References of "Lognay, Georges"
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See detailAnt-aphid mutualism - Implication of honeydew microflora
Fischer, Christophe ULg; Piraux, Olivier; Lognay, Georges ULg et al

Conference (2012, July)

Some ant and aphid species can present a mutualistic relationship, ants using aphid honeydew as sugar source and in exchange providing the aphid colony cleaning and protection. From a behavioral point of ... [more ▼]

Some ant and aphid species can present a mutualistic relationship, ants using aphid honeydew as sugar source and in exchange providing the aphid colony cleaning and protection. From a behavioral point of view, this phenomenon has been well studied from decades. However, its chemistry and semiochemical mechanisms are still largely unknown. This study aims to identify semiochemicals involved in the establishment of this relation, using both chemical and behavioral approaches. Bioassays revealed that the greatest part of ant attraction toward aphid colonies is due to honeydew volatile compounds; enabling ant scouts to find more quickly aphid colonies and distantly recognize myrmecophilous species. Many of those VOCs seeming to have microbial origins, the main honeydew microorganisms have been isolated and their roles in VOCs production and ant attraction have been investigated. It appeared that honeydew microflora holds a key role in the establishment of ant-aphids mutualistic relationship. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of semiochemical slow-release formulations as biological control devices
Heuskin, Stéphanie ULg; Lorge, Stéphanie ULg; Leroy, Pascal ULg et al

Poster (2012, July)

Semiochemicals have been widely considered within various integrated pest management (IPM) strategies. In the present work, two sesquiterpenoids, E-β-farnesene and E-β-caryophyllene, were formulated for ... [more ▼]

Semiochemicals have been widely considered within various integrated pest management (IPM) strategies. In the present work, two sesquiterpenoids, E-β-farnesene and E-β-caryophyllene, were formulated for their related properties as aphid enemy attractants. E-β-farnesene, the alarm pheromone of many aphid species, was also identified as a kairomone of aphid predators (Episyrphus balteatus De Geer (Diptera: Syrphidae)) and parasitoids (Aphidius ervi Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)). E-β-caryophyllene was identified as a potential component of the aggregation pheromone of the Asian ladybird, Harmonia axyridis Pallas, another aphid predator. The two products were purified from essential oils of Matricaria chamomilla L. (Asteraceae) and Nepeta cataria L. (Lamiaceae) for E-β-farnesene and E-β-caryophyllene, respectively. Natural and biodegradable slow-release formulations were then investigated in order to deliver these molecules on crop fields for a long period of time as biological control devices. Due to their sensitivity to oxidation, both sesquiterpenes needed to be protected from degradation. For this purpose, alginate – hydrophilic matrix with low oxygen permeability – was used as polymer for the formulations: the main objective was to deliver semiochemical substances in the air in a controlled way. Consequently, a careful selection of alginates was realised. Formulated beads showed different structural and encapsulation properties depending on various formulation factors. Alginate formulations were characterized by texturometry and by confocal microscopy in order to observe the distribution of semiochemicals in alginate network. The last step of alginate bead characterisation consisted in studying release rate of semiochemicals in laboratory-controlled conditions by optimised trapping and validated Fast-GC procedures. Finally, the efficiency of formulations as aphid predator (Syrphidae) and parasitoid (A. ervi) attractants was demonstrated by field trapping and olfactometry experiments. [less ▲]

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See detailExpanding on olfactory communication in a butterfly: cuticular chemicals indicate sex and age in Bicyclus anynana
Heuskin, Stéphanie ULg; Kaltenpoth, M.; Engl, T. et al

in International Society of Chemical Ecology, 28th Annual Meeting. Abstracts (2012, July)

Chemical (olfactory or gustatory) communication is fundamental to most living organisms but widely understudied compared to other channels of communication such as vision and audition, principally in ... [more ▼]

