References of "Louis, Edouard"
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See detailRheumatoid arthritis and pregnancy: evolution of disease activity and pathophysiological considerations for drug use
Hazes, Johanna M.W.; Coulie, Pierre G.; Geenen, Vincent ULg et al

in Rheumatology (2011)

It has long been known that pregnancy and childbirth have a profound effect on the disease activity of rheumatic diseases. For clinicians, the management of patients with RA wishing to become pregnant ... [more ▼]

It has long been known that pregnancy and childbirth have a profound effect on the disease activity of rheumatic diseases. For clinicians, the management of patients with RA wishing to become pregnant involves the challenge of keeping disease activity under control and adequately adapting drug therapy during pregnancy and post-partum. This article aims to summarize the current evidence on the evolution of RA disease activity during and after pregnancy and the use of anti-rheumatic drugs around this period. Of recent interest is the potential use of anti-TNF compounds in the preconception period and during pregnancy. Accumulating experience with anti-TNF therapy in other immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, such as Crohn’s disease, provides useful insights for the use of TNF blockade in pregnant women with RA, or RA patients wishing to become pregnant. [less ▲]

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See detailMeta-analysis identifies 29 additional ulcerative colitis risk loci, increasing the number of confirmed associations to 47.
Anderson, Carl A; Boucher, Gabrielle; Lees, Charlie W et al

in Nature Genetics (2011), 43(3), 246-52

Genome-wide association studies and candidate gene studies in ulcerative colitis have identified 18 susceptibility loci. We conducted a meta-analysis of six ulcerative colitis genome-wide association ... [more ▼]

Genome-wide association studies and candidate gene studies in ulcerative colitis have identified 18 susceptibility loci. We conducted a meta-analysis of six ulcerative colitis genome-wide association study datasets, comprising 6,687 cases and 19,718 controls, and followed up the top association signals in 9,628 cases and 12,917 controls. We identified 29 additional risk loci (P < 5 x 10(-8)), increasing the number of ulcerative colitis-associated loci to 47. After annotating associated regions using GRAIL, expression quantitative trait loci data and correlations with non-synonymous SNPs, we identified many candidate genes that provide potentially important insights into disease pathogenesis, including IL1R2, IL8RA-IL8RB, IL7R, IL12B, DAP, PRDM1, JAK2, IRF5, GNA12 and LSP1. The total number of confirmed inflammatory bowel disease risk loci is now 99, including a minimum of 28 shared association signals between Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. [less ▲]

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See detailLaparoscopic antireflux surgery vs esomeprazole treatment for chronic GERD: the LOTUS randomized clinical trial.
Galmiche, Jean-Paul; Hatlebakk, Jan; Attwood, Stephen et al

in JAMA : Journal of the American Medical Association (2011), 305(19), 1969-77

CONTEXT: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a chronic, relapsing disease with symptoms that have negative effects on daily life. Two treatment options are long-term medication or surgery. OBJECTIVE ... [more ▼]

