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See detailPrevention of group B streptococcal neonatal disease revisited. The DEVANI European project
Rodriguez-Granger, J.; Alvargonzales, J. C.; Berardi, A. et al

in European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases : Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology (2012)

The purpose of this paper was to present the current knowledge on the prevention of group B streptococcus (GBS)neonatal infections and the status of prevention policies in European countries and to ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this paper was to present the current knowledge on the prevention of group B streptococcus (GBS)neonatal infections and the status of prevention policies in European countries and to present the DEVANI pan-European program, launched in 2008. The aim of this program was to assess the GBS neonatal infection burden in Europe, to design a new vaccine to immunize neonates against GBS infections, to improve the laboratory performance for the diagnosis of GBS colonization and infection, and to improve the methods for the typing of GBS strains. The current guidelines for GBS prevention in different countries were ascertained and a picture of the burden before and after the instauration of prevention policies has been drawn. After the issue of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines, many European countries have adopted universal screening for the GBS colonization of pregnant women and intrapartum prophylaxis to colonized mothers. Nevertheless, some European countries continue advocating the risk factor approach to GBS prevention. Most European countries have implemented policies to prevent GBS neonatal infections and the burden of the disease has decreased during the last several years. Nevertheless, further steps are necessary in order to develop new strategies of prevention, to improve microbiological techniques to detect GBS colonization and infection, and to coordinate the prevention policies in the EU. [less ▲]

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See detailPrévention de la contamination microbienne et parasitaire des aliments par des opérateurs porteurs ou malades
Daube, Georges ULg; Debanterlé, René; Dierick, Katelijne et al

Book published by Conseil Supérieur de la Santé - D/2012/7795/4 (2012)

Les toxi-infections d’origine alimentaire (TIA) à la suite de l’ingestion de denrées alimentaires contaminées par des toxines ou des germes (bactéries, virus, parasites, …) sont très fréquentes. On ... [more ▼]

Les toxi-infections d’origine alimentaire (TIA) à la suite de l’ingestion de denrées alimentaires contaminées par des toxines ou des germes (bactéries, virus, parasites, …) sont très fréquentes. On considère que, dans les pays industrialisés, chaque personne en souffre entre une fois par an et une fois tous les trois ans. Heureusement, les germes les plus virulents (Salmonella typhi, Shigella dysenteriae, Vibrio cholerae) ont été éradiqués dans nos pays et, dans la plupart des cas, les autres agents sont uniquement responsables de problèmes symptomatiques moins graves mais très coûteux pour la société. Quelques affections connaissent une issue fatale (Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium botulinum) ou sont couplées avec une pathologie sévère (Escherichia coli O157:H7 entérohémorragiques). Les agents transmissibles par l’alimentation sont de nature très variée: des virus, des bactéries, des protozoaires, des