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See detailContribution of Host MMP-2 and MMP-9 to Promote Tumor Vascularization and Invasion of Malignant Keratinocytes
Masson, Véronique ULg; de la Ballina, L. R.; Munaut, Carine ULg et al

in FASEB Journal (2005), 19(2), 234-6

The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a key role in normal and pathological angiogenesis by mediating extracellular matrix degradation and/or controlling the biological activity of growth factors ... [more ▼]

The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a key role in normal and pathological angiogenesis by mediating extracellular matrix degradation and/or controlling the biological activity of growth factors, chemokines, and/or cytokines. Specific functions of individual MMPs as anti- or proangiogenic mediators remain to be elucidated. In the present study, we assessed the impact of single or combined MMP deficiencies in in vivo and in vitro models of angiogenesis (malignant keratinocyte transplantation and the aortic ring assay, respectively). MMP-9 was predominantly expressed by neutrophils in tumor transplants, whereas MMP-2 and MMP-3 were stromal. Neither the single deficiency of MMP-2, MMP-3, or MMP-9, nor the combined absence of MMP-9 and MMP-3 did impair tumor invasion and vascularization in vivo. However, there was a striking cooperative effect in double MMP-2:MMP-9-deficient mice as demonstrated by the absence of tumor vascularization and invasion. In contrast, the combined lack of MMP-2 and MMP-9 did not impair the in vitro capillary outgrowth from aortic rings. These results point to the importance of a cross talk between several host cells for the in vivo tumor promoting and angiogenic effects of MMP-2 and MMP-9. Our data demonstrate for the first time in an experimental model that MMP-2 and MMP-9 cooperate in promoting the in vivo invasive and angiogenic phenotype of malignant keratinocytes. [less ▲]

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See detailHost plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 promotes human skin carcinoma progression in a stage-dependent manner
Maillard, Catherine ULg; Jost, M.; Romer, M. U. et al

in Neoplasia : An International Journal for Oncology Research (2005), 7(1), 57-66

Angiogenesis and tumor expansion are associated with extracellular matrix remodeling and involve various proteases such as the plasminogen (Plg)/plasminogen activator (PA) system. Recently, several ... [more ▼]

Angiogenesis and tumor expansion are associated with extracellular matrix remodeling and involve various proteases such as the plasminogen (Plg)/plasminogen activator (PA) system. Recently, several experimental data have implicated the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in tumor angiogenesis in murine systems. However, little is known about PAI-1 functions in human skin carcinoma progression. By generating immunodeficient mice (in Rag-1(-/-) or nude background) deleted for PAI-1 gene (PAI-1(-/-)), we have evaluated the impact of host PAI-1 deficiency on the tumorigenicity of two malignant human skin keratinocyte cell lines HaCaT II-4 and HaCaT A5-RT3 forming low-grade and high-grade carcinomas, respectively. When using the surface transplantation model, angiogenesis and tumor invasion of these two cell lines are strongly reduced in PAI-1-deficient mice as compared to the wild-type control animals. After subcutaneous injection in PAI-1-/- mice, the tumor incidence is reduced for HaCaT II-4 cells, but not for those formed by HaCaT A5-RT3 cells. These data indicate that PAI-1 produced by host cells is an important contributor to earlier stages of human skin carcinoma progression. It exerts its tumor-promoting effect in a tumor stage-dependent manner, but PAI-1 deficiency is not sufficient to prevent neoplastic growth of aggressive tumors of the human skin. [less ▲]

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See detailHost-derived plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) concentration is critical for in vivo tumoral angiogenesis and growth
Bajou, Khalid ULg; Maillard, Catherine ULg; Jost, M. et al

in Oncogene (2004), 23(41), 6986-6990

Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) plays a key role in tumor progression and is believed to control proteolytic activity and cell migration during angiogenesis. We report here that host PAI-1 ... [more ▼]

Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) plays a key role in tumor progression and is believed to control proteolytic activity and cell migration during angiogenesis. We report here that host PAI-1, at physiological concentration, promotes in vivo tumor invasion and angiogenesis. In sharp contrast, inhibition of tumor vascularization was observed when PAI-1 was produced at supraphysiologic levels, either by host cells (transgenic mice overexpressing PAI-1) or by tumor cells (after transfection with murine PAI-1 cDNA). This study provides for the first time in vivo evidence for a dose-dependent effect of PAI-1 on tumor angiogenesis. Of great interest is the finding that PAI-1 produced by tumor cells, even at high concentration, did not overcome the absence of PAI-1 in the host, emphasizing the importance of the cellular source of PAI-1. [less ▲]

