Can we predict the high-risk patient?
; Louis, Edouard
in Digestive diseases (Basel, Switzerland) (2014), 32(4), 328-36
BACKGROUND: While therapeutic strategies able to change the natural history of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are being developed, factors predicting aggressive disease are needed to be able to choose ... [more ▼]
BACKGROUND: While therapeutic strategies able to change the natural history of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are being developed, factors predicting aggressive disease are needed to be able to choose the appropriate therapeutic strategy for the individual patient based on the risk/benefit ratio. The aim of this review is to focus on the tools assisting the clinician in routine practice regarding the prediction of disease evolution. METHODS: A literature review was performed, which was mainly based on PubMed search, using the following terms: Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, inflammatory bowel disease, genetics, serology, biomarkers, endoscopy, C-reactive protein, faecal calprotectin, disease evolution and complications. RESULTS: For the prediction of disease evolution, clinical characteristics, particularly disease location and behaviour, are probably currently the most useful. In addition, a series of biomarkers, including genetic, serological and inflammatory markers, as well as characteristics of endoscopic lesions may have an added value. CONCLUSIONS: Simple clinical, biological and endoscopic tools may help the clinician in predicting disease evolution in IBD. However, these tools are still insufficient, and prospective evaluation of new genetic and biological markers are needed. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 24 (0 ULg)
Depth of remission in Crohn's disease patients seen in a referral centre : associated factors and impact on disease outcome.
; ; et al
in Acta gastro-enterologica Belgica (2014), 77(1), 41-6
INTRODUCTION: Our goals were to assess the prevalence of biological and tissue remission in routine practice in Crohn's disease, and to evaluate the correlation between biological or tissue remission and ... [more ▼]
INTRODUCTION: Our goals were to assess the prevalence of biological and tissue remission in routine practice in Crohn's disease, and to evaluate the correlation between biological or tissue remission and clinical or demographic characteristics as well as their impact on disease outcome. METHODS: We performed a retrospective monocenter study. Biological remission was defined by a CRP < 5 mg/I. Tissue remission was defined by the absence of ulcer at endoscopy and/or absence of signs of acute inflammation at MRI. Association with demographic, clinical and laboratory markers was studied by logistic regression models and rates of relapses, hospitalizations and surgeries were compared using the logrank test. RESULTS: Among the 263 patients included, 147 were in clinical remission; 102/147 (69%) were in biological remission. Fifty-six patients also had morphological evaluation: 37 (66%) were in tissue remission. Biological remission was associated with older age, higher hemoglobin and lower BMI. Tissue remission was associated with older age, lower platelets count, absence of previous surgery, and the use of immunosuppressant. Time-to-relapse was significantly longer in patients with biological remission and in patients with tissue remission as compared to patients without biological or tissue remission. CONCLUSIONS: Among the patients in clinical remission seen as outpatients, two thirds were either in biological and/or tissue remission. Biological and/or tissue remission was associated with a better outcome than clinical remission alone. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 19 (5 ULg)
Alterations in the intestinal microbiome (dysbiosis) as a predictor of relapse after infliximab withdrawal in Crohn's disease.
; ; Louis, Edouard et al
in Inflammatory bowel diseases (2014), 20(6), 978-86
BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease (CD)-associated dysbiosis could predispose patients to relapse. Gut microbiota composition of patients from the prospective cohort study designed to identify predictive factors ... [more ▼]
BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease (CD)-associated dysbiosis could predispose patients to relapse. Gut microbiota composition of patients from the prospective cohort study designed to identify predictive factors of clinical relapse after infliximab discontinuation (STORI Study) was investigated to determine the impact of dysbiosis in CD relapse. METHODS: Fecal samples from 33 patients with CD in this cohort were collected at baseline, 2 months, 6 months, and at the end of the follow-up period (19 relapsers and 14 nonrelapsers). Healthy volunteers subjects (n = 29) were used as a control group. The fecal microbiota composition was assessed using quantitative PCR, and comparisons between the patient groups were made at different time points using the Wilcoxon test. The analysis of the time-to-relapse was performed according to the baseline median level of each bacterial signal. RESULTS: Dysbiosis was observed in patients with CD compared with healthy subjects, and it was characterized by low mean counts of Firmicutes (Clostridium coccoides [P = 0.0003], C. leptum [P < 0.0001], and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii [P = 0.003]). Lower rates of Firmicutes were seen in relapsers compared with nonrelapsers. Moreover, a low rate of F. prausnitzii (P = 0.014) and a low rate of Bacteroides (P = 0.030) predicted relapse independently from high C reactive protein level (P = 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: In this work, we report that CD-associated dysbiosis, characterized by a decrease in Firmicutes, correlates with the time-to-relapse after infliximab withdrawal. A deficit in some bacterial groups or species, such as F. prausnitzii, may represent a predictive factor for relapse. Restoring normobiosis in CD could be a new goal for optimal CD management. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 25 (0 ULg)
Use of azathioprine in IBD: modern aspects of an old drug.