helminthes et des toxines. Au vu des données épidémiologiques actuellement disponibles en Belgique, les affections les plus fréquentes dans notre pays sont, dans l’ordre décroissant du nombre de cas annuels déclarés, celles causées par Campylobacter spp, Salmonella spp, Yersinia enterocolitica, Shigella spp, E. coli entérohémorragiques dont E. coli O157:H7, les norovirus, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus et Clostridium perfringens. L’absence de recherche systématique sous-évalue l’incidence des infections virales, en particulier celles causées par les norovirus. De plus, dans les cas d’infections mixtes bactérie/virus où une étiologie bactérienne a été identifiée, la recherche de virus est très rarement menée. Pour certains de ces agents, la contamination d’origine humaine est majoritaire alors que, dans beaucoup de cas, il s’agit d’agents zoonotiques dont le réservoir principal est le tube digestif des animaux et qui peuvent contaminer les aliments à l’un des stades de leur production. Enfin, l’environnement peut aussi être une source de contamination. Cette brochure s’adresse à tout médecin impliqué dans l’accompagnement médical des personnes actives dans la production, le traitement, la transformation et la manipulation de denrées alimentaires. En effet, l’AR du 03 février 2012 modifiant l’AR du 22 décembre 2005 prescrit que tout travailleur pouvant entrer en contact direct avec des denrées alimentaires non ou semi-emballées prêtes à consommer doit disposer d’un certificat médical relatif à l’hygiène des denrées alimentaires. Ce sont les médecins traitants, les médecins du travail et les médecins-conseil qui vont être amenés à envisager l’aptitude à la fonction, l’arrêt ou bien la reprise du travail avec ou sans conditions pour ces travailleurs. Ils doivent pouvoir disposer de toutes les informations médico-scientifiques utiles à leurs prises de décisions ou à leur mission de conseil. Afin de prendre la décision la plus adéquate, le médecin devra évaluer au cas par cas les risques liés à la fonction de la personne. L’objet de cette brochure est d’offrir un outil pour réaliser le diagnostic clinique différentiel des affections qui - par une contamination des denrées alimentaires - peuvent provoquer des TIA et, éventuellement, requérir des examens complémentaires. Dans cette brochure, les caractéristiques de ces agents pathogènes sont mentionnées afin que l’attestation requise puisse être établie en connaissance de cause et que le patient puisse être conseillé au mieux en matière de prévention. Les personnes actives dans le secteur agro-alimentaire peuvent jouer un rôle prépondérant dans le cadre de la transmission des TIA. Elles peuvent notamment être à l’origine de foyers épidémiques si elles sont malades et/ou porteuses de certains de ces agents et ne respectent pas les précautions d’hygiène de base. C’est la raison pour laquelle les mesures d’hygiène de base sont également rappelées dans cette brochure. Il est également intéressant de savoir qu’à coté de ce document, il existe une brochure dédiée spécifiquement aux opérateurs de la filière agro-alimentaire et à leurs employeurs et dans laquelle les mesures générales et spécifiques à mettre en œuvre en fonction du secteur et de la fonction sont précisées. Toute personne intéressé à obtenir plus d'informations pourra trouver en fin de brochure des références aux lectures conseillées ainsi que les coordonnées générales des services et des personnes concernées. [less ▲]