Chemical (olfactory or gustatory) communication is fundamental to most living organisms but widely understudied compared to other channels of communication such as vision and audition, principally in sexual selection . Here we present the first extensive analysis of cuticular chemical diversity in a butterfly, and investigate whether molecules inform potential mating partners about sex and age. Bicyclus anynana was chosen for its well-known potentialities as a lab model in eco-evo-devo studies , . Chemical interactions have been investigated so far in this species with focus on volatile olfactory components: male sexual pheromones composition and their roles in sexual selection , , their change in ratio with male age, inbreeding coefficient, and other factors . Here we aim completing the picture fully and focus on gustatory non-volatile cuticular chemical diversity in this model species. Indeed, as for Drosophila, the courtship of this butterfly is composed of a series of steps that include short-range interactions during which various chemicals may be involved in mate-choice, through olfactory but also gustatory channels of communication (Nieberding et al., data not published). More than hundred cuticular chemicals were identified and quantified by GC-MS analyses on different parts (abdomen, antennae, head, legs and wings) of B. anynana individuals (n=42, 210 GC-MS analyses) of each sex and at different ages (from 1 to 21 days old). The analysis of the chemical distribution was realised by multivariate statistical analyses (perMANOVA). The results led to the conclusion that some cuticular chemicals are indicative for the body parts and can inform about sex and age. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of mineral intake between children from endemic and non-endemic areas for Kashin-Beck disease in Tibet Autonomous Region: Pilote study
DERMIENCE, Michael ULg; Maesen, Philippe ULg; Mathieu, Françoise et al

Poster (2012, June 01)

Background The Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) is an endemic and chronic osteochondropathy affecting between 0.74 million and 2.5 million people in the Tibet Autonomous Region and in several provinces of the ... [more ▼]

Background The Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) is an endemic and chronic osteochondropathy affecting between 0.74 million and 2.5 million people in the Tibet Autonomous Region and in several provinces of the People’s Republic of China. The etiology remains unclear, although a multifactorial hypothesis has been proposed (selenium/iodine deficiency; high concentration of organic matters in drinking water; and mycotoxin poisoning by fungi infecting cereals). The rural population is almost exclusively affected. Objectives The first objective of this study was to assess and to compare the mineral daily intake between Tibetan preschool children living in endemic areas for the Kashin-Beck disease and those living in non-endemic areas. A second objective was the comparison of children daily intakes with Chinese Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). The third objective was to estimate a sample size for a cross-sectional survey aiming to highlight significant differences in mineral intakes between the two groups of preschool children. Materials and Methods Ten Tibetan preschool children were enrolled per group (endemic/non-endemic) for this pilot study. Children had to be weaned and those living in endemic area must have a KBD sibling. The nutrition survey consisted in an interactive simplified 24-hour recall questionnaire. Two 24-hour recalls were recorded for the endemic group, in February 2010 (EAw) and in May 2010 (EAs), while one day has been recorded for the non-endemic group in July 2011 (NEA). At the same time, samples of the main staple foods were collected for chemical analysis. The daily intakes of Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mn were calculated based on the 24-hour recall records, the chemical analyses, and data from food composition tables (FCTs). Results and discussion We are aware of limitations in the methodological approach of this pilot-study. The number of children, although weak, was empirically decided for the sake of feasibility and because no prior information was available. The interactive 24-hour recalls between the two groups are spaced in time. Nevertheless, the diet of rural Tibetans is far from diversified, and the variability among seasons and years is probably low. Daily intakes in Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn were calculated for children of each group. Parametric test were applied for comparison of mean daily intakes between groups. A significant difference was highlighted for Cu (p-value<0.01) and Fe (p-value<0.05), no other significant difference was detected. When comparing individual daily intakes and Chinese DRIs, the most striking results concern Ca and Mn. The great majority of children showed severe deficiency in calcium and enormous excess in manganese. A power (1-β) of 80% is commonly accepted when estimating a sample size for a cross-sectional survey. In this case, the maximum sample size is too high and not feasible in practice (several hundred children per group). Oppositely, the power was calculated per mineral, based on 100 children per group. The power is higher than 90% for Mg, Fe, and Cu. For the others minerals, the power is well below 80%. Nevertheless, general deficiencies and excesses have been observed in the two groups for part of these minerals. We believe that it is a statement in itself and trying to highlight small differences between groups in such extremes is not relevant. [less ▲]

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See detailDo root-emitted volatile organic compounds interact with wireworms?
Barsics, Fanny ULg; Gfeller, Aurélie ULg; Laloux, Morgan ULg et al

Scientific conference (2012, May 22)

Wireworms are the soil dwelling larvae of click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae). Their importance as crop pests increases since the efficient chemical means to control them cannot be considered anymore ... [more ▼]

