VT/Stx inhibit protein synthesis in the target eucaryotic cells, mainly the endothelial cells of blood vessels. The VT/Stx are subdivided into two families. VT1/Stx1 is a homogeneous family of toxins identical to the Stx of Shigella dysenteriae. VT2/Stx2 is a more heterogeneous family of toxins more distantly related to this Stx toxin. The VT2/Stx2 variants can be distinguished by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or the reaction with monoclonal antibodies. The VT/Stx-producing Escherichia coli are also subdivided into two main groups on the basis of the presence or absence of additional properties: the enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) induce the formation of attaching/effacing lesions and carry a 60 MD plasmid encoding a specific haemolysin (the enterohaemolysin); the vero/shiga-toxigenic E. coli (VTEC/STEC) do not show these properties. The EHEC are isolated from humans and ruminants, especially young calves. They are associated with haemorrhagic enterocolitis and its sequelae in humans, the haemolytic-uraemic syndrome (HUS). The VT/Stx play a role in the occurrence of blood in the faeces and in the HUS by their action on the endothelial cells of blood vessels in the intestinal submucosa and in the renal glomeruli, after resorption through the intestinal walls. The VTEC/STEC are isolated from piglets, calves and humans. In recently weaned piglets, they cause the oedema disease, an enterotoxaemia characterized by subcutaneous, mesenteric and cerebral oedemas, with nervous disorders as main clinical signs. The oedema disease is the consequence of the action of the VT/Stx on the endothelial cells of blood vessels in various organs. In calves and humans, the role in disease of VTEC/STEC is controversial, but they could be associated with some cases of diarrhoea and HUS. The case of the O157:H7 EHEC which are present in healthy cattle of various ages, but are highly virulent for humans is of special interest. The potential zoonotic aspect of VT/Stx-producing E. coli infections in animals is detailed chapter by chapter. Prophylaxis of these infections by vaccination is the subject of the discussion on the future of the research studies on these pathogenic bacteria. [less ▲]

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See detailLes hélicobactéries chez les animaux mythe ou réalité? 2. Etudes bactériologique et clinique préliminaires chez les carnivores domestiques
Thomas, A.; Hardy, N.; De Mol, P. et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (1999), 143

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