Louis, Edouard ; ;
in Gut (2014), 63(11), 1695-9Detailed reference viewed: 19 (4 ULg)
Data dependent versus Data independent acquisition applied to samples with different protein dynamic range
Smargiasso, Nicolas ; Mazzucchelli, Gabriel ; Baiwir, Dominique et al
Poster (2014)Detailed reference viewed: 80 (1 ULg)
El sindrome tirogastrico autoinmune : sus efectos sobre los micronutrientes y la tumorigenesis gastrica
VALDES SOCIN, Hernan Gonzalo ; LUTTERI, Laurence ; Cavalier, Etienne et al
in Revista Argentina de Endocrinologia y Metabolismo (2014), 51Detailed reference viewed: 77 (5 ULg)
Hypercalcémie réfractaire et sécrétion ectopique de calcitonine dans un cancer neuroendocrine du pancréas : Effets hypocalcémiants du Cinacalcet
VALDES SOCIN, Hernan Gonzalo ; LOLY, Jean-Philippe ; BETEA, Daniela et al
in Annales d'Endocrinologie (2013, October), 74Detailed reference viewed: 69 (10 ULg)
Thrombose portale étendue chez un patient sous anti-vitamine K
LEDOUBLE, Vinciane ; BECK, Emmanuel ; PETERS, Pierre et al
in Revue Médicale de Liège (2013), (68(7-8)), 382-6Detailed reference viewed: 82 (11 ULg)
Is it ever appropriate to stop anti-tumor necrosis factor in a stable patient?
in Rubin, David, T.; Friedman, Sonia; Farraye, Francis A. (Eds.) Curbside Consultation in IBD: 49 Clinical Questions, Second Edition (2013)Detailed reference viewed: 11 (0 ULg)
Optimal use of proton pump inhibitors for treating acid peptic diseases in primary care.
Tack, Jacques ; Louis, Edouard ; et al
in Acta gastro-enterologica Belgica (2013), 76(4), 393-402
Heartburn, reflux and epigastric pain are frequently encountered symptoms in primary care medicine. Acid peptic diseases such as peptic ulcer and gastrointestinal reflux disease have a high prevalence ... [more ▼]
Heartburn, reflux and epigastric pain are frequently encountered symptoms in primary care medicine. Acid peptic diseases such as peptic ulcer and gastrointestinal reflux disease have a high prevalence, can have important impact on patient quality of life and represent a considerable health care cost. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are the most potent pharmacological inhibitors of gastric acid secretion currently available and are the mainstay medical therapy for acid peptic diseases. This review summarizes current evidence on treatment of acid-peptic diseases with proton pump inhibitors and provides primary care clinicians with best practice guidelines for optimal use of these drugs. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 23 (2 ULg)
Profile of pediatric Crohn's disease in Belgium.
