References of "Losson, Bertrand"
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See detailBreeding sites of bluetongue virus vectors, Belgium
Zimmer, Jean-Yves ULg; Saegerman, Claude ULg; Losson, Bertrand ULg et al

in Emerging Infectious Diseases (2010), 16(3), 575-576

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See detailA clear and present danger tick borne diseases in Europe
Heyman, P.; Cochez, C.; Hofhuis, A. et al

in Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy (2010), 8(1), 33-50

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See detailBiting midges (Ceratopogonidae: Culicoïdes) in Belgium: a comparison between indoor and outdoor trapping in cattle and sheep farms.
Losson, Bertrand ULg; Robert, Nancy ULg; Paternostre, Julien ULg et al

Conference (2009, August)

Bluetongue, a vector born disease of ruminants, was identified for the first time in Northern Europe in 2006. The vectors are insects of the family Ceratopogonidae, genus Culicoides. In Belgium, no recent ... [more ▼]

Bluetongue, a vector born disease of ruminants, was identified for the first time in Northern Europe in 2006. The vectors are insects of the family Ceratopogonidae, genus Culicoides. In Belgium, no recent data were available about the biology of these insects including their feeding habits and behaviour. The present study was carried out in order to evaluate the indoor and outdoor activity of these Diptera in 5 different cattle or sheep farms in 2008. Two sheep and 3 cattle farms were selected in the Province of Luxembourg, Belgium. In each farm 2 Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute (OVI) traps were installed respectively inside and outside the animal accommodation. Trapping was carried out twice a week from 17:00 until 24:00.The collecting vials were replaced every hour. A portable suction trap (BackTrap® U.S.A) was used twice on each visit to collect midges on the animals. In each farm the study was carried out for 6 successive weeks, 2 farms being monitored together. The study began on July 28th and ended on November 30th 2008. A total of 2591 culicoides were trapped. A majority of those (88.76%) were trapped indoors whereas 10.03% were trapped outdoors and 1.21% directly on the animals. The ambient temperature had a marked effect very few culicoides being trapped below 13°C. Three main species or species complex were identified both indoors and outdoors: C. obsoletus/scoticus, C. dewulfi, C. chiopterus. They represented 98.93% and 85.03% indoors and outdoors respectively. On the animals only C. obsoletus/scoticus and C. dewulfi were found. [less ▲]

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See detailScabies in a llama (Lama glama): control with moxidectin long acting (Cydectin®LA)
Caron, Yannick ULg; Cavadino, Céline; Losson, Bertrand ULg

Poster (2009, June 29)

An adult neutered male llama (Lama glama) was presented for examination with a history of a severe long lasting (3 years) and recurrent itch and crust formation. Three years ago, scabies had been ... [more ▼]

An adult neutered male llama (Lama glama) was presented for examination with a history of a severe long lasting (3 years) and recurrent itch and crust formation. Three years ago, scabies had been diagnosed by a local vet on the basis of clinical signs; the animal was treated several times with ivermectin (Ivomec®) injectable and phoxim (Sarnacuran®). After each treatment there was a marked clinical improvement but relapse was the rule within 1 to 2 months. During the two years preceeding our first visit the animal had received local applications of Sarnacuran every two to three weeks wich resulted in incomplete control. None of the owners had reported skin lesions compatible with scabies. On February 27th 2009 the animal showed a marked pruritus accompanied by very thick scabs and alopecia on the face (around the mouth and ears), shoulders, forelegs, hindlegs, abdomen, flanks and the tail. Clinical examination revealed a fairly good general condition. Abnormalities were limited to the skin. Skin scrapings were taken and numerous Sarcoptes scabiei mites were subsequently detected microscopically. Sedation and analgesia were performed via the intramuscular administration of xylazine (Vexylan®) at 0.5 mg/kg. The scabs were humidified with a camomile infusion and a maximum of material was removed and destroyed. Then the llama was treated with 10% moxidectin (Cydectin LA®) at 1 mg/kg by subcutaneous injection at the basis of the ear. On April 6th 2009, a very marked clinical improvement was observed: most of the scabs had dissapeared and hair regrowth in previously alopecic area was observed. Skin scrapings were negative. However, some pruritus was still observed and a second treatment with Cydectin LA was given. According to the owner who was contacted by phone in early May the clinical condition of the animal has further improved. A final visit is planned to assess the clinical and parasitological cure in this S. scabiei infected llama. At our knowledge, this is the first time Cydecin LA is used in llama for the treatment of scabies. [less ▲]