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See detailMembrane associated proteases and their inhibitors in tumour angiogenesis
Noël, Agnès ULg; Maillard, Catherine ULg; Rocks, Natacha ULg et al

in Journal of Clinical Pathology (2004), 57(6), 577-584

Cell surface proteolysis is an important mechanism for generating biologically active proteins that mediate a range of cellular functions and contribute to biological processes such as angiogenesis ... [more ▼]

Cell surface proteolysis is an important mechanism for generating biologically active proteins that mediate a range of cellular functions and contribute to biological processes such as angiogenesis. Although most studies have focused on the plasminogen system and matrix metalloproteinases ( MMPs), recently there has been an increase in the identification of membrane associated proteases, including serine proteases, ADAMs, and membrane-type MMPs (MT-MMPs). Normally, protease activity is tightly controlled by tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs) and plasminogen activator inhibitors (PAIs). The balance between active proteases and inhibitors is thought to determine the occurrence of proteolysis in vivo. High concentrations of proteolytic system components correlate with poor prognosis in many cancers. Paradoxically, high (not low) PAI-1 or TIMP concentrations predict poor survival in patients with various cancers. Recent observations indicate a much more complex role for protease inhibitors in tumour progression and angiogenesis than initially expected. As knowledge in the field of protease biology has improved, the unforeseen complexities of cell associated enzymes and their interaction with physiological inhibitors have emerged, often revealing unexpected mechanisms of action. [less ▲]

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See detailDelivery of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in bioadhesive hydrogel stimulates migration of dendritic cells in models human papillomavirus-associated (pre)neoplastic epithelial lesions
Hubert, Pascale ULg; Evrard, Brigitte ULg; Maillard, Catherine ULg et al

in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (2004), 48(11), 4342-4348

Because of the central role of dendritic cells and/or Langerhans cells(DC/LC) in the induction of cellular immune responses, pharmacological agents that modulate the recruitment of these cells might have ... [more ▼]

Because of the central role of dendritic cells and/or Langerhans cells(DC/LC) in the induction of cellular immune responses, pharmacological agents that modulate the recruitment of these cells might have a clinical interest. The present study was designed to evaluate the capacity of several pharmaceutical formulations to topically deliver granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) on human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated genital (pre)neoplastic lesions. The formulations were evaluated for their bioactivity and for their potential to recruit DC in organotypic cultures of HPV-transformed keratinocytes. We found that a bioadhesive polycarbophil gel (Noveon) at pH 5.5 is able to maintain the bioactivity of GM-CSF at 4 or 37°C for at least 7 days, whereas a decreased activity of GM-CSF was observed when the molecule is included in other polymer gels. GM-CSF incorporated in the polycarbophil gel was also a potent factor in enhancing the colonization of DC into organotypic cultures of HPV-transformed keratinocytes since the infiltration of DC in the in vitro-formed (pre)neoplastic epithelium was very low under basal conditions and dramatically increased in the presence of GM-CSF gel. We next demonstrated that GM-CSF incorporated in polycarbophil gel induces the recruitment of human DC in a human (pre)neoplastic epithelium grafted into NOD/SCID mice. The efficacy of GM-CSF in this formulation was equivalent to that observed with liquid GM-CSF. These results suggest that GM-CSF incorporated in polycarbophil gel could play an important role in the recruitment of DC/LC in mucosal surfaces and be useful as a new immunotherapeutic approach for genital HPV-associated (pre)neoplastic lesions. [less ▲]

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See detailRole of plasminogen activator-plasmin system in tumor angiogenesis
Rakic, Jean-Marie ULg; Maillard, Catherine ULg; Jost, M. et al

in Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS (2003), 60(3), 463-473

New blood formation or angiogenesis has become a key target in therapeutic strategies aimed at inhibiting tumor growth and other diseases associated with neovascularization. Angiogenesis is associated ... [more ▼]

New blood formation or angiogenesis has become a key target in therapeutic strategies aimed at inhibiting tumor growth and other diseases associated with neovascularization. Angiogenesis is associated with important extracellular remodeling involving different proteolytic systems among which the plasminogen system plays an essential role. It belongs to the large serine proteinase family and can act directly or indirectly by activating matrix metalloproteinases or by liberating growth factors and cytokines sequestered within the extracellular matrix. Migration of endothelial cells is associated with significant upregulation of proteolysis and, conversely, immunoneutralization or chemical inhibition of the system reduces angiogenesis in vitro. On the other hand, genetically altered mice developed normally without overt vascular anomalies indicating the possibility of compensation by other proteases in vivo. Nevertheless, they have in some experimental settings revealed unanticipated roles for previously characterized proteinases or their inhibitors. In this review, the complex mechanisms of action of the serine proteases in pathological angiogenesis are summarized alongside possible therapeutic applications. [less ▲]

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