CONTEXT: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a chronic, relapsing disease with symptoms that have negative effects on daily life. Two treatment options are long-term medication or surgery. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate optimized esomeprazole therapy vs standardized laparoscopic antireflux surgery (LARS) in patients with GERD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The LOTUS trial, a 5-year exploratory randomized, open, parallel-group trial conducted in academic hospitals in 11 European countries between October 2001 and April 2009 among 554 patients with well-established chronic GERD who initially responded to acid suppression. A total of 372 patients (esomeprazole, n = 192; LARS, n = 180) completed 5-year follow-up. Interventions Two hundred sixty-six patients were randomly assigned to receive esomeprazole, 20 to 40 mg/d, allowing for dose adjustments; 288 were randomly assigned to undergo LARS, of whom 248 actually underwent the operation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Time to treatment failure (for LARS, defined as need for acid suppressive therapy; for esomeprazole, inadequate symptom control after dose adjustment), expressed as estimated remission rates and analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: Estimated remission rates at 5 years were 92% (95% confidence interval [CI], 89%-96%) in the esomeprazole group and 85% (95% CI, 81%-90%) in the LARS group (log-rank P = .048). The difference between groups was no longer statistically significant following best-case scenario modeling of the effects of study dropout. The prevalence and severity of symptoms at 5 years in the esomeprazole and LARS groups, respectively, were 16% and 8% for heartburn (P = .14), 13% and 2% for acid regurgitation (P < .001), 5% and 11% for dysphagia (P < .001), 28% and 40% for bloating (P < .001), and 40% and 57% for flatulence (P < .001). Mortality during the study was low (4 deaths in the esomeprazole group and 1 death in the LARS group) and not attributed to treatment, and the percentages of patients reporting serious adverse events were similar in the esomeprazole group (24.1%) and in the LARS group (28.6%). CONCLUSION: This multicenter clinical trial demonstrated that with contemporary antireflux therapy for GERD, either by drug-induced acid suppression with esomeprazole or by LARS, most patients achieve and remain in remission at 5 years. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00251927. [less ▲]

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See detailThe efficacy of shortening the dosing interval to once every six weeks in Crohn's patients losing response to maintenance dose of infliximab.
Kopylov, U.; Mantzaris, G. J.; Katsanos, K. H. et al

in Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics (2011), 33(3), 349-57

Background Patients treated with infliximab for Crohn's disease (CD) frequently require intensified dosage due to loss of response. There are scant data regarding the efficacy of shortening the dosing ... [more ▼]

Background Patients treated with infliximab for Crohn's disease (CD) frequently require intensified dosage due to loss of response. There are scant data regarding the efficacy of shortening the dosing interval to 6 weeks. Aim We sought to investigate the efficacy of a once every 6 weeks' strategy compared with dose-doubling. Methods This work was a multicentre retrospective study of infliximab-treated CD patients who required dose escalation. The clinical outcome of patients treated by intensification to 5 mg/kg/6 weeks (6-week group) was compared with the outcome of patients whose infliximab was double-dosed (10 mg/kg/8 weeks or 5 mg/kg/4 weeks). Results Ninety-four patients (mean age: 29.8 years) were included in the study, 55 (59%) in the 6-week group and 39 (41%) in the double-dose group. Demographics and disease characteristics were similar between the two groups, although patients with re-emerging symptoms 5-7 weeks postinfusion were more likely to receive 5 mg/kg/6 weeks dosing (OR: 3.4, 95% CI: 1.4-8.8, P < 0.01). Early response to dose-intensification occurred in 69% of patients in the 6-week group and 67% in the double-dose group (P = N.S.). Regained response was maintained for 12 months in 40% compared with 29% of the patients respectively (P = N.S.). Conclusion In CD patients who lost response to standard infliximab dose, especially when symptoms re-emerge 5-7 weeks postinfusion, shortening the dosing interval to 6 weeks appears to be at least as effective as doubling the dose to 10 mg/kg or halving the infusion intervals to once in 4 weeks. [less ▲]

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See detailResequencing of positional candidates identifies low frequency IL23R coding variants protecting against inflammatory bowel disease.
Momozawa, Yukihide ULg; Mni, Myriam ULg; Nakamura, Kayo ULg et al

in Nature Genetics (2011), 43(1), 43-7

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified dozens of risk loci for many complex disorders, including Crohn's disease. However, common disease-associated SNPs explain at most approximately 20 ... [more ▼]

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified dozens of risk loci for many complex disorders, including Crohn's disease. However, common disease-associated SNPs explain at most approximately 20% of the genetic variance for Crohn's disease. Several factors may account for this unexplained heritability, including rare risk variants not adequately tagged thus far in GWAS. That rare susceptibility variants indeed contribute to variation in multifactorial phenotypes has been demonstrated for colorectal cancer, plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, blood pressure, type 1 diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia and, in the case of Crohn's disease, for NOD2 (refs. 14,15). Here we describe the use of high-throughput resequencing of DNA pools to search for rare coding variants influencing susceptibility to Crohn's disease in 63 GWAS-identified positional candidate genes. We identify low frequency coding variants conferring protection against inflammatory bowel disease in IL23R, but we conclude that rare coding variants in positional candidates do not make a large contribution to inherited predisposition to Crohn's disease. [less ▲]