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See detailTypage des souches de Norovirus circulant dans les populations symptomatiques et asymptomatiques au Burkina Faso
HUYNEN, Pascale ULg; Mauroy, Axel ULg; MARTIN, Caroline et al

Poster (2012)

Appartenant à la famille des Caliciviridae, genre Norovirus, les norovirus (NoV) sont des virus non enveloppés dont le génome est composé d’un ARN monocaténaire de polarité positive ... [more ▼]

Appartenant à la famille des Caliciviridae, genre Norovirus, les norovirus (NoV) sont des virus non enveloppés dont le génome est composé d’un ARN monocaténaire de polarité positive d’approximativement 7,5 kb. Les NoV infectent l’homme chez qui ils représentent au niveaumondial un agent majeur de gastroentérites épidémiques, d’origine souvent alimentaire mais aussi sporadique, et ce, toutes classes d'âges confondues. Les souches humaines sont classées génétiquement dans différents génotypes au sein de trois des cinq génogroupes, nommés (G) I, II et IV, composant le genre Norovirus. La voie de transmission des NoV est féco-orale. Les NoV sont très résistants dans l’environnement et la dose infectieuse est faible. Dans la population humaine, une grande diversité de souches appartenant principalement aux G I et II co-circulent. Parmi ces souches, le génotype Lordsdale (GII-4) est prédominant dans les épidémies actuelles, notamment lorsqu'une transmission de personne à personne est incriminée, alors que les souches du G I semblent plus fréquemment rapportées au cours des épidémies d’origine environnementale, comme celles liées à la consommation de fruits de mer. Si de nombreuses études d'épidémiologie moléculaire concernant ces virus ont été réalisées dans les pays industrialisés, les données sont par contre manquantes ou ténues pour bien des pays non industrialisés, et en particulier africains. Au cours d'une étude épidémiologique réalisée à Bobo Dioulasso au Burkina Faso et portant sur la prévalence des NoV dans les échantillons de selles de patients présentant ou non des symptômes de gastro-entérite, les souches détectées ont été quantifiées, leur génogroupe a été déterminé et pour certaines d'entre elles le génotype a été précisé. Quatre cent cinquante trois patients ont été prélevés, dont 319 présentant des symptômes diarrhéiques et 134 sujets témoins ne présentant pas de symptomatologie digestive. La détection des NoV et la quantification des charges virales excrétées ont été effectuées sur tous les échantillons par RT-PCR en temps réel permettant de discriminer les souches appartenant aux G I ou II. Une RT-PCR conventionnelle visant les régions de la polymérase (ORF1 du virus) ou de la capside (ORF2) a ensuite été réalisée sur une partie des échantillons détectés positifs en vue du séquençage de ces régions. Les relations phylogénétiques des souches circulant dans la population du Burkina Faso aux souches de référence ont aussi été inférées. Les résultats de RT-PCR en temps réel ont permis de mettre en évidence que les prévalences apparentes de l'infection par les NoV sont similaires dans les populations symptomatique et asymptomatique : une détection moléculaire de NoV chez 67 patients présentant de la diarrhée (21,0 %) et chez 31 des sujets témoins (23,1 %) a pu être observée. Les génotypes circulant détectés sont très variés dans les deux génogroupes, avec une proportion assez surprenante de NoV appartenant au G I. Université polytechnique de Bobo-Dioulasso, Institut supérieur des Sciences de la Santé (INSSA), Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Cette étude a permis de préciser l'épidémiologie moléculaire des souches de NoV circulant dans un pays représentatif de l'Afrique de l'Ouest. Elle a également montré que des individus asymptomatiques pourraient jouer un rôle assez important de réservoir du virus. Elle souligne enfin que, malgré le fait que les souches GII, et en particulier celles de génotype GII.4, soient à l'heure actuelle rapportées majoritairement au niveau mondial, les souches G I doivent être excrétées en égale proportion dans l'environnement. L'origine épidémiologique de la différence entre les prévalences apparentes des infections par les souches de GI et de GII, bien que partiellement expliquée par les différences de sensibilité génétique et d'immunité de population, reste donc à élucider. Remerciements: à la fondation A. Seghers, au Centre de Coopération au Développement de l'Université de Liège, à R. Boreux (assistance technique), aux membres du laboratoire du CMA de Dô et aux agents de santé de Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina-Faso). [less ▲]

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See detailTables 1, 2, 3 and 4 (1-199)
independent Belgian/Luxembourg Working Party on Antimicrobial Therapy,; MELIN, Pierrette ULg; Arendt, Vic et al

in The Sanford Guide to Antimicrobial Therapy 23rd edition of the Belgian/Luxembourg Version 2012-2013 (Adapted for use by the medical profession in Belgium and Luxembourg by the independent Belgian/Luxembourg Working Party on Antimicrobial Therapy (2012)

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See detailGroup B streptococci, a European perspective with results of the DEVANI project
MELIN, Pierrette ULg

in DUCOFFRE, GENEVIèVE (Ed.) Abstract book of 27th Annual Meeting "Diagnostic et surveillance des maladies infectieuses" (2011, November)

In 2011, neonatal group B streptococcal (GBS) diseases remain a global public health concern. Where consensus guidelines to detect and treat intrapartum women with GBS colonization have been widely ... [more ▼]

