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See detailA quantitative assessment of the 1998 carbon monoxide emission anomaly in the Northern Hemisphere based on total column and surface concentration measurements
Yurganov, Leonid N.; Blumenstock, Thomas; Grechko, E. I. et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres (2004), 109(D15),

Carbon monoxide abundances in the atmosphere have been measured between January 1996 and December 2001 in the high Northern Hemisphere (HNH) (30degrees-90degreesN) using two different approaches: total ... [more ▼]

Carbon monoxide abundances in the atmosphere have been measured between January 1996 and December 2001 in the high Northern Hemisphere (HNH) (30degrees-90degreesN) using two different approaches: total column amounts of CO retrieved from infrared solar spectra and CO mixing ratios measured in situ at ground-based stations. The data were averaged, and anomalies of the CO HNH burden ( deviations of the total tropospheric mass between 30degreesN and 90degreesN from the mean seasonal profile, determined as the 5 year average) were analyzed. The anomalies obtained from in situ and total column data agree well and both show two maxima, by far the largest in October 1998 and a lower one in August 1996. A noticeable decrease of the positive 1998 summer anomaly with increasing height was found. A box model was applied, and anomalies in source rates were obtained under the assumption of insignificant interannual sink variations. In August 1998 the HNH emission anomaly was estimated to be 38 Tg month(-1). The annual 1998 emission positive anomaly was 96 Tg yr(-1). Nearly all excess CO may be attributed to the emissions from boreal forest fires. According to available inventories, biomass burning emits around 52 Tg yr(-1) during the "normal'' years; therefore total biomass emissions in 1998 were as large as 148 Tg yr(-1). In August 1998, CO contribution from the biomass burning was twice as large as that from fossil fuel combustion. The results were compared to available emission inventories. [less ▲]

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See detailIntercomparisons of MIPAS operational N2O and HNO3 profiles with ground based FTIR data
Vigouroux, C.; De Mazière, M.; Wood, S. et al

Poster (2004, July)

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See detailComparisons between SCIAMACHY Scientific Products and Ground-Based FTIR Data for Total Columns of CO, CH4 and N2O
De Mazière, M.; Barret, B.; Blumenstock, T. et al

Scientific conference (2004, May)

Total column amounts of CO, CH4 and N2O retrieved from SCIAMACHY nadir observations in its near-infrared channels have been compared to data from a ground-based network of Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR ... [more ▼]

Total column amounts of CO, CH4 and N2O retrieved from SCIAMACHY nadir observations in its near-infrared channels have been compared to data from a ground-based network of Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometers as well as to data obtained with an FTIR instrument during a ship cruise in January-February 2003, along the African West Coast. The SCIAMACHY data considered here have been produced by two different scientific retrieval algorithms, wfm-doas (version 4.0) and IMLM (version 5.1), and cover different time periods, making the number of reliable coincidences that satisfy the temporal and spatial collocation criteria rather limited and different for both. Also the quality of the SCIAMACHY Level 1 data, and thus of the Level 2 data for the different time periods is very different. Still the comparisons demonstrate the capability of SCIAMACHY, using one of both algorithms, to deliver geophysically valuable products for the target species under consideration, on a global scale. [less ▲]

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See detailValidation of MIPAS N2O Profiles by Stratospherc Balloon, Aircraft and Ground Based Measurements
Camy-Peyret, C.; Dufour, G.; Payan, S. et al

Scientific conference (2004, May)

The ENVISAT validation programme for the atmospheric instruments MIPAS, SCIAMACHY and GOMOS is based on a number of balloon-bone, aircraft and ground-based correlative measurements. In particular the ... [more ▼]

The ENVISAT validation programme for the atmospheric instruments MIPAS, SCIAMACHY and GOMOS is based on a number of balloon-bone, aircraft and ground-based correlative measurements. In particular the activities of validation scientists were coordinated by ESA within the ENVISAT Stratospheric Aircraft and Balloon Campaign or ESABC. As a companion to a similar paper on CH4 and in parallel to the contribution of the individual validation teams, the resent paper provides a synthesis of comparisons performed between MIPAS N2O profiles roduced by the current ESA operational software (Instrument Processing Facility version 4.61 or IPF v4.61) or by the IMK-FZK scientific processor and correlative measurements obtained from balloon and aircraft experiments as well as from ground-based instruments. [less ▲]

