References of "Louis, Renaud"
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See detailL'eotaxine, une chemokine importante dans l'asthme.
Hemelaers, L.; Louis, Renaud ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2006), 61(4), 223-6

We know that the eosinophil plays an important role in asthma pathogenesis. This polynuclear cell is attracted into the airways by several chemokines. Eotaxin is one of them. Endothelial cells, smooth ... [more ▼]

We know that the eosinophil plays an important role in asthma pathogenesis. This polynuclear cell is attracted into the airways by several chemokines. Eotaxin is one of them. Endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, epithelial cells, alveolar macrophages and eosinophils can produce eotaxin. In asthmatic airways, eotaxin production is increased in bronchial airway lumen and mucosa. Eotaxine actively participates in asthma pathogenesis by activating eosinophil recruitment. [less ▲]

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See detailAsthme et tabac.
Gusbin, N.; Garzaniti, N.; Louis, Renaud ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2006), 61(2), 81-6

Roughly 40% of asthmatics are or have been smokers. These smoking asthmatics have been largely overlooked in the past. Tobacco is today considered as a risk factor for asthma and it seems that smoking ... [more ▼]

Roughly 40% of asthmatics are or have been smokers. These smoking asthmatics have been largely overlooked in the past. Tobacco is today considered as a risk factor for asthma and it seems that smoking asthmatics exhibit a different phenotype as compared to non smoking asthmatics. The inflammatory substrate differs widely, not only with respect to the type of cells present in the airways, but also with respect to the mediators brought into play. On the clinical point of view the asthma of smokers is also more severe that in non smokers, both at the symptomatic and the functional level. The asthma severity in smokers is partly linked to a resistance to inhaled corticoids, the cornerstone of maintenance treatment in asthma. This makes urgent to assess alternative treatment to inhaled corticoids for this asthma phenotype, but also emphasizes the need to support smoking cessation in asthmatics. [less ▲]

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See detailThe triple neurokinin-receptor antagonist CS-003 inhibits neurokinin A-induced bronchoconstriction in patients with asthma
Schelfhout, V.; Louis, Renaud ULg; Lenz, W. et al

in Pulmonary Pharmacology & therapeutics (2006), 19(6), 413-418

Neurokinin A (NKA) causes bronchoconstriction in asthmatic patients. In vitro both NK1 and NK2 receptors can mediate airway contraction. Moreover in guinea pigs, NK3 receptors facilitate cholinergic ... [more ▼]

Neurokinin A (NKA) causes bronchoconstriction in asthmatic patients. In vitro both NK1 and NK2 receptors can mediate airway contraction. Moreover in guinea pigs, NK3 receptors facilitate cholinergic neurotransmission. Dual tachykinin NK1/NK2 receptor antagonism results in prevention of NKA-induced bronchoconstriction. We have now examined the effect of a single dose of the triple tachykinin receptor antagonist CS-003 on NKA-induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatics. A double blind, crossover, placebo-controlled trial in 16 mild asthmatics was performed. One single dose of CS-003 (200 mg, solution in distilled water) or matched placebo was given orally on the assessment days. NKA-provocation tests were performed pre-dose and 1, 8 and 24h after dosing. There was a significant shift to the right of the dose-response curve at 1 and 8 h after intake of CS-003. PC20 was not reached in 12/16 patients at 1 h post-dose and in 5/16 patients at 8h post-dose. This did not occur under placebo treatment. A single dose of 200 mg CS-003 protected significantly against NKA-induced bronchoconstriction at 1 and 8 h post-dose in mild asthmatics. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailHypertension arterielle pulmonaire et bronchopathie chronique obstructive
Naldi, Marco ULg; D'Orio, Vincenzo ULg; Louis, Renaud ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2006), 61(7-8, Jul-Aug), 563-71

In this paper we review the current knowledge on pulmonary hypertension (PH) occurring in COPD. PH is defined as a mean pulmonary arterial pressure at rest greater than 20 mmHg measured by right heart ... [more ▼]

In this paper we review the current knowledge on pulmonary hypertension (PH) occurring in COPD. PH is defined as a mean pulmonary arterial pressure at rest greater than 20 mmHg measured by right heart catheterisation. PH is usually present during exercise before appearing at rest. PH in COPD increases the risk of hospitalisation and darkens the disease prognosis. Chronic hypoxemia is the major contributor to PH, but remodelling of arterial wall and mechanical factors such as hyperinflation also play a role. Transthoracic echocardiography is the most useful non invasive investigation, but right heart catheterisation is necessary to ascertain the diagnosis. Long term 02 supplementation is the basis of the treatment while vasodilatators may worsen hypoxemia. [less ▲]