In 2011, neonatal group B streptococcal (GBS) diseases remain a global public health concern. Where consensus guidelines to detect and treat intrapartum women with GBS colonization have been widely adopted, incidence of neonatal early onset disease (EOD) has dramatically declined, however despite preventive strategies cases still occur. The strategy was not expected to prevent all cases and there are challenges and limitations to this preventive approach. The best strategy for European countries is still a matter of debate and intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis (IAP) is not widely recommended. To adopt the best preventive strategy, we first need better data assessing more accurately the true burden of GBS diseases in the different countries. Furthermore, as the current screening-based strategy for prevention is highly effective but imperfect, given the challenges, limitations and potential complications of maternal IAP, a new approach is still needed. Maternal immunization against GBS is an attractive alternative for the prevention of not only neonatal diseases but also stillbirths and maternal diseases. Vaccines against GBS may likely become the most effective and sustainable long-term preventive strategy. But the development of vaccines with global relevance has been hampered by changes in the distribution of GBS serotypes of strains causing diseases over time and in different parts of the world. A multivalent vaccine to cover against the more prevalent serotypes suitable for European populations might not be suitable for Asian or African populations. To overcome type-specificity, new developments target vaccines based on conserved surface antigenic proteins, such as Sip protein located at the cell surface of all GBS and on immunogenic proteins from GBS pili. A pilus-based GBS vaccine is appealing and could become a globally relevant reality. The DEVANI (DEsign of a Vaccine Against Neonatal Infections) programme funded through the European Commission Seventh Framework was launched on 1 January 2008 with the key objective being the assessment of European GBS epidemiology to facilitate the design of a new vaccine that will confer neonatal immunity through a durable maternal immune response. A major component was to undertake pan European surveillance of maternal colonisation, maternal GBS antibody responses and neonatal diseases in eight European countries. Through 2009 and 2010, all Belgian laboratories sending any neonatal GBS invasive isolate to the National Reference Centre for GBS were invited to bring their contribution to this project. Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom established specific GBS screening studies during 2008/10. Maternal vaginal/rectal swabs and sera were taken between 34-37 weeks gestation and processed using a standardised microbiological screening protocol. Samples from neonatal cases were processed using local procedures. For each pregnant woman and each case of GBS neonatal disease, standardized case report forms were filled. GBS isolates were characterised using standardised serological and molecular typing methods for detection of all ten GBS capsular polysaccharide types (Ia to IX). Furthermore all the collected isolates were screened by multiplex PCR and FACS analysis to evaluate respectively gene presence and surface-exposure of pili. And clonal analysis of these isolates was performed using multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). The main microbiological results of this pan European surveillance are following. Carriage rates among pregnant women in all countries ranged from 8% to 26%. The most common GBS capsular types were III (33%), Ia (25%) and V (8%). Among GBS from EOD, the major serotypes were III (43%), V (21%) and Ia (18%). In contrast among GBS isolated from neonatal late onset disease (LOD), serotype III was highly predominant (80.6%) followed mainly by Ia (12.5%). Analysis of the pattern of pili genes showed that all isolates contained at least one gene coding for pili. The most common gene patterns found were PI-2a alone, PI 1+2a and PI 1+2b, while the PI-2b gene alone was very rare. The most prominent result was that a majority of isolates from neonatal infections carried the PI-1+2b gene pattern, while the most common pattern among pregnant women was PI-1+2a. Most of analyzed strains express at least one pilus on their surface. The clonal analysis showed that 66 sequence types were found to belong to nine clonal complexes (CC). Among these nine CCs, five were prevailing and covered 92 % of GBS isolates tested. The GBS population in pregnant women was found to be more heterogeneous than the GBS isolated from neonatal infection cases. Among neonatal isolates, the most frequent CC was CC17 (43 %) known as a highly virulent clone. Among participating countries, there were no significant differences in the occurrence of clonal complexes. The analysis of the levels of specific antibodies as surrogate markers of protection is still ongoing. More detailed and additional results as the main conclusions will be presented. [less ▲]

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See detailThe future of microbiology
MELIN, Pierrette ULg

Scientific conference (2011, October 15)

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See detailNEONATAL INVASIVE GROUP B STREPTOCOCCAL (GBS) INFECTIONS IN EUROPE
MELIN, Pierrette ULg; Berner, Reinhard; Afshar, Baharak et al

Poster (2011, September)

Objectives: To describe clinical characteristics and capsular type of GBS isolates responsible of invasive infections in infants from Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech-Republic, Denmark, Germany, Italy, Spain and ... [more ▼]

