References of "Mainil, Jacques"
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See detailA comparison of somatic cell count and antimicrobial susceptibility of subclinical mastitis pathogens in organic and conventional dairy herds
Boutet, Philippe; Detilleux, Johann ULg; Motkin, Michel ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2005), 149(3), 173-182

A comparison of somatic cell count and antimicrobial susceptibility of subclinical mastitis pathogens in organic and conventional dairy herds.Bovine subclinical mastitis is the most important disease ... [more ▼]

A comparison of somatic cell count and antimicrobial susceptibility of subclinical mastitis pathogens in organic and conventional dairy herds.Bovine subclinical mastitis is the most important disease affecting dairy cows. The fluctuating increase in somatic cell count (SCC) that occurs causes major economic losses in dairy industry. This comparative study between conventional and organic dairy herds was conducted in the aim to better characterize which consequences might have different management practices on SCC but also on the frequency of pathogens isolated and their antimicrobial susceptibility. Four conventional and four organic herds, with bulk milk SCC >300x103cells/ml were selected, in which respectively 47 and 44 cows were investigated. Each quarter was sampled 3 times at 15 days interval for SCC, microbiological analysis and antimicrobial susceptibility. In both herd categories, major pathogens isolated were by order of importance Streptococcus uberis, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus dysgalactiae with a great impact on SCC. Coagulase negative staphylococci were the most frequent minor germs and had a moderated but real impact on SCC. In certified organic dairy farms, the three most frequently isolated major pathogens were significantly more susceptible to antimicrobials in vitro. This study suggests that the limited use of antibiotics in organic dairy herds could explain, at least in part, the lower resistance obtained from analysed isolates. [less ▲]

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See detailGrote en kleine geschiedenis van de infectieziekten en micro-organismen
Mainil, Jacques ULg; De Graef, Evelyne

in Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift (2005), 74

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See detailVerotoxigenic Escherichia coli from animals, humans and foods: who's who?
Mainil, Jacques ULg; Daube, Georges ULg

in Journal of Applied Microbiology (2005), 98(6), 1332-1344

Verocytotoxigenic (shigatoxigenic) and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli, VTEC ( STEC) and EHEC, produce a toxin active on Vero cells in vitro. VTEC and EHEC have been isolated from humans and different ... [more ▼]

Verocytotoxigenic (shigatoxigenic) and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli, VTEC ( STEC) and EHEC, produce a toxin active on Vero cells in vitro. VTEC and EHEC have been isolated from humans and different animal species, mainly ruminants and pigs. The verocytotoxins, also named shiga toxins (Stx), are active in vivo on the endothelial cells of the blood vessels of the gastro-intestinal mucosa, the kidneys, the brain, and other tissues of humans and piglets, leading to fluid leakage or haemorrhages. Conversely, their role in diseases of young ruminants remains unclear. Adult ruminants can also act as asymptomatic carriers of VTEC and EHEC strains similar to those causing diseases in humans. And they are incriminated as an important source of direct or indirect contamination of humans by the most famous EHEC strain belonging to the O157: H7 serotype, through faecal contamination of either foods of animal origin, or other foodstuffs ( fruit, vegetables, etc.), or the environment. But dozens of non-O157 human and ruminant VTEC and EHEC strains with similar general and virulence-associated properties, have been described, whose epidemiology is much less well understood. The purpose of this review manuscript is to describe and compare the properties of human, ruminant and food VTEC and EHEC strains. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification by two-dimensional electrophoresis of a new adhesin expressed by a low-passaged strain of Mycoplasma bovis
Thomas, Anne; Leprince, Pierre ULg; Dizier, Isabelle ULg et al

in Research in Microbiology (2005), 156(5-6, Jun-Jul), 713-718

A significant decrease in adherence rates of Mycoplasma bovis to bovine bronchial epithelial (BBE) cells has been observed after passage of the organism in artificial medium. Analysis of the proteins ... [more ▼]