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See detailGround-based FTIR measurements of O3- and climate-related gases in the free troposphere and lower stratosphere
De Mazière, M.; Barret, B.; Vigouroux, C. et al

in Zerefos, C. S. (Ed.) Proceedings Quadrennial Ozone Symposium (2004)

In the frame of the EC project UFTIR (Time series of Upper Free Troposphere observations from a European ground-based FTIR network), a common strategy for an optimal determination of the chemical ... [more ▼]

In the frame of the EC project UFTIR (Time series of Upper Free Troposphere observations from a European ground-based FTIR network), a common strategy for an optimal determination of the chemical composition in the free troposphere and lower stratosphere with ground-based Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometers is being developed. The project focuses on 6 target species that are O3, CO, CH4, N2O, C2H6 and CHClF2 (HCFC-22). The strategy consists in selecting the most appropriate parameters to retrieve vertical concentration profiles from solar FTIR spectra. Among the important parameters are the spectral microwindows: they have been optimised to maximise the information content and to minimize the influence of poorly known spectroscopic data and interfering species. [less ▲]

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See detailThe evolution of inorganic chlorine above the Jungfraujoch station: an update.
Mahieu, Emmanuel ULg; Duchatelet, Pierre ULg; Zander, Rodolphe ULg et al

in Zerefos, C. S. (Ed.) Proceedings of the 20th Quadrennial Ozone Symposium (2004)

Within the frame of the NDSC, the total vertical column abundances of HCl and ClONO2, by far the two most important inorganic chlorine reservoirs at northern mid-latitudes, have been further monitored ... [more ▼]

Within the frame of the NDSC, the total vertical column abundances of HCl and ClONO2, by far the two most important inorganic chlorine reservoirs at northern mid-latitudes, have been further monitored above the Jungfraujoch station (Swiss Alps, 46.5ºN, 8.0ºE, 3580m a.s.l.), by analyzing infrared solar absorption spectra recorded with very high-resolution Fourier spectrometers. The mean temporal evolution of the sum of their monthly mean abundance time series indicates that the total stratospheric inorganic chlorine loading (Cly) has decreased slowly (-0.7+/-0.3%/yr, 1-sigma) since it peaked in late 1996, at the limit of being statistically significant at the 2-sigma level. Comparison with model calculations and with the evolution of surface total organic chlorine will also be discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailGround-based FTIR measurements of CO from the Jungfraujoch: characterisation and comparison with in situ surface and MOPITT data
Barret, Brice; De Mazière, Martine; Mahieu, Emmanuel ULg

in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (2003), 3

CO vertical profiles have been retrieved from solar absorption FTIR spectra recorded at the NDSC station of the Jungfraujoch ( 46.5 degreesN, 8degrees E and 3580 ma. s. l.) for the period from January ... [more ▼]

CO vertical profiles have been retrieved from solar absorption FTIR spectra recorded at the NDSC station of the Jungfraujoch ( 46.5 degreesN, 8degrees E and 3580 ma. s. l.) for the period from January 1997 to May 2001. The characterisation of these profiles has been established by an information content analysis and an estimation of the error budgets. A partial validation of the profiles has been performed through comparisons with correlative measurements. The average volume mixing ratios ( vmr) in the 3 km layer above the station have been compared with coincident surface measurements. The agreement between monthly means from both measurement techniques is very good, with a correlation coefficient of 0.87, and no significant bias observed. The FTIR total columns have also been compared to CO partial columns above 3580 ma. s. l. derived from the MOPITT ( Measurement Of Pollution In The Troposphere) instrument for the period March 2000 to May 2001. Relative to the FTIR columns, the MOPITT partial columns exhibit a positive bias of 8 +/- 8% for daytime and of 4 +/- 7% for nighttime measurements. [less ▲]

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See detailPost-Mount Pinatubo eruption ground-based infrared stratospheric column measurements of HNO3, NO, and NO2 and their comparison with model calculations
Rinsland, Curtis P.; Weisenstein, Debra K.; Ko, Malcolm K. W. et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres (2003), 108(D15),

[1] Infrared solar spectra recorded between July 1991 to March 1992 and November 2002 with the Fourier transform spectrometer on Kitt Peak (31.9 degrees N latitude, 111.6 degrees W longitude, 2.09 km ... [more ▼]