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See detailQuantification of pigeon circovirus in serum, blood, semen and different tissues of naturally infected pigeons using a real-time polymerase chain reaction
Duchatel, Jean-Pierre ULg; Todd, D; Willeman, C et al

in Avian Pathology : Journal of the W.V.P.A (2009), 38(2), 143-148

The development of a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on SYBR Green chemistry is described for the quantification of pigeon circovirus (PiCV) DNA in various samples. Plasmid containing a ... [more ▼]

The development of a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on SYBR Green chemistry is described for the quantification of pigeon circovirus (PiCV) DNA in various samples. Plasmid containing a fragment of the PiCV genome was used to create a standard curve and to estimate the viral DNA copies in analysed samples. Both primers were designed in highly conserved regions to avoid false negatives, and amplified a 139-base-pair amplicon. When the amplifications were performed in the presence of cellular DNA extracted from PCR-negative liver, bursa and spleen samples, the detection limits were respectively 20, 20 and 60 copies of genome per milligram of tissue. These limits were 10, 160 and 25 copies/ml for control blood, sera and semen, respectively. For cloacal swab, the detection limit was 200 copies. The assay showed a <br />linear detection over a six-log range (R2 0.99) and displayed reliable inter-assay and intra-assay reproducibility. Application of the test to sera samples indicated the presence of the virus in Belgium in 1991, 6 years before PiCV infections were histologically diagnosed. Testing of samples from pigeons with <br />‘‘young pigeon sickness’’ showed that the viral loads were high in the bursa of Fabricius (up to 2.07 x 10^9 copies/mg), the liver (up to 2.88x10^8 copies/mg) and spleen (up to 5.57x10^8 copies/mg). For liver, the viral load was significantly higher in sick pigeons than in apparently healthy pigeons. Detection of high quantities of PiCV DNA (up to 1.6x10^9 copies/ml) in the sera or blood of some young healthy pigeons <br />indicated that the viral load in this sample type would not be useful as predictive indicator of disease. This work also showed that PiCV DNA can be detected in relatively large amounts in semen (up to 1.0x10^7 copies/ejaculate) and cloacal swabs (up to 3.6x10^10 copies/swab), confirming that PiCV may be transmitted by vertical and horizontal routes. [less ▲]

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See detailThe carriage of larval Echinococcus multilocularis and other cestodes by the musk rat (Ondatra zibethicus) along the Ourthe river and its tributaries (Belgium)
Mathy, Anne ULg; Hanosset, Régis; Adant, S. et al

in Journal of Wildlife Diseases (2009), 45

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See detailSubversion of complement by hematophagous parasites
SCHROEDER, Hélène ULg; SKELLY, PJ; ZIPFEL, PF et al

in Developmental & Comparative Immunology (2009), 33(1), 5-13

The complement system is a crucial part of innate and adaptive immunity which exerts a significant evolutionary pressure on pathogens. It has selected for those pathogens, mainly microorganisms but also ... [more ▼]

The complement system is a crucial part of innate and adaptive immunity which exerts a significant evolutionary pressure on pathogens. It has selected for those pathogens, mainly microorganisms but also parasites, that have evolved countermeasures. The characterization of how pathogens evade complement attack is a rapidly developing field of current research. In recent years, multiple complement evasion strategies have been characterized. In this review, we focus on complement escape mechanisms expressed by hematophagous parasites, a heterogeneous group of metazoan parasites that share the property of ingesting the whole blood of their host. Complement inhibition is crucial for parasite survival within the host tissue or to facilitate blood feeding. Finally, complement inhibition by hematophagous parasites may also contribute to their success as pathogen vectors. [less ▲]