; Mahachie John, Jestinah ; et al
in Journal of Crohn's & colitis (2013), 7(11), 588-98
AIM: A Belgian registry for pediatric Crohn's disease, BELCRO, was created. This first report aims at describing disease presentation and phenotype and determining associations between variables at ... [more ▼]
AIM: A Belgian registry for pediatric Crohn's disease, BELCRO, was created. This first report aims at describing disease presentation and phenotype and determining associations between variables at diagnosis and registration in the database. METHODS: Through a collaborative network, children with previously established Crohn's disease and newly diagnosed children and adolescents (under 18 y of age) were recruited over a 2 year period. Data were collected by 23 centers and entered in a database. Statistical association tests analyzed relationships between variables of interest at diagnosis. RESULTS: Two hundred fifty-five patients were included. Median age at diagnosis was 12.5 y (range: 1.6-18 y); median duration of symptoms prior to diagnosis was 3 m (range: 1-12 m). Neonatal history and previous medical history did not influence disease onset nor disease behavior. Fifty three % of these patients presented with a BMI z-score < -1. CRP was an independent predictor of disease severity. Steroids were widely used as initial treatment in moderate to severe and extensive disease. Over time, immunomodulators and biological were prescribed more frequently, reflecting a lower prescription rate for steroids and 5-ASA. A positive family history was the sole significant determinant for earlier use of immunosuppression. CONCLUSION: In Belgium, the median age of children presenting with Crohn's disease is 12.5 y. Faltering growth, extensive disease and upper GI involvement are frequent. CRP is an independent predictive factor of disease activity. A positive family history appears to be the main determinant for initial treatment choice. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 65 (24 ULg)
National differences in ulcerative colitis experience and management among patients from five European countries and Canada: An online survey.
; ; LOUIS, Edouard et al
in Journal of Crohn’s and Colitis (2013), 7
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Patients' and physicians' perceptions of ulcerative colitis and its management are important for developing and guiding appropriate therapies. This study explored national differences ... [more ▼]
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Patients' and physicians' perceptions of ulcerative colitis and its management are important for developing and guiding appropriate therapies. This study explored national differences in patients' and physicians' experiences, expectations, and beliefs about ulcerative colitis. METHODS: Structured, cross-sectional, online surveys evaluating various indices were completed by 775 adult patients with ulcerative colitis and 475 physicians actively managing ulcerative colitis patients from France, Germany, Ireland, Spain, the United Kingdom, and Canada. RESULTS: Patients' classification of their symptom severity differed across countries (mild, 16%-45%; moderate, 46%-58%; severe, 4%-36%). Expectations of disease control also varied, with 26% (Ireland) to 65% (Spain) describing that remission realistically involves "living without symptoms." Within each country, more patients (45%-69%) than physicians (28%-45%) considered ulcerative colitis symptoms to affect patients' quality of life. Mean number of patient-reported flares during the past year ranged from 2.5 in Ireland to 8.0 in France. Self-reported adherence with oral 5-aminosalicylic acid (during remission) was highest in Spain (91% vs 50%-73% across other countries). Spanish patients were more likely to self-adjust their medications (54% vs 2%-5%), but reported the most dissatisfaction with therapy (42% vs 9%-27%). Irish patients were least likely to arrange physician/specialist nurse visits (14% vs 36%-49%) and least open to discussion of their condition. CONCLUSIONS: Important national differences in ulcerative colitis patients' attitudes and perceptions were observed, which may help physicians improve patient care based on country-specific needs and influence self-assessments in clinical trials. The results suggest a need for structured patient education to improve adherence and outcomes. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 37 (3 ULg)
Adalimumab improves patient-reported outcomes and reduces indirect costs in patients with moderate to severe Crohn's disease: Results from the CARE trial.