[1] Infrared solar spectra recorded between July 1991 to March 1992 and November 2002 with the Fourier transform spectrometer on Kitt Peak (31.9 degrees N latitude, 111.6 degrees W longitude, 2.09 km altitude) have been analyzed to retrieve stratospheric columns of HNO3, NO, and NO2. The measurements cover a decade time span following the June 1991 Mount Pinatubo volcanic eruption and were recorded typically at 0.01 cm(-1) spectral resolution. The measured HNO3 stratospheric column shows a 20% decline from 9.16 x 10(15) molecules cm(-2) from the first observation in March 1992 to 7.40 x 10(15) molecules cm(-2) at the start of 1996 reaching a broad minimum of 6.95 x 10(15) molecules cm(-2) thereafter. Normalized daytime NO and NO2 stratospheric column trends for the full post-Pinatubo eruption time period equal (+ 1.56 +/- 0.45)% yr(-1), 1 sigma, and (+ 0.52 +/- 0.32)% yr(-1), 1 sigma, respectively. The long-term trends are superimposed on seasonal cycles with ~10% relative amplitudes with respect to mean values, winter maxima for HNO3 and summer maxima for NO and NO2. The measurements have been compared with two-dimensional model calculations utilizing version 6.1 Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment ( SAGE) II sulfate aerosol surface area density measurements through 1999 and extended to the end of the time series by repeating the 1999 values. The model-calculated HNO3, NO, and NO2 stratospheric column time series agree with the measurements to within ~8% after taking into account the vertical sensitivity of the ground-based measurements. The consistency between the measured and model-calculated stratospheric time series confirms the decreased impact on stratospheric reactive nitrogen chemistry of the key heterogeneous reaction that converts reactive nitrogen to its less active reservoir form as the lower-stratospheric aerosol surface area density declined by a factor of ~20 after the eruption maximum. [less ▲]

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See detailLong-term trends of inorganic chlorine from ground-based infrared solar spectra: Past increases and evidence for stabilization
Rinsland, Curtis P.; Mahieu, Emmanuel ULg; Zander, Rodolphe ULg et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research (2003), 108(D8), 4252

Long-term time series of hydrogen chloride (HCl) and chlorine nitrate (ClONO2) total column abundances has been retrieved from high spectral resolution ground-based solar absorption spectra recorded with ... [more ▼]

Long-term time series of hydrogen chloride (HCl) and chlorine nitrate (ClONO2) total column abundances has been retrieved from high spectral resolution ground-based solar absorption spectra recorded with infrared Fourier transform spectrometers at nine NDSC (Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change) sites in both Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The data sets span up to 24 years and most extend until the end of 2001. The time series of Cly (defined here as the sum of the HCl and ClONO2 columns) from the three locations with the longest time-span records show rapid increases until the early 1990s superimposed on marked day-to-day, seasonal and inter-annual variability. Subsequently, the buildup in Cly slows and reaches a broad plateau after 1996, also characterized by variability. A similar time evolution is also found in the total chlorine concentration at 55 km altitude derived from Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) global observations since 1991. The stabilization of inorganic chlorine observed in both the total columns and at 55 km altitude indicates that the near-global 1993 organic chlorine (CCly) peak at the Earth’s surface has now propagated over a broad altitude range in the upper atmosphere, though the time lag is difficult to quantify precisely from the current data sets, due to variability. We compare the three longest measured time series with two-dimensional model calculations extending from 1977 to 2010, based on a halocarbon scenario that assumes past measured trends and a realistic extrapolation into the future. The model predicts broad Cly maxima consistent with the long-term observations, followed by a slow Cly decline reaching 12–14% relative to the peak by 2010. The data reported here confirm the effectiveness of the Montreal Protocol and its Amendments and Adjustments in progressively phasing out the major man-related perturbations of the stratospheric ozone layer, in particular, the anthropogenic chlorine-bearing source gases. [less ▲]

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See detailSF6 ground-based infrared solar absorption measurements: long-term trend, pollution events, and a search for SF5CF3 absorption
Rinsland, Curtis P.; Goldman, Aaron; Stephen, T. M. et al

in Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy & Radiative Transfer (2003), 78(1), 41-53

Infrared solar spectra recorded with the Fourier transform spectrometer in the McMath solar telescope complex on Kitt Peak (31.9degreesN latitude, 111.6degreesW, 2.09 km altitude), southwest of Tucson ... [more ▼]