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See detailFirst isolation of Parafilaria bovicola from clinically affected cattle in Belgium
Losson, Bertrand ULg; Saegerman, Claude ULg

in Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association (2009), 164

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See detailEcologie et distribution des espèces de Culicoides Latreille 1809 (Diptera : Ceratopogonidae) à proximité d’une exploitation bovine en Belgique
Zimmer, Jean-Yves ULg; Losson, Bertrand ULg; Saegerman, Claude ULg et al

in Annales de la Société Entomologique de France (2009), 45(3), 393-400

Bluetongue is a non-contagious disease that affects domestic and wild ruminants. Since its spreading to Northern Europe in 2006, this viral epizooty caused considerable economical losses on the ovine and ... [more ▼]

Bluetongue is a non-contagious disease that affects domestic and wild ruminants. Since its spreading to Northern Europe in 2006, this viral epizooty caused considerable economical losses on the ovine and bovine livestock. The biological vectors of the bluetongue virus (BTV) are biting midges belonging to the genus Culicoides. Many elements still remain unknown about their biology, physiology, ecology and distribution. This study shows that these biting midges are much more abundant on farm level than in the nearby meadows; these last ones nevertheless present a much more specifi c diversity. So possibility of migration between the meadow and the farm is voiced for the C. chiopterus and C. dewulfi species. Females are much more represented than males for the farm and the meadow alike. The physiology observation of these ones is realized throughout the study. [less ▲]

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See detailBluetongue Virus Detection By Real-Time Rt-Pcr In Culicoides Captured During The 2006 Epizootic In Belgium And Development Of An Internal Control
Vanbinst, T.; Vandenbussche, F.; Vandemeulebroucke, E. et al

in Transboundary and Emerging Diseases (2009), 56(5), 170-177

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See detailFirst isolation of Parafilaria bovicola from clinically affected cattle in Belgium.
Losson, Bertrand ULg; Saegerman, Claude ULg

in Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association (2009), 164(20), 623-6

The observation of the first two outbreaks of bovine parafilariosis in Belgium led to a preliminary epidemiological investigation conducted through a telephone survey among veterinarians in a limited area ... [more ▼]

The observation of the first two outbreaks of bovine parafilariosis in Belgium led to a preliminary epidemiological investigation conducted through a telephone survey among veterinarians in a limited area around the outbreaks. Typical clinical signs consisting of bleeding spots and areas of oedema were recorded, and the aetiology was confirmed through the observation of typical embryonated eggs of Parafilaria bovicola in the exudate. The localisation of the lesions on the withers, neck, back and, to a smaller extent, the rump of the animals, and their first appearance in early spring, were additional useful epidemiological observations. The clinical herd prevalence in the area was 14.1 per cent (95 per cent confidence interval 11.3 to 17.2 per cent), suggesting that bovine parafilariosis is established in the area. [less ▲]

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See detailFirst epidemiological study on exposure to Neospora caninum in different canine populations in the Algiers District (Algeria)
Ghalmi, F.; China, B.; Kaïdi, R. et al

in Parasitology International (2009), 58(4), 444-450

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See detailImmunization and Dermatophytes
Mignon, Bernard ULg; Tabart, Jérémy; Baldo, Aline ULg et al

in Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases (2008), 21(2), 134-140

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite the availability of effective vaccines for certain animal species, vaccination against dermatophytosis requires improvement and further development in both animals and humans ... [more ▼]

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite the availability of effective vaccines for certain animal species, vaccination against dermatophytosis requires improvement and further development in both animals and humans. This review provides an update on the current situation and focuses on recent advances in host-dermatophyte relationships that could have implications for future vaccination against the most prevalent of the fungal diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Numerous dermatophytic virulence factors have recently been isolated and characterized at the molecular level, notably secreted proteases involved in the invasion of the keratin network. Their precise roles in the different steps of the infectious process and in immunopathogenesis are being studied, while all aspects of the host immune response against dermatophytes, including the innate response, are becoming increasingly documented. In addition, new molecular tools are now available for studying dermatophytes, which will accelerate research on this topic. SUMMARY: The growth of knowledge concerning all aspects of the host-dermatophyte relationship should contribute towards sound strategies for the development of effective and safe vaccines against dermatophytosis. [less ▲]