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See detailThiopurine metabolites and TPMT activity measurement in inflammatory bowel disease.
Louis, Edouard ULg

in Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics (2011), 34(9), 1138-9

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See detailResults of the 2nd part Scientific Workshop of the ECCO. II: Measures and markers of prediction to achieve, detect, and monitor intestinal healing in inflammatory bowel disease.
Daperno, Marco; Castiglione, Fabiana; de Ridder, Lissy et al

in Journal of Crohn's & colitis (2011), 5(5), 484-98

The healing of the intestine is becoming an important objective in the management of inflammatory bowel diseases. It is associated with improved disease outcome. Therefore the assessment of this healing ... [more ▼]

The healing of the intestine is becoming an important objective in the management of inflammatory bowel diseases. It is associated with improved disease outcome. Therefore the assessment of this healing both in clinical studies and routine practice is a key issue. Endoscopy for the colon and terminal ileum and computerized tomography or magnetic resonance imaging for the small bowel are the most direct ways to evaluate intestinal healing. However, there are many unsolved questions about the definition and the precise assessment of intestinal healing using these endoscopic and imaging techniques. Furthermore, these are relatively invasive and expensive procedures that may be inadequate for regular patients' monitoring. Therefore, biomarkers such as C-reactive protein and fecal calprotectin have been proposed as surrogate markers for intestinal healing. Nevertheless, the sensitivity and specificity of these markers for the prediction of healing may be insufficient for routine practice. New stool, blood or intestinal biomarkers are currently studied and may improve our ability to monitor intestinal healing in the future. [less ▲]

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See detailNecessity of phenotypic classification of inflammatory bowel disease.
Louis, Edouard ULg; VAN KEMSEKE, Catherine ULg; Reenaers, Catherine ULg

in Best practice & research. Clinical gastroenterology (2011), 25 Suppl 1

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are classically divided in Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). However, these two entities are still heterogeneous and a further classification in ... [more ▼]

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are classically divided in Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). However, these two entities are still heterogeneous and a further classification in subphenotypes is necessary. Clinical subphenotypes are easy to use, do not necessitate complicated tests and can already give very important information for the management of the patients. In CD, clinical subphenotypes are based on age at diagnosis, disease location and disease behaviour. Age at diagnosis allows to differentiating paediatric CD, classical young adult onset and more seldom CD of the elderly. These categories are associated with a different risk of development of complications and disabling disease and may have partly different pathophysiology. The classification on disease behaviour, including stricturin, penetrating or uncomplicated disease may have an impact on reponse to medical treatment and need for surgery. Finally the classification based on location is particularly relevant since it has been associated with different types of complications. Particularly ileal disease has been associated with the risk of surgery and colonic (particularly rectal) disease, with the risk of perianal disease. In UC, the classification in subphenotypes is essentially based on disease location, distinguishing proctitis, left-sided colitis and extensive colitis. This subclassification also has a very significant clinical relevance since extensive colitis has been associated with and increased risk of colon cancer, colectomy and even in some studies, mortality. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of adalimumab on work productivity and indirect costs in moderate to severe Crohn's disease: a meta-analysis.
Binion, David G; Louis, Edouard ULg; Oldenburg, Bas et al

in Canadian journal of gastroenterology = Journal canadien de gastroenterologie (2011), 25(9), 492-6

