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See detailA novel formulation of inhaled doxycycline reduces allergen-induced inflammation, hyperresponsiveness and remodeling by matrix metalloproteinases and cytokines modulation in a mouse model of asthma
Guéders, Maud ULg; Bertholet, P.; Perin, Fabienne ULg et al

in Biochemical Pharmacology (2008), 75(2), 514-26

Background In this study, we assess the effectiveness of inhaled doxycycline, a tetracycline antibiotic displaying matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) inhibitory effects to prevent allergen-induced ... [more ▼]

Background In this study, we assess the effectiveness of inhaled doxycycline, a tetracycline antibiotic displaying matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) inhibitory effects to prevent allergen-induced inflammation, hyperresponsiveness and remodeling. MMPs play key roles in the complex cascade of events leading to asthmatic phenotype. Methods Doxycycline was administered by aerosols by the mean of a novel formulation as a complex with hydroxypropyl-gamma-cyclodextrin (HP-gamma-CD) used as an excipient. BALB/c mice (n = 16–24 in each group) were sensitized and exposed to aerosolized ovalbumin (OVA) from day 21 to 27 (short-term exposure protocol) or 5 days/odd weeks from day 22 to 96 (long-term exposure protocol). Results In the short-term exposure model, inhaled doxycycline decreased allergen-induced eosinophilic inflammation in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and in peribronchial areas, as well as airway hyperresponsiveness. In lung tissue, exposure to doxycycline via inhaled route induced a fourfold increase in IL-10 levels, a twofold decrease in IL-5, IL-13 levels and diminished MMP-related proteolysis and the proportion of activated MMP-9 as compared to placebo. In the long-term exposure model, inhaled doxycycline significantly decreased the extent of glandular hyperplasia, airway wall thickening, smooth muscle hyperplasia and subepithelial collagen deposition which are well recognized features of airway remodeling. Conclusion Doxycycline administered by aerosols decreases the allergen-induced airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness and inhibits the development of bronchial remodeling in a mouse model of asthma by modulation of cytokines production and MMP activity. [less ▲]

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See detailLe cas clinique du mois. Aspergillose pulmonaire: un cas d'aspergillose necrosante chronique
Golinval, Olivier ULg; Louis, Renaud ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2007), 62(12), 704-6

Pulmonary aspergillosis are uncommon diseases. The clinical expression of which are depending on the immunological status. The spectrum of pulmonary aspergillosis goes from hypersensitization to the ... [more ▼]

Pulmonary aspergillosis are uncommon diseases. The clinical expression of which are depending on the immunological status. The spectrum of pulmonary aspergillosis goes from hypersensitization to the invasive and disseminated aspergillosis. We report here the clinical history of a patient with severe COPD and receiving regular oral corticoids who had a persistent lung infiltration. The infiltration became cavitary and proved to be a chronic necrotizing pneumonia due to Aspegillus fumigatus. The outcome was favourable thank to a treatment with voriconazole. [less ▲]

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See detailPrise en charge du cancer pulmonaire non a petites cellules
Bosquee, Léon ULg; Frusch, Nicolas ULg; Louis, Renaud ULg

in Revue Médicale Suisse (2007), 3(122), 1890-5

Surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and "biological" treatment are differently used in the treatment of non small cell lung cancer. Surgery is the cornerstone of the stages I-II treatment; chemotherapy is ... [more ▼]

Surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and "biological" treatment are differently used in the treatment of non small cell lung cancer. Surgery is the cornerstone of the stages I-II treatment; chemotherapy is dominant in the treatment of metastatic stage, but is more and more used in earlier stages. A large discussion is still open for advanced non metastatic stages, even if the association of the 3 major modalities is extensively studied. We discuss our position in this setting. [less ▲]

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See detailPerception of dyspnea in mild smoking asthmatics
Kleis, S.; Chanez, P.; Delvaux, Muriel ULg et al

in Respiratory Medicine (2007), 101(7), 1426-1430

Background: Previous data from the literature reported blunted perception of airway obstruction in severe asthmatics with near fatal asthma. Approximately 25% of patients with asthma are current smokers ... [more ▼]