Objectives: To describe clinical characteristics and capsular type of GBS isolates responsible of invasive infections in infants from Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech-Republic, Denmark, Germany, Italy, Spain and United Kingdom, representing one of the main objectives of the DEVANI (DEsign of a Vaccine Against Neonatal Infections) project. Methods: Surveillance of invasive GBS infections in infants was performed from mid-2008 through December 2010. For each case, a standardized case report form was filled. Samples from cases were processed using local procedures. GBS isolates were characterised in national central labs using standardised type-specific (Ia, Ib-IX) latex agglutination and molecular typing methods. Results: Data on 188 infants with invasive infection were analysed: 144 (60.6%) early onset diseases (EOD) and 74 (39.4%) late onset diseases (LOD). In EOD, mean/median ages at onset were 14/0 hours and the male:female ratio was 1.25. The predominant manifestation at onset was respiratory distress (42% cases); 83% cases were associated with sepsis/bacteremia, 15% with pneumonia and 6% with meningitis. Late-prenatal screening cultures were obtained from 51% of cases’ mothers and only half of these were positive for GBS. Non-elective C-section, intrapartum fever and rupture of membrane (>18h) were more frequent in EO-cases’ mothers versus healthy babies’ GBS-positive mothers. The major serotypes were III (43%), V (21%) and Ia (18%). In LOD, mean/median ages at onset were 42/34 days and the male:female ratio was 0.9. The predominant characteristic at onset was fever (62% cases); 70% cases were associated with sepsis and 30% with meningitis. Very rare manifestations were osteomyelitis and cellulitis. Serotype III was highly predominant (80.6%) followed mainly by Ia (12.5%). Death rates were 4.7/1.5% in EOD/LOD. Conclusions: Clinical presentations were associated with age at onset of infection. Serotype III predominated in neonatal infections. Prenatal screening was not universal neither sensitive. Study funded through the European Commission Seventh Framework. [less ▲]

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See detailPili genes pattern in Group B streptococci from newborn infections and pregnant women in Europe (DEVANI Project)
Imperi, Monica; Rinaudo, Daniela; Creti, Roberta et al

Poster (2011, September)

Objectives Evaluation of the presence and expression of genes coding for pili in a collection of group B streptococcci (GBS) isolated from newborn infection and pregnant women in the course of the DEVANI ... [more ▼]

Objectives Evaluation of the presence and expression of genes coding for pili in a collection of group B streptococcci (GBS) isolated from newborn infection and pregnant women in the course of the DEVANI (Design of a Vaccine Against Neonatal Infection) project. Methods GBS isolates from pregnant women (PW) and cases of newborn infection (NI) were collected in 8 European countries (Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Italy, Spain, United Kingdom) during 2009/10 under the auspices of DEVANI. Total no. of strains examined was 1078 and 192 from PW and NI, respectively. Isolates were screened by multiplex PCR and FACS analysis to evaluate respectively gene presence and surface-exposure of pili. Results The most common gene patterns found were PI-2a alone, PI 1+2a and PI 1+2b, while the PI-2b gene alone was very rare. The most prominent result was that a majority of isolates from NI carried the PI-1+2b gene pattern, while the most common pattern among PW was PI-1+2a. Most of analyzed strains express at least one pilus on their surface. Conclusions All isolates contained at least one gene coding for pili. When present pili 2a and 2b were highly surface exposed. [less ▲]

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See detailSeverity of ICU-acquired pneumonia according to infectious microorganisms
DAMAS, Pierre ULg; LAYIOS, Nathalie ULg; SEIDEL, Laurence ULg et al

in Intensive Care Medicine (2011), 37(7), 1128-35

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See detailGBS colonization and screening in pregnancy: how does it work in Europe?
MELIN, Pierrette ULg

Conference (2011, June)

In Europe, as in North America, GBS infections among infants are associated to high morbidity and mortality even if some differences exist between different European countries. During the past two decades ... [more ▼]