Infrared solar spectra recorded with the Fourier transform spectrometer in the McMath solar telescope complex on Kitt Peak (31.9degreesN latitude, 111.6degreesW, 2.09 km altitude), southwest of Tucson, Arizona, have been analyzed to retrieve average SF6 tropospheric mixing ratios over a two-decade time span. The analysis is based primarily on spectral fits to absorption by the intense, unresolved nu(3) band Q branch at 947.9 cm(-1). A best fit to measurements recorded with SF6 near typical background concentrations yields a SF6 increase in the average tropospheric mixing ratio from 1.13 pptv (10(-12) per unit volume) in March 1982 to 3.77 pptv in March 2002. The long-term increase by a factor of 3.34 over the time span is consistent with the rapid growth of surface mixing ratios measured in situ at Northern Hemisphere remote stations, though the infrared measurements show a large scatter. Average tropospheric mixing ratio enhancements above background by 2-3 orders of magnitude have been identified in spectra recorded on 5 days between November 1988 and April 1997. These spectra were individually analyzed in an attempt to detect the strongest 8-12 mum band of SF5CF3, a molecule recently identified with an atmospheric growth that has closely paralleled the rise in SF6 during the past three decades. Absorption by the strongest SF5CF3 band was predicted to be above the noise level in the Kitt Peak spectrum with the highest average mean tropospheric SF6 mixing ratio, assuming the reported atmospheric SF5CF3/SF6 ratio and a room temperature absorption cross sections reported for the SF5CF3 903-cm(-1) band. An upper limit of 8 x 10(15) molecules cm(-2) for the SF5CF3 total column was estimated for this case. We hypothesize that the highly elevated SF6 levels above Kitt Peak resulted from a local release experiment rather than production via electrochemical fluoridation of intermediate products, the proposed source of atmospheric SF5CF3. The absence of the SF5CF3 feature in the spectra with elevated SF6 is consistent with the absence of SF5CF3 reported in a pure SF6 sample. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. [less ▲]

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See detailControlled substances and other source gases, Chapter 1 of the Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2002
Montzka, S. A.; Fraser, P. J.; Butler, J. H. et al

in Nohende Ajavon, Ayité-Lô; Albritton, Daniel L.; Mégie, Gérard (Eds.) et al Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2002 (2003)

This chapter provides an update on scientific progress since the previous Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion (WMO, 1999) regarding ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) in the atmosphere. This includes ... [more ▼]

This chapter provides an update on scientific progress since the previous Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion (WMO, 1999) regarding ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) in the atmosphere. This includes a discussion of the latest available data for observed trends in the troposphere and stratosphere, emissions, lifetimes, Ozone Depletion Potentials (ODPs), and Global Warming Potentials (GWPs). On the basis of this updated informaion, we relate observations of ODSs in the atmosphere to expectations, and discuss the evidence that the Montreal Protocol is effectively reducing ozone-depleting gases in the atmosphere. [less ▲]

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See detailValidation of ENVISAT-1 Level-2 Products Related to Lower Atmosphere O3 and NOy Chemistry by a FTIR Quasi-global Network
De Mazière, Martine; Coosemans, Thierry; Barret, Brice et al

in Proceedings of Envisat Validation Workshop, Frascati, Italy, December 9-13, 2002, ESA SP-531, 2003 (2003)

A coordinated action involving eleven stations of the ground -based Network for Detection of Stratospheric Change (NDSC) equipped with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) instruments was conducted to ... [more ▼]