Background: Previous data from the literature reported blunted perception of airway obstruction in severe asthmatics with near fatal asthma. Approximately 25% of patients with asthma are current smokers. Aim: To determine whether there is an alteration in perception of airway obstruction during a non specific provocative challenge with methacholine in mild controlled asthmatics who smoke. Methods: Enrolled in this study were 50 subjects, including 26 mild asthmatics and 24 healthy subjects, all of them current smokers. The first objective was the sensitivity of airway obstruction calculated by the regression slope linking the change in the visual analogic scale (VAS) assessed by the patient and the fall in FEV1 during a methacholine challenge. Results: Asthmatics who smoke had a blunted perception of airway obstruction during the bronchial challenge significantly different from that seen in healthy smokers (p = 0.03). This impaired dyspnea perception was inversely related to baseline VAS (r = -0.29, p<0.05) and positively related to baseline FEV1 (r = 0.35, p<0.05). Perception of airway obstruction was not correlated with age, sex, atopy or with airway inflammation features such as exhaled NO or sputum eosinophils. Conclusion: Mild asthmatics who smoke display reduced dyspnea perception during a nonspecific provocative challenge with methacholine. This altered perception of airway obstruction does not relate to airway inflammation. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailGranulocyte chemotactic activity in exhaled breath condensate of healthy subjects and patients with COPD
Corhay, Jean-Louis ULg; Hemelaers; Henket, Monique ULg et al

in CHEST (2007), 131(6), 1672-1677

Background. Several chemoattractants have been measured in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) from patients with COPD. The aim of this study was to compare the eosinophil. and neutrophil chemotactic activity ... [more ▼]

Background. Several chemoattractants have been measured in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) from patients with COPD. The aim of this study was to compare the eosinophil. and neutrophil chemotactic activity contained in EBC from healthy subjects and patients with COPD. Methods: EBC collected using a commercially available condenser (EcoScreen; Erich Jaeger Viasys; Hoechberg, Germany) was compared in 45 COPD patients and 65 healthy subjects. EBC chemotactic activity for eosinophils and neutrophils was assessed using microchambers (Boyden; Neuro Probe; Cabin John, MD). Chemotactic index (CI) was used to evaluate cell migration. Results: EBC from patients with COPD (C1, 2.21 +/- 0.16 [mean +/- SEM]) and healthy subjects (CI, 1.67 +/- 0.11) displayed significant neutrophil chemotactic activity (p < 0.0001 for both), which was however higher in patients with COPD (p < 0.001). Healthy smokers had a significantly raised C1 for neutrophils by comparison with healthy nonsmokers (p < 0.01) and ex-smokers (p < 0.05). Ukewise, current COPD smokers tended to have greater neutrophil C1 than COPD who stopped smoking (p = 0.08). COPD ex-smokers had raised chemotactic activity by comparison with healthy ex-smokers (p < 0.05). Anti-interleuldn-8 (10(-6) g/mL) antibodies reduced neutrophil chemotactic activity by 35.2% (p < 0.05). EBC also contained significant eosinophil chemotactic activity in healthy subjects (CI, 1.68 0.09; p < 0.0001) and patients with COPD (CI, 1.23 +/- 0.07; p < 0.01), with a significantly lower CI in patients with COPD as compared to healthy subjects (p < 0.001). Smoking did not influence eosinophil chemotactic activity in healthy subjects or patients with COPD. Conclusions: Current smoking favors neutrophil chemotactic activity. As compared to healthy subjects, EBC from patients with COPD displays a skewed chemotactic activity toward neutrophils vs eosinophils. [less ▲]

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See detailL'etude clinique du mois. L'etude TORCH (TOwards a Revolution in COPD Health): vers une revolution de la sante des patients souffrant de BPCO
Corhay, Jean-Louis ULg; Louis, Renaud ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2007), 62(4), 230-4

The TORCH study (Towards a Revolution in COPD Health) was a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial, investigating the combination of salmeterol/fluticasone propionate for 3 years in ... [more ▼]