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of adalimumab on work productivity and indirect costs in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) using a meta-analysis of clinical trials. METHODS: Study-level results were ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of adalimumab on work productivity and indirect costs in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) using a meta-analysis of clinical trials. METHODS: Study-level results were pooled from all clinical trials of adalimumab for moderate to severe CD in which work productivity outcomes were evaluated. Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire outcomes (absenteeism, presenteeism and total work productivity impairment [TWPI]) were extracted from adalimumab trials. Meta-analyses were used to estimate pooled averages and 95% CIs of one-year accumulated reductions in work productivity impairment with adalimumab. Pooled averages were multiplied by the 2008 United States national average annual salary ($44,101) to estimate per-patient indirect cost savings during the year following adalimumab initiation. RESULTS: The four included trials (ACCESS, CARE, CHOICE and EXTEND) represented a total of 1202 employed adalimumab-treated patients at baseline. Each study followed patients for a minimum of 20 weeks. Pooled estimates (95% CIs) of one-year accumulated work productivity improvements were as follows: -9% (-10% to -7%) for absenteeism; -22% (-26% to -18%) for presenteeism; and -25% (-30% to -20%) for TWPI. Reductions in absenteeism and TWPI translated into per-patient indirect cost savings (95% CI) of $3,856 ($3,183 to $4,529) and $10,964 ($8,833 to $13,096), respectively. CONCLUSION: Adalimumab provided clinically meaningful improvements in work productivity among patients with moderate to severe CD, which may translate into substantial indirect cost savings from an employer's perspective. [less ▲]

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See detailEvolution and predictive factors of relapse in ulcerative colitis patients treated with mesalazine after a first course of corticosteroids.
Bello, C.; Belaiche, Jacques ULg; Louis, Edouard ULg et al

in Journal of Crohn's & colitis (2011), 5(3), 196-202

INTRODUCTION: Mesalazine remains the first line treatment for the induction and the maintenance of remission in mild to moderate ulcerative colitis (UC). Its efficacy as a maintenance treatment after a ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION: Mesalazine remains the first line treatment for the induction and the maintenance of remission in mild to moderate ulcerative colitis (UC). Its efficacy as a maintenance treatment after a first flare treated with corticosteroids has not been specifically studied. The aims of our work were to study a cohort of UC patients treated with mesalazine after a course of oral systemic corticosteroids and to identify predictive factors of relapse and of colectomy. MATERIAL AND METHOD: We studied retrospectively a cohort of 143 UC patients, who never received immunosuppressive drugs, and treated for the first time with oral corticosteroids for a flare. Among patients responding to corticosteroids, we studied the group treated by mesalazine after the flare. RESULTS: Fifty% (n=52) achieved a complete clinical remission with steroid weaning. In this group, 67% (n=35) received oral mesalazine. Seventy-five % of patients treated by mesalazine relapsed (median 29 months, range: 1-156). Fourteen % required a colectomy (median 11 months, range: 1-24). Kaplan Meier curve showed a relapse rate and a colectomy rate over one year of 26% and 11% respectively. In multivariate analysis, male gender and short duration of disease were predictive factors of the time-to-relapse. No factor was predictive of time-to-colectomy. CONCLUSION: Maintenance efficacy of mesalazine over one year after a first course of corticosteroids for a disease flare is reasonably high. The longer-term relapse rate becomes higher in male patients with a short disease duration. An immunosuppressive treatment could be discussed in case of further relapse despite improved medication-adherence. Medication-adherence should first be assessed and promoted. An immunosuppressive treatment could be discussed in case of further relapse despite improved medication-adherence. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of the Crohn's disease digestive damage score, the Lemann score.
Pariente, Benjamin; Cosnes, Jacques; Danese, Silvio et al

in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (2011), 17(6), 1415-22

Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic progressive destructive disease. Currently available instruments measure disease activity at a specific point in time. An instrument to measure cumulative structural ... [more ▼]

Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic progressive destructive disease. Currently available instruments measure disease activity at a specific point in time. An instrument to measure cumulative structural damage to the bowel, which may predict long-term disability, is needed. The aim of this article is to outline the methods to develop an instrument that can measure cumulative bowel damage. The project is being conducted by the International Program to develop New Indexes in Crohn's disease (IPNIC) group. This instrument, called the Crohn's Disease Digestive Damage Score (the Lemann score), should take into account damage location, severity, extent, progression, and reversibility, as measured by diagnostic imaging modalities and the history of surgical resection. It should not be "diagnostic modality driven": for each lesion and location, a modality appropriate for the anatomic site (for example: computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging enterography, and colonoscopy) will be used. A total of 24 centers from 15 countries will be involved in a cross-sectional study, which will include up to 240 patients with stratification according to disease location and duration. At least 120 additional patients will be included in the study to validate the score. The Lemann score is expected to be able to portray a patient's disease course on a double-axis graph, with time as the x-axis, bowel damage severity as the y-axis, and the slope of the line connecting data points as a measure of disease progression. This instrument could be used to assess the effect of various medical therapies on the progression of bowel damage. [less ▲]

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See detailDiscovery and biochemical characterisation of four novel biomarkers for osteoarthritis.
DE SENY, Dominique ULg; Sharif, Mohammed; Fillet, Marianne ULg et al

in Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases (2011), 70(6), 1144-52

OBJECTIVE: Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a heterogeneous, complex joint pathology of unknown aetiology. Biomarkers have been widely used to investigate OA but currently available biomarkers lack specificity ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a heterogeneous, complex joint pathology of unknown aetiology. Biomarkers have been widely used to investigate OA but currently available biomarkers lack specificity and sensitivity. Therefore, novel biomarkers are needed to better understand the pathophysiological processes of OA initiation and progression. METHODS: Surface enhanced laser desorption/ionisation-time of flight-mass spectrometry proteomic technique was used to analyse protein expression levels in 284 serum samples from patients with knee OA classified according to Kellgren and Lawrence (K&L) score (0-4). OA serum samples were also compared to serum samples provided by healthy individuals (negative control subjects; NC; n=36) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients (n=25). Proteins that gave similar signal in all K&L groups of OA patients were ignored, whereas proteins with increased or decreased levels of expression were selected for further studies. RESULTS: Two proteins were found to be expressed at higher levels in sera of OA patients at all four K&L scores compared to NC and RA, and were identified as V65 vitronectin fragment and C3fpeptide. Of the two remaining proteins, one showed increased expression (unknown protein at m/z of 3762) and the other (identified as connective tissue-activating peptide III protein) was decreased in K&L scores >2 subsets compared to NC, RA and K&L scores 0 or 1 subsets. CONCLUSION: The authors detected four unexpected biomarkers (V65 vitronectin fragment, C3f peptide, CTAP-III and m/z 3762 protein) that could be relevant in the pathophysiological process of OA as having significant correlation with parameters reflecting local inflammation and bone remodelling, as well as decrease in cartilage turnover. [less ▲]

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See detailNatalizumab to kill two birds with one stone: A case of celiac disease and multiple sclerosis.
Phan-Ba, Rémy ULg; LAMBINET, Nadine ULg; Louis, Edouard ULg et al

in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (2011), 17(6), 62-63

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See detailAdalimumab produces clinical remission and reduces extraintestinal manifestations in Crohn's disease: Results from CARE.
Löfberg, Robert; Louis, Edouard ULg; Reinisch, W. et al

in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (2011)