A coordinated action involving eleven stations of the ground -based Network for Detection of Stratospheric Change (NDSC) equipped with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) instruments was conducted to contribute to the validation of the three atmospheric chemistry instruments onboard ENVISAT, that are MIPAS, SCIAMACHY and GOMOS. The target products for validation are total columns of O3, CH4, CO and some important NOy species (NO2, HNO3, NO) and the source gas N2O. Together the eleven stations cover the latitudes between 79 °N and 78°S, including polar, mid-latitude and subtropical and tropical locations. The goal is to contribute to the assessment of the data quality of the aforementioned ENVISAT instruments, from a quasi -global perspective. The period of intensive ground-based data collection for the benefit of the ENVISAT Validation Commissioning Phase that is dealt with in the present paper is July 15 to December 1, 2002. The FTIR network involved collected a data set corresponding to an equivalent of approximately 400 days of measurements; about three quarter of the data have already been submitted to the ENVISAT Calval database and are included in the present work. Unfortunately, the distribution of ENVISAT data has been slow and limited. Only a limited number of coincidences has been found for making data inter -comparisons. Therefore, the conclusions drawn in this paper are very preliminary and cover only a limited set of data products from SCIAMACHY only. Our findings up to now concerning the above mentioned target products are the following: (1) SCIAMACHY near infrared operational products (CO, CH4, N 2O) have no scientific meaning yet, (2), the operational SCIAMACHY total vertical O3 column product derived in the ultraviolet window has undergone some improvements with changing versions of the processor(s) but it still underestimates the column by about 5 – 10 %, (3), the operational SCIAMACHY total vertical O3 column product derived in the visible window is unrealistically large, and (4), the operational NO2 total column product from SCIAMACHY seems to largely overestimate the real column, but very few coincidences and large dispersions of the data do inhibit any further conclusion at present. In a next phase, the same ground-based correlative data set will be exploited to further validate the ENVISAT data as soon as more and reprocessed data will be distributed. [less ▲]

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See detailMonitoring of the variability and long-term evolution of tropospheric constituents by Infrared solar absorption spectrometry at the Jungfraujoch, Switzerland.
Zander, Rodolphe ULg; Mahieu, Emmanuel ULg; Duchatelet, Pierre ULg et al

in Borrell, P.; Borrell, P. M.; Burrows, J. P. (Eds.) et al Sounding the Troposphere from Space: A new era for Atmospheric Chemistry. (2003)

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See detailUpdating the Jungfraujoch FTIR databases : current status
Duchatelet, Pierre ULg; Mahieu, Emmanuel ULg; Zander, Rodolphe ULg et al

(2003)

Since the middle of the 20th century, the University of Liège has been active at the International Scientific Station of the Jungfraujoch (ISSJ) in the Swiss Alps (46.5°N, 8.0°E, 3580m asl) to study the ... [more ▼]

Since the middle of the 20th century, the University of Liège has been active at the International Scientific Station of the Jungfraujoch (ISSJ) in the Swiss Alps (46.5°N, 8.0°E, 3580m asl) to study the chemical composition of both the solar photosphere and the Earth’s atmosphere. Since 1989, the ISSJ is an accepted site of the northern midlattitude primary Alpine station of the NDSC (Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change). This acceptance resulted from earlier monitoring activities by Ulg of a large number of atmospheric constituents. Within the NDSC frame, a special attention and many efforts have been devoted to the monitoring of the most important atmospheric constituents involved both in the erosion of stratospheric ozone and in the greenhouse capacity of the troposphere, after it became clear that human activities have a direct impact on these two processes. Using two high resolution Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometers, over 25000 wide-band solar spectra encompassing nearly 1700 days since the mid 1980s have been recorded and analyzed to study, quasi simultaneously and repeatedly, local, seasonal and secular variations of some 20 gaseous telluric species. So far, most results have been reported, demonstrating the power of infrared spectrometric solar observations to characterize the chemical composition of the atmosphere. These datas, archived in terms of total vertical column abundances (e.g., at the NDSC-Data Host Facility; http://www.ndsc.ws), are expressed in number molecules per cm2 above the site using best-know input parameters (i.e. spectroscopic-, instrumental-, environmental-) in the retrieval procedure. Meanwhile, more sophisticated algorithms, based on the “Rodgers” optimal estimation method, have been developed, allowing to derive partial tropospheric- and stratospheric columns for various species, including HCl, ClONO2, O3, HF, CO, N2O, CH4, HCN, OCS. This contribution reports related results for HCl and ClONO2. [less ▲]

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See detailVALIDATION OF ENVISAT-1 LEVEL-2 PRODUCTS RELATED TO LOWER ATMOSPHERE O3 AND NOy CHEMISTRY BY A FTIR QUASI-GLOBAL NETWORK
De Mazière, M.; Coosemans, T.; Barret, B. et al

Scientific conference (2002, December)

A coordinated action involving eleven stations of the ground-based Network for Detection of Stratospheric Change (NDSC) equipped with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) instruments was conducted to ... [more ▼]