The TORCH study (Towards a Revolution in COPD Health) was a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial, investigating the combination of salmeterol/fluticasone propionate for 3 years in COPD. The primary end point was on all-cause mortality. Secondary end points included COPD exacerbation rate, lung function and health status. More than 6000 patients were randomised. In this article, we briefly report the most significant results of the study. The efficacy on mortality (reduction of the risk of death of 17.5%) was near the predetermined level of statistical significance (p = 0.052); the combination had a significant effect on the three pillars of COPD management, that is: improvement of quality of life and respiratory function, and reduction of the rate of exacerbations. In addition to being effective, the combination salmeterol/fluticasone (50/500 microg 2x/day) is well tolerated in COPD and had a favourable benefit/risk ratio. [less ▲]

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See detailPrognostic value of metabolic imaging in locally advanced non small cell lung cancers.
DUYSINX, Bernard ULg; LAROCK, Marie-Paule ULg; CORHAY, Jean-Louis ULg et al

in Journal of Nuclear Medicine (The) (2007), 48(SUPPL), 358

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See detailActualites therapeutiques en pneumologie
Louis, Renaud ULg; Bosquee, Léon ULg; DUYSINX, Bernard ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2007), 62(5-6, May-Jun), 288-92

We review what we think to be the major advances in the field of respiratory medicine over the last ten years. We concentrate here on four major diseases i.e. asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ... [more ▼]

We review what we think to be the major advances in the field of respiratory medicine over the last ten years. We concentrate here on four major diseases i.e. asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer and chronic respiratory insufficiency due to restrictive disorders. Therapeutic advances are based either on new drugs or on new disease management concepts and, in some cases, on new medical devices. These advances have allowed a reduction in mortality and morbidity in aforementioned diseases. [less ▲]

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See detailLe cancer du poumon. Epidemiologie et facteurs etiologiques.
Frusch, Nicolas ULg; Bosquee, Léon ULg; Louis, Renaud ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2007), 62(9), 548-53

Lung cancer is the most frequent cause of death by cancer worldwide. Despite improvements in the treatment the vital prognosis remains poor with an estimated 5-year survival rate of 15 % all stages ... [more ▼]

Lung cancer is the most frequent cause of death by cancer worldwide. Despite improvements in the treatment the vital prognosis remains poor with an estimated 5-year survival rate of 15 % all stages together. Even if some environmental exposure may favour apparition of the disease, tobacco smoking is by far the greatest risk factor for developing lung cancer. Recent progresses have been made on the identification of cellular mechanisms and genetic abnormalities that make the patients more prone to develop lung cancer. [less ▲]

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See detail18f-Fdg Pet Imaging in Assessing Exudative Pleural Effusions
DUYSINX, Bernard ULg; Larock, Marie-Paule ULg; Nguyen, Delphine et al

in Nuclear Medicine Communications (2006), 27(12), 971-6

BACKGROUND: This study evaluates the accuracy of [F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (F-FDG PET) imaging with semi-quantitative analysis for differentiating benign from malignant pleural ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: This study evaluates the accuracy of [F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (F-FDG PET) imaging with semi-quantitative analysis for differentiating benign from malignant pleural exudates and for guiding the search for the primary tumour of pleural metastases. METHODS: Whole-body 18F-FDG PET was performed in 79 patients with exudative pleurisy. Standard uptake values were normalized for body weight, body surface area, lean body mass (SUVbw, SUVbsa, SUVlbm) with and without correction for blood glucose levels. Thoracoscopy was systematically performed to reveal pathological diagnosis. RESULTS: All SUVs were significantly higher in all malignant pleural diseases (n = 51) than in benign (n = 28) (P < 0.001). Moreover SUVs were greater in the pleural metastases from pulmonary primaries (n = 25) and in mesotheliomas (n = 8) than in extrathoracic primaries (n = 18) (P < 0.01) with no significant difference between lung cancers and mesotheliomas. Receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis between benign and malignant lesions showed areas under the curves that ranged from 0.803 (SUVbsa g) to 0.863 (SUVbw). The cut-off value for SUVbw which gave the best accuracy (82.3%) was 2.2. When comparing thoracic with extrathoracic primaries the highest accuracy (80.4%) was found for a cut-off value of 2.6. CONCLUSION: Semi-quantitative analysis of 18F-FDG PET imaging helps to differentiate malignant from benign pleural exudates and to distinguish between thoracic or extrathoracic primaries. [less ▲]