LOUIS, Edouard ; ; et al
in Journal of Crohn’s and Colitis (2013), 7
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Crohn's disease negatively affects patients' quality of life and ability to work. We investigated the impact of adalimumab on work productivity, daily activities, and quality of life ... [more ▼]
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Crohn's disease negatively affects patients' quality of life and ability to work. We investigated the impact of adalimumab on work productivity, daily activities, and quality of life in an open-label trial (N=945). The population comprised both infliximab-naive and -exposed patients, including infliximab primary non-responders. METHODS: Patients received adalimumab induction therapy (160mg/80mg at Weeks 0/2), followed by adalimumab 40mg every other week for up to 20weeks (patients with flares/non-response could receive 40mg weekly at/after Week 12). The Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire and Short Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire were assessed. Indirect cost savings were estimated based on the average work productivity improvements at Week 20. RESULTS: Mean baseline scores indicated severe productivity impairment and poor quality of life. At Week 20, 60% of infliximab-naive and 47% of infliximab primary non-responders achieved clinically important improvements (>/=9 points) on the Short Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire, and 51% and 43%, respectively, achieved the minimum clinically important difference (improvement >/=7 percentage points) for total work productivity impairment (non-responder imputation). At Week 20, 64% of infliximab-naive and 55% of infliximab primary non-responders achieved clinically important improvements in total activity impairment. Estimated 20-week total indirect productivity-related cost savings were euro3070 per infliximab-naive patient and euro2059 per infliximab-exposed patient. CONCLUSIONS: Adalimumab therapy significantly improved work productivity and disease-specific quality of life for patients with moderate to severe Crohn's disease. Patients who failed prior infliximab therapy and patients naive to infliximab benefited from adalimumab, with potentially greater benefits for infliximab-naive patients (NCT00409617). [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 31 (1 ULg)
Adalimumab dose escalation and dose de-escalation success rate and predictors in a large national cohort of Crohn's patients.
; ; et al
in Journal of Crohn’s and Colitis (2013), 7(2),
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Adalimumab is efficacious in inducing and maintaining remission in Crohn's disease but dose escalation is needed in 30-40% after 1year. Attempts for dose de-escalation have not been ... [more ▼]
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Adalimumab is efficacious in inducing and maintaining remission in Crohn's disease but dose escalation is needed in 30-40% after 1year. Attempts for dose de-escalation have not been studied. This study aimed to assess the need for, predictors, and outcome of dose escalation and de-escalation in a large cohort of adalimumab treated Crohn's patients. METHODS: All consecutive patients treated with open label adalimumab for active Crohn's disease from the participating centres were included in this cohort study. A detailed retrospective chart review was performed to look for possible factors predicting outcome. RESULTS: Eighty four percent of 720 patients had a primary response and were followed up for a median of 14months. Thirty four percent needed escalation after a median of 7months (0-55months). Multivariate predictors for dose escalation were the following: prior anti-TNF use (p<0.0001), no concomitant azathioprine or <3m (p<0.02) and abnormal CRP at start (p<0.05). Dose escalation re-induced response for at least 6months in 67%. Only abnormal CRP at start correlated with failure of dose escalation (p=0.02). Dose de-escalation was attempted in 54% and was successful in 63%. After a median follow-up of 14m adalimumab was discontinued in 29% of patients. CONCLUSION: In this study real life nationwide cohort of Crohn's patients treated with adalimumab dose escalation was needed in 34% and was successful in 67%. Dose de-escalation was attempted in 54% and was successful in 63%. Overall 71% of patients maintained long term response on adalimumab. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 24 (4 ULg)
Commentary: predicting complicated Crohn's disease and surgery--phenotypes, genetics, serology and psychological characteristics of a population-based cohort.
; LOUIS, Edouard
in Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics (2013), 38(5), 555-6Detailed reference viewed: 34 (8 ULg)
Vedolizumab as induction and maintenance therapy for Crohn's disease.