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See detailL'aide à l'arrêt du tabagisme : une nécessité
Delvaux, Muriel ULg; Etienne, Anne-Marie ULg; Bartsch, Pierre ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2005), 60(11), 863-866

Today the smoker carries a risk of mortality 70% higher compared to the nonsmoker. In Belgium active smoking is indisputably the most important cause of avoidable death. In 2004 it appears that 27% of the ... [more ▼]

Today the smoker carries a risk of mortality 70% higher compared to the nonsmoker. In Belgium active smoking is indisputably the most important cause of avoidable death. In 2004 it appears that 27% of the belgian population was smoking. This review describes the comorbidity associated with active tobacco consumption and defines the concepts of dependence and smoking cessation. It also identifies the three factors which determine the success of smoking cessation, i.e. the degree of nicotinic dependence, the presence of anxio-depressive disorders and the importance of the motivation to the stop. [less ▲]

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See detailLe tiotropium: une nouvelle option therapeutique dans la bronchopneumopathie chronique obstructive
Corhay, Jean-Louis ULg; Louis, Renaud ULg

in Revue Médicale Suisse (2005), 1(30), 1967-1972

Tiotropium is a long-acting anticholinergic bronchodilator, inhaled only once a day, which produces relaxation of airway smooth muscle through antagonism of acetylcholine at M3-muscarinic receptors. Its ... [more ▼]

Tiotropium is a long-acting anticholinergic bronchodilator, inhaled only once a day, which produces relaxation of airway smooth muscle through antagonism of acetylcholine at M3-muscarinic receptors. Its duration of action is at least 24 h with once daily administration of tiotropium. Several studies have shown its efficacy and its good tolerance in the treatment of patients who are suffering from moderate to very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Tiotropium improves spirometric measurements and quality of life, and reduces dyspnea and exacerbation rate in COPD patients. [less ▲]

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See detailFDG-PET imaging for assessing pleural malignancy : a semi-quantitative analysis.
LAROCK, Marie-Paule ULg; DUYSINX, Bernard ULg; NGUYEN, D. et al

in Journal of Nuclear Medicine (The) (2005), 46(SUPPL), 426

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See detailRepeated cadmium nebulizations induce pulmonary MMP-2 and MMP-9 production and emphysema in rats.
Kirschvink, Nathalie; Vincke, Gregoire; Fievez, Laurence ULg et al

in Toxicology (2005), 211(1-2), 36-48

This study describes induction of pulmonary inflammation, production of matrix metalloprotease of type 2 (MMP-2) and type 9 (MMP-9), and emphysema in cadmium (Cd)-exposed rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were ... [more ▼]

This study describes induction of pulmonary inflammation, production of matrix metalloprotease of type 2 (MMP-2) and type 9 (MMP-9), and emphysema in cadmium (Cd)-exposed rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly distributed into two groups: one placebo-exposed group undergoing saline (NaCl 0.9%) inhalation (n=30) and one Cd-exposed group undergoing cadmium (CdCl(2) 0.1%) inhalation (n=30). The animals of the placebo- and Cd-exposed groups were divided in five subgroups (n=6). Subgroups underwent either a single exposure of 1h or repeated exposures three times weekly for 1h during 3 weeks (3W), 5 weeks (5W), 5 weeks followed by 2 weeks without exposure (5W+2) or 5 weeks followed by 4 weeks without exposure (5W+4). Each animal underwent determination of enhanced pause (Penh) as index of airflow limitation prior to the first exposure as well as before sacrifice. The animals were sacrificed the day after their last exposure. The left lung was fixed for histomorphometric analysis (determination of median interwall distance (MIWD)), whilst bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected from the right lung. BALF was analyzed cytologically, and MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels were determined by gelatine zymography. Twelve rats previously instilled with pancreatic elastase were used as positive emphysema controls and underwent the same investigations. Cd-exposure induced a significant increase of BALF macrophages, neutrophils and MMP-9 up to 5W+4, whereas MMP-2 gelatinolytic activity returned to baseline levels within 5W. MIWD was significantly increased in all repeatedly Cd-exposed groups and elastase-treated rats. Penh was increased in Cd-exposed rats after a single exposure and after 3W. MMP gelatinolytic activity was significantly correlated with macrophages, neutrophils and Penh. In repeatedly exposed rats, MIWD was positively and significantly correlated with MMP gelatinolytic activity, suggesting that increased MMP-2 and MMP-9 production favours the development of emphysema. [less ▲]