In Europe, as in North America, GBS infections among infants are associated to high morbidity and mortality even if some differences exist between different European countries. During the past two decades, major initiatives have been proposed to prevent early onset GBS disease (EOD) and they are still subject of controversy. Several European countries have issued guidelines for the prevention of neonatal GBS diseases, either universal screening-based or risk-based strategy, others have no official guidelines at all. In countries having guidelines, despite considerable efforts and economic resources spent on intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis for GBS EOD, cases continue to occur. Among these cases there are a lot of missed opportunities to administer IAP but there are also false negative screening. Therefore in the setting of a maternal GBS-screening program and successful implementation of the strategy, efforts to improve screening for GBS status remain important. The natural reservoir for GBS is the gastrointestinal tract and is likely the source for vaginal colonization. Among pregnant women, GBS carriage rate in the vaginal and rectal flora ranges from 10% up to 30%. Critical factors that influence the accuracy of detecting GBS maternal colonization are the choice of the body sites sampled, the timing of sampling and the use of selective culture media. The evolution of the different culture options to improve the GBS-screening strategy will be reviewed. If the optimal time for performing antenatal cultures is between 35 to 37 weeks’ gestation, as GBS carriage is highly variable, the predictive values of GBS antenatal cultures are not always as good predictors of the maternal GBS status at presentation for delivery as expected. Potential alternative to antenatal GBS-screening culture is the identification of GBS colonization at presentation for delivery. Use of a reliable, sensitive, easy to use rapid test should be cost effective leading to the prevention of more EOGBS cases while reducing the number of unnecessarily IAP. Advances of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and fluorescence labeling technologies has provided new detection tools for bacterial identification. Therefore, commercialization of rapid detection of GBS through real-time PCR offers the potential for GBS detection among women without prenatal care or those in whom no antenatal culture was collected. However questions of costs and logistics remain unanswered. Could such rapid intrapartum test replace existing screening strategies or could it be used in conjunction with them? Colonizing rates and recommended screening procedures existing through Europe will be reviewed. [less ▲]

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See detailNeonatal Group B Streptococcal Disease: From Pathogenesis to Preventive strategies
MELIN, Pierrette ULg

in Clinical Microbiology & Infection (2011)

Streptococcus agalactiae, or group B streptococcus (GBS), remains the leading cause of neonatal sepsis and meningitis, early onset and late onset diseases (EOD, LOD). Where consensus guidelines to detect ... [more ▼]

Streptococcus agalactiae, or group B streptococcus (GBS), remains the leading cause of neonatal sepsis and meningitis, early onset and late onset diseases (EOD, LOD). Where consensus guidelines to detect and treat intrapartum women with GBS colonization have been widely adopted, incidence of neonatal EOD has dramatically declined. In response to both successful impacts on the incidence of GBS-EOD and analyses of missed opportunities, the first American guidelines for prevention issued in the 90s have since been adapted in several stages to improve their efficacy. In some countries in Europe, nationwide guidelines, whether screening-based or risk-based, for the prevention of neonatal GBS diseases have also been issued and adopted, with the expected impact on incidence of GBS-EOD. In spite of universal screening, in spite of the great progress that has been made, GBS-EOD continues to occur and the GBS burden remains a significant public health issue. Continuous efforts to improve screening for GBS status continue to be important and may be able to take advantage of new rapid diagnostic technologies. The current screening-based strategy for prevention is highly effective but imperfect. Given the challenges, limitations and potential complications of maternal intrapartum prophylaxis, a new approach is still needed. Maternal immunization against GBS is an attractive alternative for the prevention of not only neonatal diseases but also stillbirths and maternal diseases. Vaccines against GBS may likely become the most effective and sustainable long-term preventive strategy. [less ▲]

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See detailAutomatisation en bactériologie: hier, aujourd'hui et demain
MELIN, Pierrette ULg

Scientific conference (2011, April 28)

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See detailInternational External Quality Assurance for Laboratory Identification and Typing of Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococci)
Afshar, Baharak; Broughton, Karen; Creti, Roberta et al

in Journal of Clinical Microbiology (2011)

We report the results from the first international multicentre external quality assessment (EQA) studies for molecular and serological typing of group B streptococcus (GBS) strains as part of DEVANI ... [more ▼]