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See detailLe cas clinique du mois. Mesotheliome comprimant le tronc souche droit
Duysinx, Bernard ULg; Corhay, Jean-Louis ULg; Nguyen, Delphine et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2006), 61(11), 753-5

We report the case of a patient treated by chemotherapy for a diagnosis of mesothelioma. A quickly progressive dyspnea developed which was due to compression of the right main bronchus by mediastinal ... [more ▼]

We report the case of a patient treated by chemotherapy for a diagnosis of mesothelioma. A quickly progressive dyspnea developed which was due to compression of the right main bronchus by mediastinal extension of the tumor. This obstruction was treated by interventionnal bronchoscopy and stenting. [less ▲]

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See detailLes exacerbations dans la BPCO: un fardeau a reduire
Corhay, Jean-Louis ULg; Nguyen Dang, Delphine ULg; Louis, Renaud ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2006), 61(10), 691-6

Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) play a very important role. Unfortunately they were neglected a long time in the therapeutic tests. However exacerbations influence the ... [more ▼]

Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) play a very important role. Unfortunately they were neglected a long time in the therapeutic tests. However exacerbations influence the decline of the respiratory function over time, cause important deterioration of the quality of life of the patients, increase morbidity and mortality of COPD, and finally represent a burden for health care. Reducing the number of exacerbations could potentially slow down the progression of the disease. Thus the prevention of exacerbations should be the "corner stone" of the maintenance treatment of the COPD. In this review we propose to recall the importance of exacerbations in COPD and to present the treatment which have been shown to reduce exacerbation rate in COPD. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferences in local versus systemic TNF alpha production in COPD: inhibitory effect of hyaluronan on LPS induced blood cell TNF alpha release
Dentener, M. A.; Louis, Renaud ULg; Cloots, R. H. E. et al

in Thorax (2006), 61(6), 478-484

Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by both airway inflammation and systemic changes. To elucidate the relationship between local and systemic inflammation, tumour ... [more ▼]

Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by both airway inflammation and systemic changes. To elucidate the relationship between local and systemic inflammation, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) production by sputum cells and blood cells of patients with COPD and controls was compared and the effect of the extracellular matrix compound hyaluronan (HA) on TNF alpha release was studied. Methods: Four study groups were included: 10 steroid free COPD patients, 8 steroid treated patients, 10 healthy smokers, and 11 healthy non-smokers. Sputum cells and blood were incubated for 24 hours with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the absence or presence of HA (122 kDa or HMW fragment). TNF alpha was measured by ELISA. Results: Sputum cells produced spontaneously high levels of TNF alpha but were unresponsive to LPS. Sputum cells from COPD patients (both steroid free and steroid treated) produced significantly less TNF alpha than cells from healthy non-smoking subjects (p = 0.017 and p = 0.001, respectively). In contrast, blood cells produced TNF alpha only in response to LPS. No differences were observed in TNF alpha production by blood cells between the patient groups and the control groups. HA (both fragments) partially blocked LPS (1 ng/ml) induced TNF alpha release by blood cells from all study groups, whereas TNF alpha production by sputum cells was not influenced by HA. Conclusion: These data indicate a difference between local and systemic TNFa production. Sputum cells of patients with COPD produced less TNFa than controls, which could contribute to impaired local defence. An inhibitory effect of HA on TNF alpha release in blood cells was observed which was similar in both patients and controls. [less ▲]

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See detailIs the neutrophil a worthy target in severe asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?
Louis, Renaud ULg; Djukanovic, R.

in Clinical & Experimental Allergy : Journal of the British Society for Allergy & Clinical Immunology (2006), 36(5), 563-567