A coordinated action involving eleven stations of the ground-based Network for Detection of Stratospheric Change (NDSC) equipped with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) instruments was conducted to contribute to the validation of the three atmospheric chemistry instruments onboard ENVISAT, that are MIPAS, SCIAMACHY and GOMOS. The target products for validation are total columns of O3, CH4, CO and some important NOy species (NO2, HNO3, NO) and the source gas N2O. Together the eleven stations cover the latitudes between 79 °N and 78°S, including polar, mid -latitude and subtropical and tropical locations. The goal is to contribute to the assessment of the data quality of the aforementioned ENVISAT instruments, from a quasi-global perspective. The period of intensive ground-based data collection for the benefit of the ENVISAT Validation Commissioning Phase that is dealt with in the present paper is July 15 to December 1, 2002. The FTIR network involved collected a data set corresponding to an equivalent of approximately 400 days of measurements; about three quarter of the data have already been submitted to the ENVISAT Calval database and are included in the present work. Unfortunately, the distribution of ENVISAT data has been slow and limited. Only a limited number of coincidences has been found for making data inter-comparisons. Therefore, the conclusions drawn in this paper are very preliminary and cover only a limited set of data products from SCIAMACHY only. Our findings up to now concerning the above mentioned target products are the following: (1) SCIAMACHY near infrared operational products (CO, CH4, N2O) have no scientific meaning yet, (2), the operational SCIAMACHY total vertical O3 column product derived in the ultraviolet window has undergone some improvements with changing versions of the processor(s) but it still underestimates the column by about 5 – 10 %, (3), the operational SCIAMACHY total vertical O3 column product derived in the visible window is unrealistically large, and (3), the operational NO2 total column product from SCIAMACHY seems to largely overestimate the real column, but very few coincidences and large dispersions of the data do inhibit any further conclusion at present. In a next phase, the same ground-based correlative data set will be exploited to further validate the ENVISAT data as soon as more and reprocessed data will be distributed. [less ▲]

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See detailAtmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment version 3 data retrievals
Irion, Fredrick W.; Gunson, Michael R.; Toon, Geoff C. et al

in Applied Optics (2002), 41(33), 6968-6979

Version 3 of the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment data set for some 30 trace and minor gas profiles is available. From the IR solar-absorption spectra measured during four Space ... [more ▼]

Version 3 of the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment data set for some 30 trace and minor gas profiles is available. From the IR solar-absorption spectra measured during four Space Shuttle missions (in 1985, 1992, 1993, and 1994), profiles from more than 350 occultations were retrieved from the upper troposphere to the lower mesosphere. Previous results were unreliable for tropospheric retrievals, but with a new global-fitting algorithm profiles are reliably returned down to altitudes as low as 6.5 km (clouds permitting) and include notably improved retrievals of H2O, CO, and other species. Results for stratospheric water are more consistent across the ATMOS spectral filters and do not indicate a net consumption of H-2 in the upper stratosphere. A new sulfuric-acid aerosol product is described. An overview of ATMOS Version 3 processing is presented with a discussion of estimated uncertainties. Differences between these Version 3 and previously reported Version 2 ATMOS results are discussed. Retrievals are available at http://atmos.jpl.nasa.gov/atmos. (C) 2002 Optical Society of America. [less ▲]

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See detailGround-based infrared spectroscopic measurements of carbonyl sulfide: Free tropospheric trends from a 24-year time series of solar absorption measurements
Rinsland, Curtis P.; Goldman, Aaron; Mahieu, Emmanuel ULg et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres (2002), 107(D22),

[1] Solar absorption spectra recorded over a 24-year time span have been analyzed to retrieve average free tropospheric mixing ratios of carbonyl sulfide (OCS). The measurements were recorded with the ... [more ▼]

[1] Solar absorption spectra recorded over a 24-year time span have been analyzed to retrieve average free tropospheric mixing ratios of carbonyl sulfide (OCS). The measurements were recorded with the Fourier transform spectrometer located in the U. S. National Solar Observatory McMath solar telescope facility on Kitt Peak (altitude 2.09 km, lat. 31.9degreesN, long. 111.6degreesW), southwest of Tucson, Arizona, and were obtained on 167 days between May 1978 and February 2002, typically at 0.01-cm(-1) spectral resolution. A best fit to the time series shows an average mixing ratio of 566 pptv (1 pptv = 10(-12) per unit volume) between 2.09 and 10 km, a small but statistically significant long-term decrease equal to (-0.25 +/- 0.04)% yr(-1), 1 sigma, and a seasonal variation with a summer maximum, a winter minimum, and a peak amplitude of (1.3 +/- 0.4)%, 1 sigma, relative to the mean. Although a statistically significant decline and seasonal variation have been detected, both are exceedingly small. The present results confirm and extend earlier studies showing that the OCS free tropospheric abundance at northern midlatitudes has remained nearly constant over the last decades. [less ▲]