BACKGROUND: Data regarding the effectiveness of anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents for resolution of extraintestinal manifestations (EIMs) are scarce. The CARE study evaluated clinical effectiveness ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Data regarding the effectiveness of anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents for resolution of extraintestinal manifestations (EIMs) are scarce. The CARE study evaluated clinical effectiveness, EIM resolution, and safety of adalimumab in a large pan-European cohort of patients with moderate to severe Crohn's disease (CD). METHODS: In all, 945 patients with a Harvey-Bradshaw Index (HBI) >/=7 enrolled in this multicenter, open-label phase IIIb trial. Patients received subcutaneous adalimumab, 160/80 mg at weeks 0/2, then 40 mg every other week. Dose adjustments were allowed for CD-related concomitant medications (from week 8) and adalimumab (from week 12). Clinical endpoints were analyzed through week 20 for all patients, and after stratification by prior infliximab exposure and by reason for discontinuing infliximab (primary nonresponse [PNR] or other). RESULTS: The remission rate (HBI <5) at week 20 was 52% (95% confidence interval, 49%-55%) overall, and was higher for infliximab-naive versus infliximab-exposed patients (62% versus 42%, P < 0.001). Remission rates were similar for PNR (37%) and other reasons (43%; P = 0.278). Of 497 patients with baseline EIMs, 51% were free of EIM signs and symptoms at week 20. Serious infectious adverse events were reported in 5% of patients. Opportunistic infections and malignancies were rare (</=1%). There was one case of demyelinating disease, but no occurrences of lupus, tuberculosis, or death. CONCLUSIONS: In this large cohort of patients, adalimumab treatment resulted in rates of clinical remission and EIM resolution exceeding 50%, and substantial rates of effectiveness in patients who had PNR to infliximab. Adalimumab was well tolerated, with safety consistent with prior reports. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2011). [less ▲]

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See detailH1N1 vaccines in a large observational cohort of patients with inflammatory bowel disease treated with immunomodulators and biological therapy.
Rahier, Jean-Francois; Papay, Pavol; Salleron, Julia et al

in Gut (2011), 60(4), 456-62

BACKGROUND: Safety data are lacking on influenza vaccination in general and on A (H1N1)v vaccination in particular in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) receiving immmunomodulators and/or ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Safety data are lacking on influenza vaccination in general and on A (H1N1)v vaccination in particular in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) receiving immmunomodulators and/or biological therapy. AIMS AND METHODS: The authors conducted a multicentre observational cohort study to evaluate symptoms associated with influenza H1N1 adjuvanted (Pandemrix, Focetria, FluvalP) and non-adjuvanted (Celvapan) vaccines and to assess the risk of flare of IBD after vaccination. Patients with stable IBD treated with immunomodulators and/or biological therapy were recruited from November 2009 until March 2010 in 12 European countries. Harvey-Bradshaw Index and Partial Mayo Score were used to assess disease activity before and 4 weeks after vaccination in Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Vaccination-related events up to 7 days after vaccination were recorded. RESULTS: Of 575 patients enrolled (407 CD, 159 UC and nine indeterminate colitis; 53.9% female; mean age 40.3 years, SD 13.9), local and systemic symptoms were reported by 34.6% and 15.5% of patients, respectively. The most common local and systemic reactions were pain in 32.8% and fatigue in 6.1% of subjects. Local symptoms were more common with adjuvanted (39.3%) than non-adjuvanted (3.9%) vaccines (p < 0.0001), whereas rates of systemic symptoms were similar with both types (15.0% vs 18.4%, p = 0.44). Among the adjuvanted group, Pandemrix more often induced local reactions than FluvalP and Focetria (51.2% vs 27.6% and 15.4%, p < 0.0001). Solicited adverse events were not associated with any patient characteristics, specific immunomodulatory treatment, or biological therapy. Four weeks after vaccination, absence of flare was observed in 377 patients with CD (96.7%) and 151 with UC (95.6%). CONCLUSION: Influenza A (H1N1)v vaccines are well tolerated in patients with IBD. Non-adjuvanted vaccines are associated with fewer local reactions. The risk of IBD flare is probably not increased after H1N1 vaccination. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of bacteria in biopsies of colon and stools by high throughput sequencing of the V2 region of bacterial 16S rRNA gene in human.
Momozawa, Yukihide; Deffontaine Deurbroeck, Valérie ULg; Louis, Edouard ULg et al