; ; et al
in The New England journal of medicine (2013), 369(8), 711-21
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of vedolizumab, an alpha4beta7 integrin antibody, in Crohn's disease is unknown. METHODS: In an integrated study with separate induction and maintenance trials, we assessed ... [more ▼]
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of vedolizumab, an alpha4beta7 integrin antibody, in Crohn's disease is unknown. METHODS: In an integrated study with separate induction and maintenance trials, we assessed intravenous vedolizumab therapy (300 mg) in adults with active Crohn's disease. In the induction trial, 368 patients were randomly assigned to receive vedolizumab or placebo at weeks 0 and 2 (cohort 1), and 747 patients received open-label vedolizumab at weeks 0 and 2 (cohort 2); disease status was assessed at week 6. In the maintenance trial, 461 patients who had had a response to vedolizumab were randomly assigned to receive placebo or vedolizumab every 8 or 4 weeks until week 52. RESULTS: At week 6, a total of 14.5% of the patients in cohort 1 who received vedolizumab and 6.8% who received placebo were in clinical remission (i.e., had a score on the Crohn's Disease Activity Index [CDAI] of </=150, with scores ranging from 0 to approximately 600 and higher scores indicating greater disease activity) (P=0.02); a total of 31.4% and 25.7% of the patients, respectively, had a CDAI-100 response (>/=100-point decrease in the CDAI score) (P=0.23). Among patients in cohorts 1 and 2 who had a response to induction therapy, 39.0% and 36.4% of those assigned to vedolizumab every 8 weeks and every 4 weeks, respectively, were in clinical remission at week 52, as compared with 21.6% assigned to placebo (P<0.001 and P=0.004 for the two vedolizumab groups, respectively, vs. placebo). Antibodies against vedolizumab developed in 4.0% of the patients. Nasopharyngitis occurred more frequently, and headache and abdominal pain less frequently, in patients receiving vedolizumab than in patients receiving placebo. Vedolizumab, as compared with placebo, was associated with a higher rate of serious adverse events (24.4% vs. 15.3%), infections (44.1% vs. 40.2%), and serious infections (5.5% vs. 3.0%). CONCLUSIONS: Vedolizumab-treated patients with active Crohn's disease were more likely than patients receiving placebo to have a remission, but not a CDAI-100 response, at week 6; patients with a response to induction therapy who continued to receive vedolizumab (rather than switching to placebo) were more likely to be in remission at week 52. Adverse events were more common with vedolizumab. (Funded by Millennium Pharmaceuticals; GEMINI 2 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00783692.). [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 53 (1 ULg)
Maladie de Crohn et entero-IRM evaluation de l'activite de la maladie et du dommage tissulaire.
; Louis, Edouard ;
in Revue medicale suisse (2013), 9(395), 1502-6
Crohn's disease is an inflammatory bowel disease that affects mainly young people and includes periods of remission interspersed with occasional flare-ups. Entero-MR (Magnetic Resonance) is a non ... [more ▼]
Crohn's disease is an inflammatory bowel disease that affects mainly young people and includes periods of remission interspersed with occasional flare-ups. Entero-MR (Magnetic Resonance) is a non-radiating and a non-invasive tomography imaging technique. Entero-MR has recently proven its ability to assess inflammatory activity and structural damage of the bowel in Crohn's disease which are fundamental elements in the therapy planning. These considerations explain why entero-MR is playing an increasing role in the evaluation of Crohn's disease. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 96 (16 ULg)
Serum adalimumab concentration and clinical remission in patients with Crohn's disease.
; ; et al
in Inflammatory bowel diseases (2013), 19(6), 1112-22
BACKGROUND: Drug concentration monitoring may be useful to guide therapeutic adjustments for anti-tumor necrosis factor agents in Crohn's disease. The relationship between serum adalimumab concentrations ... [more ▼]
BACKGROUND: Drug concentration monitoring may be useful to guide therapeutic adjustments for anti-tumor necrosis factor agents in Crohn's disease. The relationship between serum adalimumab concentrations and clinical outcomes was assessed using data from CLinical Assessment of Adalimumab Safety and Efficacy Studied as Induction Therapy in Crohn's Disease (CLASSIC) I/II. METHODS: Serum adalimumab concentrations at week 4 of CLASSIC I and weeks 4, 24, and 56 of CLASSIC II were compared by clinical remission status (yes/no). Logistic regression and Classification and Regression Tree analyses explored factors associated with remission at weeks 4, 24, and 56. Threshold analyses and receiver operating characteristic curves evaluated the relationship between serum concentrations and clinical remission/response. RESULTS: Serum adalimumab concentrations for 275 patients were available. Median adalimumab concentrations were significantly higher in patients who achieved clinical remission than those who did not at week 4 of CLASSIC I (8.10 versus 5.05 microg/mL, P < 0.05). At all time points, adalimumab concentrations demonstrated considerable variability and overlap between patients with and without remission. With Classification and Regression Tree analyses, baseline Crohn's Disease Activity Index, baseline C-reactive protein, and adalimumab concentrations were associated with early remission at week 4 of CLASSIC I and week 4 of CLASSIC II, but not at weeks 24 and 56. Receiver operating characteristic curves demonstrated low utility of cutoff thresholds to discriminate by clinical response/remission status. CONCLUSIONS: A positive association between serum adalimumab concentration and remission was identified at several time points. A threshold concentration reliably associated with remission was not identified. Further prospective evaluations are needed before recommendations for adalimumab concentration monitoring can be made. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 115 (1 ULg)
Role of endoscopy, cross-sectional imaging and biomarkers in Crohn's disease monitoring.