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See detailEchinococcus Multilocularis in Belgium: Prevalence in Red Foxes (Vulpes Vulpes) and in Different Species of Potential Intermediate Hosts
Hanosset, R.; Saegerman, Claude ULg; Adant, S. et al

in Veterinary Parasitology (2008), 151(2-4), 212-7

Echinococcus multilocularis causes a rare but potentially lethal zoonotic infection in humans. This tapeworm is known to be endemic in foxes in several countries of Western and Central Europe. In Western ... [more ▼]

Echinococcus multilocularis causes a rare but potentially lethal zoonotic infection in humans. This tapeworm is known to be endemic in foxes in several countries of Western and Central Europe. In Western Europe, the common vole (Microtus arvalis) and the water vole (Arvicola terrestris) are considered to be the most important intermediate host species of this cestode whereas the red fox is by far the most important final host. The purpose of this study was to provide data on the prevalences in Wallonia (Southern part of Belgium) both in the red fox and in different potential intermediate hosts. A total of 990 red foxes were examined between January 2003 and December 2004 for the presence of E. multilocularis. The average prevalence was 24.55% (22.38-27.87). Out of 1249 rodents or insectivores belonging to the species Apodemus sylvaticus, Arvicola terrestris, Clethrionomys glareolus, Microtus arvalis, Microtus agrestris and Sorex araneus, only one M. arvalis (out of 914-0.11% (0.003-0.61) and one C. glareolus (out of 23-4.3% (0.1-21.9) were found to be infected. However, the muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus) seems to be a good intermediate host as 11.18% (9.72-12.76) of the animals (n=1718) were found to be infected. A positive correlation was found between the prevalences in foxes and in muskrats in each of the different geological regions. This study indicates that the muskrat is highly sensitive to this zoonotic tapeworm and could perhaps represent a good bioindicator when studying the epidemiology of this parasitic infection in Belgium and in other countries where the muskrat is present. [less ▲]

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See detailDermatitis in a horse associated with the poultry mite (Dermanyssus gallinae)
Mignon, Bernard ULg; Losson, Bertrand ULg

in Veterinary Dermatology (2008), 19(1), 38-43

This is the first documented case report of dermatitis associated with the poultry mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) in a horse. It occurred in a 16-year-old horse that was in contact with domestic hens ... [more ▼]

This is the first documented case report of dermatitis associated with the poultry mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) in a horse. It occurred in a 16-year-old horse that was in contact with domestic hens. Clinical signs consisted of severe pruritus, with self-induced hair loss mainly on the head. Despite the multiple skin scrapings performed during both day- and nighttime, mites were only isolated from the in-contact poultry and from the horse's environment, and not the horse. The animal was treated using a 2% permethrin solution, sprayed on the entire body once a week for 4 weeks, and by decontamination of the horse's immediate environment. Although eradication of the mites and elimination of further contact between the horse and the poultry were not achievable, recurrence of dermatitis was prevented by regular applications of permethrin on the horse and biannual decontamination of the horse's stable. [less ▲]

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See detailThe detection and quantification of a digenean infection in the snail host with special emphasis on Fasciola sp.
Caron, Yannick ULg; Rondelaud, Daniel; Losson, Bertrand ULg

in Parasitology Research (2008), 103(4), 735-44

In this review, ten methods used to study digenean infections in their intermediate hosts were compared to determine which one should be used either in the field or in the lab to establish the prevalence ... [more ▼]

In this review, ten methods used to study digenean infections in their intermediate hosts were compared to determine which one should be used either in the field or in the lab to establish the prevalence and intensity of infections in snails. Snail crushing and snail dissection allow quick establishing of prevalence in natural or experimental infections, whereas histology is considered as the most accurate approach to assess the intensity of infection. The follow-up of cercarial shedding only gave an idea on cercarial production. Among recently developed techniques, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) brings the most accurate information and shows high sensitivity and specificity levels when compared to blotting techniques. The easiness and relatively low cost of the basic PCR protocol make it interesting to investigate the epidemiology of the liver fluke in a lab with limited financial resources. Nevertheless, if this technique allows a relatively good estimation of the prevalence, information concerning the intensity of infection is best obtained through real time PCR. However, at the time being this technique is too expensive to be used routinely in the field. The choice between classical or new techniques is usually based on a compromise, as each technique has its advantages and drawbacks. [less ▲]

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