in PloS one (2011), 6(2), 16952

BACKGROUND: The characterization of the human intestinal microflora and their interactions with the host have been identified as key components in the study of intestinal disorders such as inflammatory ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The characterization of the human intestinal microflora and their interactions with the host have been identified as key components in the study of intestinal disorders such as inflammatory bowel diseases. High-throughput sequencing has enabled culture-independent studies to deeply analyze bacteria in the gut. It is possible with this technology to systematically analyze links between microbes and the genetic constitution of the host, such as DNA polymorphisms and methylation, and gene expression. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this study the V2 region of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene using 454 pyrosequencing from seven anatomic regions of human colon and two types of stool specimens were analyzed. The study examined the number of reads needed to ascertain differences between samples, the effect of DNA extraction procedures and PCR reproducibility, and differences between biopsies and stools in order to design a large scale systematic analysis of gut microbes. It was shown (1) that sequence coverage lower than 1,000 reads influenced quantitative and qualitative differences between samples measured by UniFrac distances. Distances between samples became stable after 1,000 reads. (2) Difference of extracted bacteria was observed between the two DNA extraction methods. In particular, Firmicutes Bacilli were not extracted well by one method. (3) Quantitative and qualitative difference in bacteria from ileum to rectum colon were not observed, but there was a significant positive trend between distances within colon and quantitative differences. Between sample type, biopsies or stools, quantitative and qualitative differences were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Results of human colonic bacteria analyzed using high-throughput sequencing were highly dependent on the experimental design, especially the number of sequence reads, DNA extraction method, and sample type. [less ▲]

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See detailGenome-wide meta-analysis increases to 71 the number of confirmed Crohn's disease susceptibility loci.
Franke, Andre; McGovern, Dermot P B; Barrett, Jeffrey C et al

in Nature Genetics (2010), 42(12), 1118-25

We undertook a meta-analysis of six Crohn's disease genome-wide association studies (GWAS) comprising 6,333 affected individuals (cases) and 15,056 controls and followed up the top association signals in ... [more ▼]

We undertook a meta-analysis of six Crohn's disease genome-wide association studies (GWAS) comprising 6,333 affected individuals (cases) and 15,056 controls and followed up the top association signals in 15,694 cases, 14,026 controls and 414 parent-offspring trios. We identified 30 new susceptibility loci meeting genome-wide significance (P < 5 x 10). A series of in silico analyses highlighted particular genes within these loci and, together with manual curation, implicated functionally interesting candidate genes including SMAD3, ERAP2, IL10, IL2RA, TYK2, FUT2, DNMT3A, DENND1B, BACH2 and TAGAP. Combined with previously confirmed loci, these results identify 71 distinct loci with genome-wide significant evidence for association with Crohn's disease. [less ▲]

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See detailVaccinations in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases.
Rahier, Jean-Francois; Moutschen, Michel ULg; Van Gompel, Alfons et al

in Rheumatology (2010), 49(10), 1815-27

Patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMID) such as RA, IBD or psoriasis, are at increased risk of infection, partially because of the disease itself, but mostly because of treatment with ... [more ▼]

Patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMID) such as RA, IBD or psoriasis, are at increased risk of infection, partially because of the disease itself, but mostly because of treatment with immunomodulatory or immunosuppressive drugs. In spite of their elevated risk for vaccine-preventable disease, vaccination coverage in IMID patients is surprisingly low. This review summarizes current literature data on vaccine safety and efficacy in IMID patients treated with immunosuppressive or immunomodulatory drugs and formulates best-practice recommendations on vaccination in this population. Especially in the current era of biological therapies, including TNF-blocking agents, special consideration should be given to vaccination strategies in IMID patients. Clinical evidence indicates that immunization of IMID patients does not increase clinical or laboratory parameters of disease activity. Live vaccines are contraindicated in immunocompromized individuals, but non-live vaccines can safely be given. Although the reduced quality of the immune response in patients under immunotherapy may have a negative impact on vaccination efficacy in this population, adequate humoral response to vaccination in IMID patients has been demonstrated for hepatitis B, influenza and pneumococcal vaccination. Vaccination status is best checked and updated before the start of immunomodulatory therapy: live vaccines are not contraindicated at that time and inactivated vaccines elicit an optimal immune response in immunocompetent individuals. [less ▲]

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