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See detailStratospheric HF column abundances above Kitt Peak (31.9 degrees N latitude): trends from 1977 to 2001 and correlations with stratospheric HCl columns
Rinsland, Curtis P.; Zander, Rodolphe ULg; Mahieu, Emmanuel ULg et al

in Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy & Radiative Transfer (2002), 74(2), 205-216

Time series of stratospheric hydrogen fluoride (HF) column abundances have been derived from infrared solar absorption spectra recorded for 195 days between May 1977 and June 2001 at a spectral resolution ... [more ▼]

Time series of stratospheric hydrogen fluoride (HF) column abundances have been derived from infrared solar absorption spectra recorded for 195 days between May 1977 and June 2001 at a spectral resolution of typically 0.01 cm(-1). The measurements were made at the US National Solar Observatory facility on Kitt Peak, Arizona, USA (31.9degreesN, 111.6degreesW, 2.09 km altitude) and have been analyzed with the SFIT2 algorithm, which is based on a semi-empirical application of the optimal estimation method. The measurements show a continuous buildup of the stratospheric HF column over the 24-yr period superimposed on short-term variations and a seasonal cycle with spring maxima and autumn minima. The measured stratospheric HF columns increased by a factor of 4.7, from 2.03 x 10(14) molecule cm(-2) in May 1977 to 9.49 x 10(14) molecule cm(-2) in June 2001. A best fit with a model that assumes an exponential increase in the stratospheric HF column with time superimposed on a sinusoidal seasonal cycle yields an average rate of stratospheric HF column increase of (4.30 +/- 0.15% yr(-1)), 1 sigma. The rate of increase is nearly a factor of two less than that derived previously from 1977 to 1990 Kitt Peak total columns, which indicates a significant slowdown in the increase rate during the 1990s, consistent with the trends from recent near-global lower mesospheric satellite remote and surface in situ measurements. Day-to-day stratospheric HIT columns are highly correlated with the same day stratospheric HCl columns as a result of common transport of lower and higher latitude air to above the station. Extrapolation of the linear relation between the two sets of stratospheric columns indicates a background HCl column of 1 x 10(15) molecule cm(-2) for zero HF, consistent with a previous estimate from 1977 to 1990 HF and HCl Kitt Peak total column measurements and a 1973 HCl measurement above the station. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailMultiyear infrared solar spectroscopic measurements of HCN, CO, C2H6,and C2H2 tropospheric columns above Lauder, New Zealand (45 degrees S latitude)
Rinsland, Curtis P.; Jones, Nicholas B.; Connor, Brian J. et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres (2002), 107(D14),

[1] Near-simultaneous, 0.0035 or 0.007 cm(-1) resolution infrared solar absorption spectra of tropospheric HCN, C2H2, CO, and C2H6 have been recorded from the Network for the Detection of Stratospheric ... [more ▼]

[1] Near-simultaneous, 0.0035 or 0.007 cm(-1) resolution infrared solar absorption spectra of tropospheric HCN, C2H2, CO, and C2H6 have been recorded from the Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change station in Lauder, New Zealand (45.04degreesS, 169.68degreesE, 0.37 km altitude). All four molecules were measured on over 350 days with HCN and C2H2 reported for the first time based on a new analysis procedure that significantly increases the effective signal-to-noise of weak tropospheric absorption features in the measured spectra. The CO measurements extend by 2.5 years a database of measurements begun in January 1994 for CO with improved sensitivity in the lower and middle troposphere. The C2H6 measurements lengthen a time series begun in July 1993 with peak sensitivity in the upper troposphere. Retrievals of all four molecules were obtained with an algorithm based on the semiempirical application of the Rodgers optimal estimation technique. Columns are reported for the 0.37- to 12-km-altitude region, approximately the troposphere above the station. The seasonal cycles of all four molecules are asymmetric, with minima in March-June and sharp peaks and increased variability during August-November, which corresponds to the period of maximum biomass burning near the end of the Southern Hemisphere tropical dry season. Except for a possible HCN column decrease, no evidence was found for a statistically significant long-term trend. [less ▲]

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