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See detailLe monoxyde d'azote exhale: un nouveau biomarqueur des pathologies respiratoires
HEINEN, Vincent ULg; Claeys, Mathieu ULg; Louis, Renaud ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2006), 61(1), 37-42

There has been a growing interest for exhaled biomarkers. We review studies examining NO as a potential marker of airway inflammation, enabling noninvasive repeated monitoring of airway inflammation. The ... [more ▼]

There has been a growing interest for exhaled biomarkers. We review studies examining NO as a potential marker of airway inflammation, enabling noninvasive repeated monitoring of airway inflammation. The measurement technique has been standardized. We have determined the local normal levels for the Liege region. The exhaled NO level is elevated in asthma, and can predict asthma exacerbation. Exhaled NO has a value for the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis and primary ciliary dyskinesia. [less ▲]

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See detailL'aide à l'arrêt du tabagisme : la réussite au long terme
Delvaux, Muriel ULg; Etienne, Anne-Marie ULg; Gaillard, Jean-François et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2006), 61(1), 27-30

This review deals with the pharmacological and psychological means to help in smoking cessation and compares the efficacy of the different methods. Pharmacological support results in a smoking cessation ... [more ▼]

This review deals with the pharmacological and psychological means to help in smoking cessation and compares the efficacy of the different methods. Pharmacological support results in a smoking cessation rate reaching at best 20-25%. The efficacy of behavioural and cognitive therapy have been much less validated so far. Multidisciplinary specialized centres for helping smokers have been raised under the care of FARES in the French Community of Belgium. [less ▲]

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See detailCytokine production from sputum cells in eosinophilic versus non-eosinophilic asthmatics
Quaedvlieg, Valérie ULg; Henket, Monique ULg; Sele, Jocelyne ULg et al

in Clinical & Experimental Immunology (2006), 143(1), 161-166

The inflammatory pathways involved in asthma are more complex than the sole Th2-mediated eosinophilic airway inflammation. Different phenotypes of asthma have been recently highlighted and are probably ... [more ▼]

The inflammatory pathways involved in asthma are more complex than the sole Th2-mediated eosinophilic airway inflammation. Different phenotypes of asthma have been recently highlighted and are probably underlied by different immunological profiles. The aim of the study was to assess cytokine production from sputum cells in eosinophilic versus non-eosinophilic asthmatics. Induced sputum was obtained from 48 consecutive stable mild to moderate asthmatics (20 eosinophilic asthmatics, 28 non-eosinophilic asthmatics) and 31 healthy subjects. Cytokine released from sputum cells were measured by a home-made two-step sandwich immunoassay. Cytokines investigated were interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-10, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interferon (IFN)-gamma. Sputum cells from eosinophilic asthmatics produced more IL-4 than those from both healthy subjects (P < 0.05) and non-eosinophilic asthmatics (P < 0.05). Conversely, sputum cells from eosinophilic asthma were found to release lower amounts of TNF-alpha than those from healthy subjects (P < 0.05). The group of non-eosinophilic asthmatics did not distinguish from healthy subjects with respect to any cytokines measured. Sputum cells from asthmatics exhibiting eosinophilic airway inflammation release more IL-4 and less TNF-alpha than those of healthy subjects. By contrast, non-eosinophilic asthmatics did not distinguish from healthy subjects by abnormal cytokine release from their sputum cells. [less ▲]

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See detailCysteinyl-leukotrienes contribute to sputum eosinophil chemotactic activity in asthmatics
Hemelaers, L.; Henket, Monique ULg; Sele, Jocelyne ULg et al

in Allergy (2006), 61(1), 136-139

Background: Cysteinyl-leukotrienes are lipid derived mediators involved in asthma. They are able to stimulate eosinophil chemotaxis in vitro. Induced sputum from asthmatics has been shown to contain ... [more ▼]