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See detailLe controle de la transcription genique en tant que nouvelle cible therapeutique dans le traitement de l'asthme
Desmet, Christophe ULg; Louis, Renaud ULg; Lekeux, Pierre ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2005), 60(10), 789-795

The recent advances in the knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying asthma have lead to a significant improvement of the current treatments of the disease and opened new perspectives for the ... [more ▼]

The recent advances in the knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying asthma have lead to a significant improvement of the current treatments of the disease and opened new perspectives for the development of therapeutic alternatives to inhaled corticosteroids. The selective targeting of transcription factors controlling the expression of the genes implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma is one of these privileged strategies. This review aims at describing the most promising new therapeutic targets in the control of asthmatic inflammation at the gene transcription level. [less ▲]

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See detailMatrix metalloproteinase-8 deficiency promotes granulocytic allergen-induced airway inflammation
Guéders, Maud ULg; Balbin, M.; Rocks, Natacha ULg et al

in Journal of Immunology (2005), 175(4), 2589-2597

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are involved in inflammatory reaction, including asthma-related airway inflammation. MMP-8, mainly produced by neutrophils, has recently been reported to be increased in ... [more ▼]

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are involved in inflammatory reaction, including asthma-related airway inflammation. MMP-8, mainly produced by neutrophils, has recently been reported to be increased in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from asthmatic patients. To evaluate the role of MMP-8 in asthma, we measured MMP-8 expression in lung tissue in an OVAsensitized mouse model of asthma and addressed the effect of MMP-8 deletion on allergen-induced bronchial inflammation. MMP-8 production was increased in lungs from C57BL/6 mice exposed to allergens. After allergen exposure, MMP-8-1-mice developed an airway inflammation characterized by an increased neutrophilic inflammation in BALF and an increased neutrophilic and eosinophilic infiltration in the airway walls. MMP-8 deficiency was associated with increased levels of IL-4 and antiOVA IgE and IgG1 in BALF and serum, respectively. Although allergen exposure induced an enhancement of LPS-induced CXC chemokine, KC, and MIP-2 levels in BALF and lung parenchyma, no difference was observed between the two genotypes. Inflammatory cell apoptosis was reduced in the lungs from MMP-8(-/-) mice. For the first time, our study evidences an important role of MMP-8 in the control of neutrophilic and eosinophilic infiltration during allergen-induced lung inflammation, and demonstrates that the anti-inflammatory effect of MMP-8 is partly due to a regulation of inflammatory cell apoptosis. [less ▲]

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See detailMéta-analyse des études de qualite de vie internationales.
Louis, Renaud ULg

in Revue des Maladies Respiratoires (2005), 22(2 Pt 3), 446-8

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See detailLes protheses tracheobronchiques: experience au CHU de Liege
Corhay, Jean-Louis ULg; Duysinx, Bernard ULg; Louis, Renaud ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2004), 59(10), 577-83

During recent years the endobronchial prostheses has become an essential part of the therapeutic bronchoscopy in order to remove obstructions from the proximal airways, in malignant diseases, (principally ... [more ▼]

During recent years the endobronchial prostheses has become an essential part of the therapeutic bronchoscopy in order to remove obstructions from the proximal airways, in malignant diseases, (principally lung cancer) are in benign disorders. In this article we report our last ten year experience in stenting of the tracheo-bronchial tree. We will retrospectively review the indications of the stents, the type of prostheses and their modes of insertion, their complications, the clinical and functional results. [less ▲]

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See detailLe medicament du mois. Le tiotropium (SPIRIVA)
Corhay, Jean-Louis ULg; Louis, Renaud ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2004), 59(9), 530-3

SPIRIVA (tiotropium) is a long-acting anticholinergic bronchodilatator, inhaled once a day, which produces relaxation of airway smooth muscle through antagonism of acetylcholine at M3-muscarinic receptors ... [more ▼]

SPIRIVA (tiotropium) is a long-acting anticholinergic bronchodilatator, inhaled once a day, which produces relaxation of airway smooth muscle through antagonism of acetylcholine at M3-muscarinic receptors. Its duration of action is at least 24h with once daily administration of tiotropium. Several studies have shown its efficacy and its good tolerance in the treatment of patients who are suffering from moderate to very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). SPIRIVA improves spirometric measurements and quality of life, and reduces dyspnea and exacerbation rate in COPD patients. [less ▲]

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See detailAnti-IgE: a significant breakthrough in the treatment of airway allergic diseases
Louis, Renaud ULg

in Allergy (2004), 59(7), 698-700

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See detailContribution of eotaxin-1 to eosinophil chemotactic activity of moderate and severe asthmatic sputum
Dent, G.; Hadjicharalambous, C.; Yoshikawa, T. et al

in American Journal of Respiratory & Critical Care Medicine (2004), 169(10), 1110-1117