A significant decrease in adherence rates of Mycoplasma bovis to bovine bronchial epithelial (BBE) cells has been observed after passage of the organism in artificial medium. Analysis of the proteins expressed by M. bovis isolate 2610 by two-dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis demonstrated differences between the cells harvested after the 7th and 116th passage. Three silver-stained prominent spots observed in 2-D electrophoretic separation of protein extracts of the lower-passaged cells were considerably less strongly expressed in the sample from higher-passaged cells. These spots had a molecular mass of approximately 24 kDa and an isoelectric point of about 5. The mass spectrometry analysis of these trypsin-sensitive proteins led to their identification as a unique new member of the Vsps family of membrane-associated proteins. Serum from a mouse immunized with these proteins significantly reduced adherence of M. bovis to BBE cells. This result underlines the function of this new Vsp in adherence of M. bovis to host cells. (c) 2005 Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailThe p40* adhesin pseudogene of Mycoplasma bovis
Thomas, Anne; Linden, Annick ULg; Mainil, Jacques ULg et al

in Veterinary Microbiology (2004), 104(3-4), 213-217

An analogue of the adhesin gene p40 of Mycoplasma agalactiae was found in Mycoplasma bovis. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the p40* gene in M. bovis revealed the presence of a large deletion involving a ... [more ▼]

An analogue of the adhesin gene p40 of Mycoplasma agalactiae was found in Mycoplasma bovis. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the p40* gene in M. bovis revealed the presence of a large deletion involving a frameshift that causes premature truncation of the translated protein, indicating that p40* exists as a pseudogene in M. bovis. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailConservation of the uvrC gene sequence in Mycoplasma bovis and its use in routine PCR diagnosis
Thomas, Anne; Dizier, Isabelle ULg; Linden, Annick ULg et al

in Veterinary Journal (2004), 168(1), 100-102

Mycoplasma bovis is a major cause of pneumonia and arthritis in calves, and of mastitis and genital infections in adult cows. It is responsible for high economic loss in feedlot cattle although it is ... [more ▼]

Mycoplasma bovis is a major cause of pneumonia and arthritis in calves, and of mastitis and genital infections in adult cows. It is responsible for high economic loss in feedlot cattle although it is often underestimated and is widely spread within the bovine population in enzootically infected areas. [less ▲]

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See detailPathogenicity of pap-negative avian Escherichia coli isolated from septicaemic lesions
Stordeur, P.; Bree, A.; Mainil, Jacques ULg et al

in Microbes & Infection (2004), 6(7), 637-645

Recent studies by DNA-DNA hybridisation assays conducted on a large collection of Escherichia coli strains isolated from chickens, ducks and turkeys suffering from colibacillosis, showed that 76% of the ... [more ▼]

Recent studies by DNA-DNA hybridisation assays conducted on a large collection of Escherichia coli strains isolated from chickens, ducks and turkeys suffering from colibacillosis, showed that 76% of the strains were negative for the presence of the pap gene cluster. The objective of this paper was to study the virulence associated with the avian E. coli strains negative for the P fimbriae, but carrying the f17 or the afa-8 gene cluster coding for adhesins associated with strains pathogenic for mammals. Three strains carrying the f17 fimbriae and three carrying the afa-8 adhesin-encoding gene cluster were studied in three in vivo experimental models of avian colibacillosis: subcutaneous inoculation of 1-day-old chicks, inoculation of specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens via the intra-thoracic air sac, and intra-tracheal inoculation of axenic chickens. The results showed that the six P-negative E. coli isolates carrying the f17 or the afa-8 gene cluster were lethal for 1-day-old chicks. They were also able to reproduce clinical signs and lesions of colibacillosis (aerosacculitis, pericarditis, perihepathitis), with bacteraemia and septicaemia, in SPF chickens inoculated via the thoracic air sacs as well as in axenic chickens inoculated by the intra-tracheal route. Further studies with f17 and afa-8 allelic mutants constructed by disruption must be performed to confirm a role of F17 fimbrial and Afa-VIII afimbrial adhesins in the pathogenesis of avian colibacillosis. (C) 2004 Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detail2F3 Monoclonal Antibody Recognizes the O26 O-Antigen Moiety of the Lipopolysaccharide of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Strain 4276
Szalo, Ioan Mihai ULg; Taminiau, Bernard ULg; Goffaux, Frédéric et al

in Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology (2004), 11(3), 532-537

Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) organisms are groups of pathogenic strains whose infections are characterized by a typical lesion of enterocyte attachment and ... [more ▼]

Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) organisms are groups of pathogenic strains whose infections are characterized by a typical lesion of enterocyte attachment and effacement. They are involved in enteric diseases both in humans and in animals, and EHEC strains can be responsible for hemolytic uremic syndrome in humans. Previously, it was shown that the 2F3 monoclonal antibody (MAb) is specific for the O26 EHEC and EPEC strains (P. Kerr, H. Ball, B. China, J. Mainil, D. Finlay, D. Pollock, I. Wilson, and D. Mackie, Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 6:610–614, 1999). As these groups of bacteria play an important role in pathology, the aim of this paper was to characterize the antigen recognized by the 2F3 MAb and its genetic determinant. A genomic locus containing the entire O-antigen gene cluster and half of the colanic acid gene cluster from an O26 EHEC strain was shown to be sufficient for the production of the antigen recognized by the 2F3 MAb in an E. coli DH5 strain. By transposon mutagenesis performed on the recombinant plasmid, all 2F3 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-negative mutants had their transposons inserted into the O-antigen gene cluster. The O-antigen gene cluster was also cloned from an O26 EHEC strain into the E. coli DH5 strain, which then produced a positive result with the 2F3 MAb. Further analysis of the type of lipopolysaccharides (smooth or rough) produced by the clones and mutants and of the O antigen of the 2F3-positive clones confirmed that the epitope recognized by the 2F3 MAb is located on the O antigen in the O26 EHEC and EPEC strains and that its genetic determinant is located inside the O-antigen gene cluster. [less ▲]

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See detailPrévalence des mycoplasmes dans les troubles respiratoires chez les bovins et propriétés spécifiques d'adhérence de Mycoplasma bovis
Thomas, A; Dizier, I; Ball, HJ et al

Book published by Service Public Fédéral, Ministère de la Santé publique (2004)

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See detailVerocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli : Who's who?
Mainil, Jacques ULg

Conference (2004)

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See detailEnterotoxaemia in foods animals
Linden, A.; Manteca, C.; Daube, G. et al

Conference (2004)

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See detailEtude de l'entérotoxémie bovine en Belgique. III. Comparaison de différents protocoles d'immunisation contre la toxine alpha de Clostridium perfringens
Manteca, Christophe; Ginter, Annita; Limbourg, Bernard et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2004), 148(3), 147-152

Previous surveys demonstrated the association between the bovine enterotoxaemia syndrome and proliferation of Clostridium perfringens toxintype A. The purpose of this study was to establish rules for ... [more ▼]

Previous surveys demonstrated the association between the bovine enterotoxaemia syndrome and proliferation of Clostridium perfringens toxintype A. The purpose of this study was to establish rules for vaccination of calves against the a toxin. Bovines were Belgian Blue (BBB) or BBB x Charolais originating from 6 farms with no history of clostridial vaccination. One hundred and thirty-three calves were injected with Tasvax (R) and 70 with Miloxan (R) at one and two months of age, while 94 calves received no vaccine. To study sero-conversion in calves born from vaccinated dams, 67 cows were vaccinated with Tasvax at 7 and 8 months pregnancy. Twenty-nine calves born from these cows were vaccinated at one and two months of age with the same vaccine while 38 calves were not vaccinated. The results of these 67 calves were also compared to the results obtained from the calves born from non-vaccinated cows and vaccinated with Tasvax. Anti-alpha toxin antibodies were measured using an indirect ELISA assay. Anti-alpha toxin antibodies are naturally present in the serums of non vaccinated animals and are transferred to the newborn calf by the colostrum. The two vaccinal injections cause sero-conversions in proportion of the total amount of immunogen received. The best protocol for calf vaccination is a first injection at one month of age, followed by a booster injection four weeks later. Boosters every six months are necessary to maintain a high level of antibody. In case of early problems (< 2 months of age) of enterotoxaemia in a farm, high antibody titres are obtained only following the vaccination of the pregnant cow and colostral transfer. Unfortunately this protocol is not compatible with vaccination of the calf itself. [less ▲]

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See detailCaseuse lymfadenitis bij kleine herkauwers
Imberechts, H.; Decostere, A.; Dierickx, K. et al

in Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift (2004), 73

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See detailFacteurs de virulence et propriétés spécifiques des souches invasives d’Escherichia coli : IV) Les souches nécrotoxinogènes
Mainil, Jacques ULg; Van Bost, S.