Background: Cysteinyl-leukotrienes are lipid derived mediators involved in asthma. They are able to stimulate eosinophil chemotaxis in vitro. Induced sputum from asthmatics has been shown to contain eosinophil chemotactic activity. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the contribution of cysteinyl-leukotrienes to sputum eosinophil chemotactic activity in asthmatics and to seek whether there might be differences between asthmatics free of inhaled corticosteroids vs those regularly receiving this treatment. Methods: Twenty-two patients (11 corticosteroid free, mean FEV1 99% predicted, 11 corticosteroid-treated, mean FEV1 77% predicted) recruited from our asthma clinic underwent a sputum induction. Sputum was processed according to standard procedure. Eosinophil chemotactic activity contained in the fluid phase was assessed using Boyden microchamber model and expressed as chemotaxis index (CI). Cysteinyl-leukotrienes were measured in sputum supernatant by ELISA and their role in sputum eosionophil chemotactic activity was evaluated by using montelukast, a selective antagonist of a cys-LT1 receptor. Results: Cysteinyl-leukotrienes were well detectable in sputum supernatants from both steroid-naive (247 +/- 42 pg/ml) and steroid-treated (228 +/- 26 pg/ml) asthmatics. Sputum eosinophil chemotactic activity was indiscriminately present in both corticosteroid-naive (CI: 2.61 +/- 0.22) and corticosteroid-treated (2.98 +/- 0.35) asthmatics. Montelukast (100 mu M) significantly inhibited the eosinophil chemotactic activity in both groups achieving a mean inhibition of 54.2 +/- 9.2% (P < 0.001) and 64.7 +/- 7.8% (P < 0.001) in steroid-naive and steroid-treated asthmatics respectively. Conclusion: Cysteinyl-leukotrienes actively participate in sputum eosinophil chemotactic activity found in asthmatics irrespective of whether they are or not under treatment with inhaled corticoids. [less ▲]

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See detailL'asthme: diagnostic et évaluation.
LOUIS, Renaud ULg

in Demedts, M; Yernault, JC; Pauwels, R (Eds.) Asthme et BPCO (2006)

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See detailExpression of ADAMs and their inhibitors in sputum from patients with asthma
Paulissen, Geneviève ULg; Rocks, Natacha ULg; Quesada Calvo, Florence ULg et al

in Molecular Medicine (2006), 12(7-8, Jul-Aug), 171-179

ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) constitute a family of cell surface proteins containing disintegrin and metalloprotease domains which associate features of adhesion molecules and proteases ... [more ▼]

ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) constitute a family of cell surface proteins containing disintegrin and metalloprotease domains which associate features of adhesion molecules and proteases. ADAMTSs (a disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin motifs) bear thrombospondin type I motifs in C-terminal extremity, and most of them are secreted proteins. Because genetic studies have shown that ADAM-33 gene polymorphisms are associated with asthma, we designed this study to assess mRNA expression profile of several ADAM and ADAMTS proteases in sputum from patients with asthma and to investigate the relationship between expression of these proteases and asthma-associated inflammation and airway obstruction. mRNA expression profile of selected ADAM and ADAMTS proteinases (ADAM-8, -9, -10, -12, -15, -17, and -33; ADAMTS-1, -2, -15, -16, -17, -18, and -19), their physiological inhibitors TIMP-1 and TIMP-3, and RECK, a membrane-anchored MMP activity regulator, was obtained by RT-PCR analysis performed on cells collected by sputum induction from 21 patients with mild to moderate asthma and 17 healthy individuals. mRNA levels of ADAM-8, ADAM-9, ADAM-12, TIMP-1, and TIMP-3 were significantly increased, whereas mRNA levels coding for ADAMTS-1, ADAMTS-15, and RECK were significantly decreased in patients with asthma compared with control patients. ADAM-8 expression was negatively correlated with the forced expiratory volume at the first second (FEV(1)) (r = -0.57, P < 0.01), whereas ADAMTS-1 and RECK expressions were positively correlated to FEV(1) (r = 0.45, P < 0.05, and r = 0.55, P = 0.01, respectively). We conclude that expression of ADAMs and ADAMTSs and their inhibitors is modulated in airways from patients with asthma and that these molecules may play a role in the pathogenesis of asthma. [less ▲]

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