We report the results from the first international multicentre external quality assessment (EQA) studies for molecular and serological typing of group B streptococcus (GBS) strains as part of DEVANI (DEsign of a Vaccine Against Neonatal Infections), a pan-European programme. A questionnaire-based surveillance was undertaken amongst eight DEVANI and six non-DEVANI participating laboratories from 13 countries in order to assess their current microbiological procedures for GBS screening, diagnosis and typing. GBS strains from three EQA distributions were characterised using molecular and serological methods based on GBS capsular polysaccharide typing. Participants were asked to test the first distribution using their current serotyping and genotyping methods. Strep-B-Latex agglutination method was the most widely used method with a typeability value of >90%. A multiplex PCR assay for GBS capsular gene typing was also used by two of 14 centres who achieved a typeability value of 93%; this assay only detected 9 of 10 GBS capsular polysaccharide genes. From the second and third EQA studies standardised protocols were prepared for serological and molecular typing of GBS strains based on the Strep-B-Latex agglutination method and a novel multiplex PCR assay which detected all ten GBS capsular types (Ia to IX). These standardised protocols are being used by many European laboratories and as the use of these methods increase, it is imperative to continuously improve and assess laboratory performance and offer training to any laboratories that have technical difficulties. [less ▲]

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See detailInfection néonatale tardive : Méningite à Streptocoque Agalactiae chez un nouveau-né de 19 jours.
Bequet, Emeline ULg; Guffens, Anne; Defontaine, Elizabeth et al

Poster (2011)

Les infections à Streptocoques du groupe B (SGB ou Streptococcus Agalactiae) sont, dans 80% des cas, précoces (< 7jours de vie) et, dans 20% des cas, tardives (> 7 jours de vie). Dans cette seconde ... [more ▼]

Les infections à Streptocoques du groupe B (SGB ou Streptococcus Agalactiae) sont, dans 80% des cas, précoces (< 7jours de vie) et, dans 20% des cas, tardives (> 7 jours de vie). Dans cette seconde catégorie, 35% des infections sont des méningites et engendrent une morbidité importante chez l’enfant. Nous présentons le cas d’un garçon de 19 jours, né à terme par césarienne, ayant développé une méningite à Streptocoques B, avec un dépistage maternel négatif. A l’admission, l’enfant est septique. Un bilan complet met en évidence une méningite à Streptocoque Agalactiae. Une antibiothérapie empirique à base d’Ampicilline 200mg/kg/j, Céfotaxime 100mg/kg/j et Amikacine 15mg/kg/j est initiée. Ce traitement est maintenu 5 jours ; ensuite, poursuite du Céfotaxime en monothérapie pour une durée totale de 14 jours. Les complications précoces (présentes dans 62% des cas) ne sont pas mises en évidence par les différentes explorations réalisées : mesure du périmètre crânien ; échographie transfontanellaire à la recherche d’une hydrocéphalie ou d’abcès cérébraux ; électroencéphalogramme pour exclure des phénomènes paroxystiques. A moyen et long terme, une surveillance clinique, iconographique, ophtalmologique et de l’audiogramme devra être faite afin d’exclure un retard développemental, des troubles sensoriels ainsi qu’une hydrocéphalie, une encéphalomalacie, une atrophie cérébrale ou une porencéphalie. L’incidence des infections précoces à streptocoques B a pu être réduite grâce au dépistage maternel anténatal et à une antibioprophylaxie en cas de positivité du test. Cependant, l’administration perpartale systématique d’antibiotiques ne permet pas de diminuer le nombre et la gravité des infections tardives, la contamination étant, dans ces cas, essentiellement horizontale. Le taux de complications à 5 ans des méningites à SGB est estimé à 49%, ce qui justifie, chez ces enfants, un suivi neuropédiatrique et sensoriel à long terme. [less ▲]

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See detailDiagnosis and Screening for Cytomegalovirus Infection in Pregnant Women in Cuba as Pronostic Markers of Congenital Infection in Newborns: 2007-2008
Kouri, Vivian; Correa, Consuelo B; Verdasquera, Denis et al

in The Pediatrics Infectious Disease Journal (2010), 29(12), 1105-1110

Background: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) has established itself as the most significant cause of congenital infection in the developed world. The objective of this research was prenatal identification of ... [more ▼]