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2004), 148(3), 121-132

Escherichia coli bacterial species is subdivided into several pathogen strains in man and animals, on the basis of their specific properties and factors which are responsible for their virulence. The ... [more ▼]

Escherichia coli bacterial species is subdivided into several pathogen strains in man and animals, on the basis of their specific properties and factors which are responsible for their virulence. The pathogenic strains are classically subdivided into strains with intestinal tropism (enterotoxigenic, enteropathogenic, enterohaemmorrhagic, verotoxigenic and enteroinvasive) and with extraintestinal tropism (uropathogenic and invasive). Invasive strains cause septicaemia and/or bacteraemia with localisations in different internal organs (systemic infections). If specific virulence properties and factors of strains with intestinal tropism are quite well known and described, those of strains with extraintestinal tropism are much less characterised, especially in animals. The purpose of this series of review articles is to present the current knowledge on specific properties and factors of extraintestinal strains. The first three manuscripts reviewed the characteristics of adhesins and colonisation factors, transmucosal transfer, survival in blood and internal organs, and toxicity. After the presentation of the animal and human invasive E. coli, this fourth manuscript reviews the current knowledge on the necrotoxigenic strains and finishes with a discussion on the meaning of the bacterial virulence in general. [less ▲]

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See detailPathophysiological changes occurring during Escherichia coli endotoxin and Pasteurella multocida challenge in piglets: relationship with cough and temperature and predicitive value for intensity of lesions.
Halloy, David J; Bouhet, Sandrine; Oswald, Isabelle P et al

in Veterinary Research (2004), 35(3), 309-324

The aims of this study were (1) to correlate cough and body temperature (BT) with the severity of bronchopneumonia in pigs, (2) to determine whether these clinical signs can be used to early diagnose ... [more ▼]

The aims of this study were (1) to correlate cough and body temperature (BT) with the severity of bronchopneumonia in pigs, (2) to determine whether these clinical signs can be used to early diagnose bronchopneumonia and (3) to assess the predictive values of cough and BT regarding lung lesions. Bronchopneumonia was induced by administering E. coli endotoxin (LPS) combined with Pasteurella multocida type A (PmA) in the trachea of 13 piglets. Saline-instilled negative controls (n = 8), PmA inoculated (n = 6) and LPS instilled (n = 5) groups were also constituted. Cough and BT were recorded daily while the bronchopneumonia severity was assessed using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cytology, cytokines and measurement of lung lesion volume. Changes in expiratory breathing pattern were also measured (Penh). The combination of LPS and PmA induced a subacute bronchopneumonia characterised by macrophage, neutrophil, and lymphocyte infiltration, changes in Penh and an increase in the mRNA level of IFN-gamma while IL8, IL-18 and TNF-alpha mRNA levels remained unchanged. The daily body weight gain of infected animals was significantly reduced. Cough and BT changes were proportional to the intensity of the lung inflammatory process, functional respiratory changes and to the extent of macroscopic lesions. When comparing the individual values of cough and BT to thresholds defined for both parameters, an early diagnosis of pneumonia was possible. Considering the pooled data of each group, it was possible to define thresholds allowing an early segregation between the groups of diseased and healthy piglets. The daily values of cough and BT were predictive for the volume of lung lesions recorded at the end of the trial. In conclusion, cough and BT appear as potential indicators for the intensity and the evolution of the respiratory disease. They also seem to be good predictors for the magnitude of lung lesions and weight gain recorded at the study endpoint. [less ▲]

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See detailEnteropathogenic and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli deliver a novel effector called Cif, which blocks cell cycle G(2)/M transition
Marches, O.; Ledger, T. N.; Boury, M. et al

in Molecular Microbiology (2003), 50(5), 1553-1567

Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) are closely related pathogens. Both use a type III secretion system (TTSS) encoded by the 'locus of enterocyte effacement ... [more ▼]

Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) are closely related pathogens. Both use a type III secretion system (TTSS) encoded by the 'locus of enterocyte effacement' (LEE) to subvert and attach to epithelial cells through the injection of a repertoire of effector molecules. Here, we report the identification of a new TTSS translocated effector molecule called Cif, which blocks cell cycle G(2)/M transition and induces the formation of stress fibres through the recruitment of focal adhesions. Cif is not encoded by the LEE but by a lambdoid prophage present in EPEC and EHEC. A cif mutant causes localized effacement of microvilli and intimately attaches to the host cell surface, but is defective in the ability to block mitosis. When expressed in TTSS competent LEE-positive pathogens, Cif is injected into the infected epithelial cells. These cells arrested at the G(2)/M phase displayed accumulation of inactive phosphorylated Cdk1. In conclusion, Cif is a new member of a growing family of bacterial cyclomodulins that subvert the host eukaryotic cell cycle. [less ▲]

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See detailPutative roles of the CNF2 and CDTIII toxins in experimental infections with necrotoxigenic Escherichia coli type 2 (NTEC2) strains in calves
Van Bost, S.; Roels, S.; Oswald, E. et al

in Microbes & Infection (2003), 5(13), 1189-1193

Newborn colostrum-restricted calves were orally inoculated with an Escherichia coli strain, identified originally as non-pathogenic, and into which the plasmid pVir was conjugally transferred. This ... [more ▼]

Newborn colostrum-restricted calves were orally inoculated with an Escherichia coli strain, identified originally as non-pathogenic, and into which the plasmid pVir was conjugally transferred. This resulted in diarrhea, intestinal lesions and extra-intestinal invasion, suggesting that factors affecting these pathogenic properties are located on pVir. In order to analyze the respective roles of the toxins CNF2 and CDTIII in the pathogenesis, colostrum-restricted calves were inoculated with isogenic mutants in the cnf2 and the cdt-III genes. The loss of cnf2 is associated with a reduction in the pathogenicity, since diarrhea does not occur in calves challenged, in spite of successful colonization of the intestine. Nevertheless, the mutant strain remains able to invade the bloodstream and to localize in the internal organs. Conversely, the calves inoculated with mutant in the cdt-III gene evolved in the same way as wild-type strain-inoculated calves with regard to clinical signs and macroscopic or microscopic lesions. (C) 2003 Editions scientifiques et medicales Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailAntibiotic susceptibilities of recent isolates of Mycoplasma bovis in Belgium
Thomas, Anne; Nicolas, C.; Dizier, Isabelle ULg et al

in Veterinary Record (2003), 153(14), 428-431

The susceptibilities of 40 recent Belgian field isolates of Mycoplasma bovis to 10 antimicrobial agents were assessed. Tiamulin was the most active antimicrobial agent against M bovis, with an initial ... [more ▼]

The susceptibilities of 40 recent Belgian field isolates of Mycoplasma bovis to 10 antimicrobial agents were assessed. Tiamulin was the most active antimicrobial agent against M bovis, with an initial inhibitory concentration (IIC50) of 0.06 microg/ml, but it is not licensed for the treatment of cattle. All three fluoroquinolones tested (danofloxacin, enrofloxacin and marbofloxacin) were effective against strains of M bovis, and had a minimum mycoplasmacidal concentration (MMC50) less than or equal to 1 microg/ml. Gentamicin was poorly effective, having an IIC50 of 8 microg/ml. Many strains of M bovis were resistant to tylosin, spectinomycin, lincomycin, tetracycline and oxytetracycline. [less ▲]

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See detailMultiplex PCRs for Identification of Necrotoxigenic Escherichia coli
Van Bost, S.; Jacquemin, E.; Oswald, E. et al

in Journal of Clinical Microbiology (2003), 41(9), 4480-4482

Two multiplex PCRs were developed for the detection of necrotoxigenic Escherichia coli virulence genes. M1 contained the primers for the toxins and the aerobactin, and M2 contained the primers for the ... [more ▼]

Two multiplex PCRs were developed for the detection of necrotoxigenic Escherichia coli virulence genes. M1 contained the primers for the toxins and the aerobactin, and M2 contained the primers for the adhesins. They were validated by single PCRs performed with reference E. coli strains and by multiplex PCRs with necrotoxigenic E. coli strains isolated from different animal species. [less ▲]

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