; Meuwis, Marie-Alice ; et al
in Gut (2013), 62(12), 1806-16
Crohn's disease is characterised by recurrent and/or chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract leading to cumulative intestinal tissue damage. Treatment tailoring to try to prevent this tissue ... [more ▼]
Crohn's disease is characterised by recurrent and/or chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract leading to cumulative intestinal tissue damage. Treatment tailoring to try to prevent this tissue damage as well as achieve optimal benefit/risk ratio over the whole disease course is becoming an important aspect of Crohn's disease management. For decades, clinical symptoms have been the main trigger for diagnostic procedures and treatment strategy adaptations. However, the correlation between symptoms and intestinal lesions is only weak. Furthermore, preliminary evidence suggests that a state of remission beyond the simple control of clinical symptoms, and including mucosal healing, may be associated with better disease outcome. Therefore monitoring the disease through the use of endoscopy and cross-sectional imaging is proposed. However, the degree of mucosal or bowel wall healing that needs to be reached to improve disease outcome has not been appropriately studied. Furthermore, owing to their invasive nature and cost, endoscopy and cross-sectional imaging are not optimal tools for the patients or the payers. The use of biomarkers as surrogate markers of intestinal and systemic inflammation might help. Two biomarkers have been most broadly assessed in Crohn's disease: C-reactive protein and faecal calprotectin. These markers correlate significantly with endoscopic lesions, with the risk of relapse and with response to therapy. They could be used to help make decisions about diagnostic procedures and treatment. In particular, with the use of appropriate threshold values, they could determine the need for endoscopic or medical imaging procedures to confirm the disease activity state. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 140 (5 ULg)
Strategic use of immunosuppressants and anti-TNF in inflammatory bowel disease.
in Digestive diseases (Basel, Switzerland) (2013), 31(2), 207-12
Controlled trials and meta-analyses have shown that immunosuppressants are effective in steroid-dependent Crohn's disease (CD) and, although less well demonstrated, ulcerative colitis (UC). It has also ... [more ▼]
Controlled trials and meta-analyses have shown that immunosuppressants are effective in steroid-dependent Crohn's disease (CD) and, although less well demonstrated, ulcerative colitis (UC). It has also been demonstrated that anti-TNF are effective in steroid-dependent and steroid-refractory CD and UC. Anti-TNF can also decrease hospitalization rate and the need for surgery. This seems also to be the case for immunosuppressants. The early use of anti-TNF seems more effective than later use, and early mucosal healing is associated with decreased rate of surgery. On the contrary, early use of purine analogues does not seem to improve outcome in CD. Anti-TNF therapies have been shown superior to immunosuppressants and combination therapy superior to anti-TNF monotherapy in inducing steroid-free remission and mucosal healing. The main strategic questions which remain at this stage include: When to start immunosuppressants or anti-TNF? Is there still a place for immunosuppressant monotherapy? How to optimize anti-TNF? Is it possible to stop anti-TNF? The main justification of immunosuppressant monotherapy is the low cost of this treatment and the possibility of achieving a very stable and long-standing remission in a subset of patients. According to this and provided there is no rapid need for more effective therapy, this treatment could be tried in any inflammatory bowel disease patient not correctly maintained after a course of steroids and 5-aminosalicylic acid. However, the failure to respond to this treatment should be recognized early and a step up to anti-TNF considered. An anti-TNF treatment should be considered early in patients at risk of rapid evolution towards tissue damage and complications. The benefit/risk of the immunosuppressant + anti-TNF combination therapy should be assessed on a case-by-case basis. Anti-TNF treatment should always be fully optimized by adapting dosage and potentially adding an immunosuppressant before considering treatment failure. Treatment de-escalation should only be considered when a long-standing stable remission has been achieved both clinically and biologically. The cost sparing and theoretical decrease in complication risk should be put in perspective with the risk of relapse and disease progression. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 54 (8 ULg)