Background: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) has established itself as the most significant cause of congenital infection in the developed world. The objective of this research was prenatal identification of pregnant women at risk for developing active infection due to HCMV as well as to diagnose congenitally infected newborns. Methods: A diagnostic algorithm based on specific immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, and, IgG avidity was used to screen serum from 1131 pregnant women enrolled prospectively from 3 municipalities from Havana City, Cuba during 2007–2008. Qualitative multiplex nested PCR and quantitative real time-based PCR testing for HCMV DNA were performed on urine and saliva specimens from women detected with active infection and from their newborns. Results: Most women were seropositive to HCMV (92.7%), with 2.38% (27 women) having active infection. Primary infection was detected in 20 pregnant women (1.77%) while 7 patients (0.62%) had active nonprimary infection. HCMV DNA was detected in specimens from 9 of the 27 pregnant women by both PCR methods. HCMV congenital infection was diagnosed in 12 (1.06%) of the 26 live children born from 25 mothers with active infection, for a vertical transmission rate of 46.2%. Two fetal deaths were reported from 2 women with active infection; furthermore 2 newborns were symptomatic at birth and 2 showed sequelae during the follow-up done until 6 months age. Conclusions: Mothers with active infection during the pregnancy and with HCMV excretion had significant risks, RR = 1.16 and RR = 1.35, respectively, to have congenitally infected children. [less ▲]

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See detailEUCAST et stratégie antibiotique: impact en pneumologie
Melin, Pierrette ULg

Conference (2010, November 08)

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See detailFilamentous fungi recovered from the water distribution system of a Belgian university hospital
Hayette, Marie-Pierre ULg; Christiaens, Geneviève ULg; Mutsers, Jacques ULg et al

in Medical Mycology (2010), 48(7), 969-974

A study was carried out over a 4-month winter period in order to assess the presence of filamentous fungi in the water distribution system of the University Hospital of Liège. A total of 197 hot and cold ... [more ▼]

A study was carried out over a 4-month winter period in order to assess the presence of filamentous fungi in the water distribution system of the University Hospital of Liège. A total of 197 hot and cold water samples were collected from the main water supply lines and from the taps at three different hospital sites. Overall, filamentous fungi were recovered from 55% and 50% of the main water distribution system and tap water samples, respectively, with a mean of 3.5 ± 1.5 colony forming units per 500 ml water. Nine different genera were identified, all belonging to the Hyphomycetes class. Aspergillus spp. were recovered from 6% of the samples of the water distribution system and A. fumigatus was the most frequently recovered species (66.6%). However, this species was not isolated from water taps. Fusarium spp. was predominant at one site, where it was found in 28% of tap water samples. No Aspergillus spp. but some Fusarium spp. isolates were identified in samples collected from high-risk units. Filters were introduced at the point-of-use in the haematology unit after completion of the study. The findings of the present study confirm the need for further documented studies to evaluate the safety of the hospital water system and to define new preventive measures. [less ▲]

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See detailHCMV seroprevalence and associated risk factors in pregnat women, Havana City, 2007 to 2008
Correa, C. B.; Kouri, V.; Verdasquera, D. et al

in Prenatal Diagnosis (2010), 30(9), 888-92

Objective To prenatally identify pregnant women at risk of developing congenital infection due to human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). Methods One thousand one hundred and thirty-one pregnant women from three ... [more ▼]

Objective To prenatally identify pregnant women at risk of developing congenital infection due to human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). Methods One thousand one hundred and thirty-one pregnant women from three municipalities from Havana City were serologically screened for HCMV infection (IgM/IgG, IgG avidity) from January 2007 to January 2008. Demographical, epidemiological, and clinical variables were correlated to serologic status to identify predictors of seroconversion in pregnancy. Results The majority of women were seropositive to HCMV (92.6%); 27 women (2.4%) developed HCMV active infection during pregnancy, defined by the detection of IgG+ and IgM+ (7 women), IgM+ and IgG− (2 women), and IgG seroconversion (18 women). Susceptibility of active HCMV infection during pregnancy was associated with maternal age <20 years and nulligravidity. Primary infection was detected in 20 pregnant women (1.8%), whereas 7 patients (0.6%) had active non-primary infection. Conclusion Although pregnant women in Cuba have high seroprevalence rates for HCMV, those younger than 20 years and nulligravidae are at risk of acquiring infection during pregnancy. [less ▲]

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