The CC chemokine eotaxin-1 (CCL11) is chemotactic for eosinophils, basophils, and type 2 helper T cells and may play a role in allergic inflammation. We investigated its contribution as an eosinophil ... [more ▼]

The CC chemokine eotaxin-1 (CCL11) is chemotactic for eosinophils, basophils, and type 2 helper T cells and may play a role in allergic inflammation. We investigated its contribution as an eosinophil chemoattractant in asthmatic airway secretions (sampled as induced sputum), which possess chemotactic activity for eosinophils and T cells. Sputum samples collected from healthy subjects and subjects with mild, stable-moderate, unstable-moderate, and severe asthma were processed with phosphate-buffered saline and assayed for eotaxin by ELISA and for eosinophil chemotactic activity by fluorescence-based chemotaxis assay. The contribution of eotaxin to chemotactic activity was studied by using a high-affinity neutralizing human anti-eotaxin antibody, CAT-213. Sputum eotaxin concentration was significantly raised in moderate and severe asthma (p < 0.05 versus healthy control subjects) but not in mild asthma. Chemotactic activity was significantly increased in all asthmatic groups relative to healthy subjects (p < 0.05) and was significantly inhibited by CAT-213 (1100 nM) in subjects with moderate and severe asthma, with median inhibition of 52% (p < 0.05), 78% (p < 0.0001), and 86% (p < 0.0001), respectively, in samples representing stable-moderate, unstable-moderate, and severe asthma. Eotaxin contributed to the eosinophil chemotactic activity of sputum from subjects with more severe forms of asthma but not mild asthma, suggesting that its contribution is more important in more severe disease. This activity is inhibited significantly by CAT-213. [less ▲]

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See detailDyspnee paroxystique chez le sujet sain: le pneumothorax spontane
Duysinx, Bernard ULg; Nguyen, Delphine; Corhay, Jean-Louis ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2004), 59(4), 205-8

In a healthy individual, a dyspnoea of abrupt onset raises the suspicion of a spontaneous pneumothorax. The clinical examination and standard chest X-ray usually permit the correct diagnosis. The risk of ... [more ▼]

In a healthy individual, a dyspnoea of abrupt onset raises the suspicion of a spontaneous pneumothorax. The clinical examination and standard chest X-ray usually permit the correct diagnosis. The risk of reccurence can be assessed by the clinical history and examination. The functional consequences (which can be lethal) and the risk of recurrence will guide the short- and long-term therapy. [less ▲]

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See detailPrise en charge des exacerbations d'asthme
Mommens, Véronique; Louis, Renaud ULg; D'Orio, Vincenzo ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2004), 59(4), 209-14

Asthma exacerbations constitute a common medical emergency, which in the past has been shown to be poorly managed. Although its management has recently improved, it remains suboptimal. For instance, acute ... [more ▼]

Asthma exacerbations constitute a common medical emergency, which in the past has been shown to be poorly managed. Although its management has recently improved, it remains suboptimal. For instance, acute life-threatening asthma is still responsible for 2000 death each year in France. More than two thirds of deaths should be avoided by a prompt and adjusted treatment. Initial assessment of the severity of the exacerbation is fundamental. The clinical story, physical examination and objective measurement of airflow obstruction by peak flow meter should permit to quickly establish an adapted treatment. The aim of this paper is, once general considerations about clinical approach and currently used treatments have been made, to propose a home and a hospital-based management of the asthma exacerbations. [less ▲]

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See detailMatrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases mRNA transcripts in the bronchial secretions of asthmatics
Cataldo, Didier ULg; Guéders, Maud ULg; Munaut, Carine ULg et al

in Laboratory Investigation : Journal of Technical Methods & Pathology (2004), 84(4), 418-424

Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by profound extracellular matrix changes referred to as bronchial remodelling. In this study, we evaluated matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and ... [more ▼]

Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by profound extracellular matrix changes referred to as bronchial remodelling. In this study, we evaluated matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs) mRNA expression in bronchial secretions of asthmatics and correlated MMPs modulations with the lung function as a reflection of the bronchial extracellular matrix remodelling. Quantitative RT-PCR was performed on cell pellets obtained from induced sputum in order to detect the mRNAs for MMP-1, -2, -3, -8, -9, -12, -13 TIMP-1, -2, while semiquantitative RT-PCR was performed to assess the expression of MMP-7, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and transforming growth factor-beta(1) (TGF-beta(1)). The mRNA transcripts for MMP-1, TIMP-1 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were increased in cell pellets of induced sputum from asthmatics when compared to controls (P<0.05), and the intensity of MMP-1 mRNA expression inversely correlated with the FEV(1) in asthmatics (r=-0.49, P<0.05). The MMP-1 mRNA/TIMP-1 mRNA ratio correlated with the levels of MCP-1 mRNA in asthmatics (r=0.47, P<0.05). There were no differences between the groups with respect to mRNA coding for MMP-2, -3, -7, -8, -9, -12, -13, -14, TIMP-2 and TGF-beta(1). We conclude that cells contained in the bronchial secretions from asthmatics express higher amounts of mRNA for MMP-1 and TIMP-1, perhaps related to an increased expression of MCP-1, which might contribute to the extracellular matrix changes observed during airway remodelling. [less ▲]

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See detailNebulised salbutamol administered during sputum induction improves bronchoprotection in patients with asthma
Delvaux, Muriel ULg; Henket, Monique ULg; Lau, L. et al

in Thorax (2004), 59(2), 111-115

Background: Inhalation of hypertonic or even isotonic saline during sputum induction may cause bronchospasm in susceptible patients with asthma, despite premedication with 400 mug inhaled salbutamol ... [more ▼]

Background: Inhalation of hypertonic or even isotonic saline during sputum induction may cause bronchospasm in susceptible patients with asthma, despite premedication with 400 mug inhaled salbutamol delivered by pressurised metered dose inhaler (pMDI). The bronchoprotection afforded by additional inhaled salbutamol administered through the ultrasonic nebuliser during sputum induction was investigated. Methods: Twenty patients with moderate to severe asthma underwent sputum induction by inhaling saline 4.5% (or 0.9% if post-bronchodilation forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) <65% predicted) for 10 minutes according to two protocols given 1 week apart in random order. At visit A the patients received 400 mg salbutamol administered through a pMDI + spacer 20 minutes before induction while at visit B the premedication was supplemented by 1500 mg nebulised salbutamol inhaled throughout the induction procedure. Both the investigator and the patients were blind to the nebulised solution used. FEV1 was recorded during sputum induction at 1, 3, 5, and 10 minutes. Sputum cell counts and histamine, tryptase and albumin levels in the supernatants were determined. Results: The mean (SE) maximal reduction in FEV1 over the 10 minute period of sputum induction was 11.7 (2.8)% at visit A, which was significantly greater than at visit B (2.6 (1.2)%; mean difference 9% (95% CI 2.7 to 15.4), p < 0.01). Total and differential sputum cell counts as well as albumin, tryptase, and histamine levels did not differ between the two visits. Conclusion: The addition of inhaled salbutamol through an ultrasonic nebuliser markedly improves bronchoprotection against saline induced bronchoconstriction in patients with moderate to severe asthma undergoing sputum induction without affecting cell counts and inflammatory markers. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of pleural disease with 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography imaging
Duysinx, Bernard ULg; Nguyen, Delphine; Louis, Renaud ULg et al

in CHEST (2004), 125(2), 489-493

STUDY OBJECTIVES: To study the ability of positron emission tomography (PET) using 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) to distinguish between benign and malignant disease in exudative pleural effusions and ... [more ▼]

STUDY OBJECTIVES: To study the ability of positron emission tomography (PET) using 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) to distinguish between benign and malignant disease in exudative pleural effusions and pleural thickening. DESIGN: Prospective study of 98 consecutive patients presenting with either pleural thickening or an exudative pleural effusion. SETTING: Department of pulmonary medicine of a university hospital. METHODS: FDG-PET was performed on each subject before invasive procedures were used to determine the etiologic diagnosis. FDG-PET data were analyzed by visual interpretation. RESULTS: Sixty-three of 98 patients were found to have malignant pleural disease after histologic analysis. Sixty-one of 63 patients with histologically confirmed malignant disease showed FDG uptake within the area of pleural thickening. Uptake was graded as intense in 51 cases and moderate in 10 cases. Only two patients with malignant pleural disease did not show increased FDG uptake. FDG-PET imaging showed an absence of FDG uptake, and correctly classified 31 of 35 benign lesions. For the remaining four lesions, intense FDG uptake was seen in one case of parapneumonic effusion, while moderate and localized uptake was observed in one parapneumonic, one tuberculous, and one uremic pleurisy. The sensitivity of the method to identify malignancy was 96.8% with a negative predictive value of 93.9%, while its specificity was 88.5% and its positive predictive value was 93.8%. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that FDG-PET is an effective tool for differentiating between benign and malignant pleural diseases. [less ▲]

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