Wireworms are the soil dwelling larvae of click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae). Their importance as crop pests increases since the efficient chemical means to control them cannot be considered anymore. Therefore, many integrated pest management strategies have been investigated in the past few years. Most of them rely on the understanding of the ecology of the click beetles during their whole life cycle. We focus our work on the chemical ecology of wireworms, more precisely on the root-emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that might intervene in the food-searching process of the larvae by helping them to find a suitable host-plant or by acting as key factors in the belowground defence mechanism of the plant. Here, we present our first results of dual-choice orientation tests in olfactometric pipes. Wireworms (Agriotes sordidus Illiger) were submitted individually to a variety of olfactory baits ranging from entire barley roots (Hordeum vulgare L. var. Quench) to isolated VOCs identified as part of the emitting profile. The latter was described thanks to HS-SPME samplings and GC-MS analysis, for roots grown in the exact same conditions as for the olfactometric experimentations with entire roots. Most of the experimentations gave significant results. When confronted to volatiles emitted by entire roots, wireworms significantly orientated towards the bait (χ²-goodness-of-fit test, χ²=8, P-value=0.005). This result allowed us to follow up with the same device and to progressively vary the nature of the baits. Our protocol should be used for other plant-wireworm species combinations. Our results should be taken into account in varietal selection, in crop rotation, or in trapping systems aiming at the reduction of the populations of wireworms. [less ▲]

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See detailFactors involved in the aggregation of Harmonia axyridis Pallas
Durieux, Delphine ULg; Fischer, Christophe ULg; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis et al

Conference (2012, May 22)

In order to survive cold winters, the invasive multicoloured Asian ladybeetle, Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) forms large aggregations in dwellings to overwinter. The factors ... [more ▼]

In order to survive cold winters, the invasive multicoloured Asian ladybeetle, Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) forms large aggregations in dwellings to overwinter. The factors involved in the selection of aggregation sites remain misunderstood. The work presented herein focussed on the study of the chemical compounds involved in this phenomenon. Chemical and behavioural analyses highlighted that long-chain hydrocarbons lead congeners towards aggregation sites and ensure the cohesion of the cluster. Subsequently, physical factors were investigated. We studied the influence of (1) the density of individuals and (2) the quality of available shelters on H. axyridis decision to settle and aggregate under shelters. A binary choice experiment conducted in laboratory showed that the multicoloured Asian ladybeetles present a permanent aggregative behaviour, even during non-wintering conditions. These experiments also highlighted the existence of social interactions between individuals. All these results contribute to improve knowledge of this behaviour in H. axyridis and could be used in the design of species-specific traps in order to control infestations in dwellings. [less ▲]

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See detailA Semiochemical Slow-release Formulation in a Biological Control Approach to Attract Hoverflies
Heuskin, Stéphanie ULg; Lorge, Stéphanie ULg; Leroy, Pascal ULg et al

in Journal of Environment and Ecology (2012), 3(1), 72-85

E-β-Farnesene, the alarm pheromone of many aphid species, and E-β-caryophyllene are considered as two sesquiterpenes attractive for aphid predators, among which Syrphidae species. Both compounds were ... [more ▼]

E-β-Farnesene, the alarm pheromone of many aphid species, and E-β-caryophyllene are considered as two sesquiterpenes attractive for aphid predators, among which Syrphidae species. Both compounds were formulated in alginate gel beads as slow-release devices in a biological control approach against aphids. Semiochemical diffusion from beads was studied in the laboratory according to abiotic parameters. Efficiency of formulations as hoverfly attractant was demonstrated in field experiments from June to August 2009. The diffusion of semiochemicals from alginate bead formulations was principally limited by high values (>85%) of relative humidity in the air. Temperature also impacts the release of volatile compounds. In field experiments, these two abiotic factors were supposed to highly condition the trapping of hoverflies. These field trappings demonstrated the efficiency of both semiochemical formulations compared to control (formulation without semiochemical) to catch females of Syrphidae during three months. [less ▲]

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See detailImplication of honeydew microflora in ant-aphid mutualism
Fischer, Christophe ULg; Lognay, Georges ULg; Haubruge, Eric ULg et al

Poster (2012, February 10)

Some ant and aphid species can present a mutualistic relationship, ants using aphid honeydew as sugar source and in exchange providing the aphid colony cleaning and protection. From a behavioral point of ... [more ▼]

Some ant and aphid species can present a mutualistic relationship, ants using aphid honeydew as sugar source and in exchange providing the aphid colony cleaning and protection. From a behavioral point of view, this phe-nomenon has been well studied from decades. However, its chemistry and semiochemical mechanisms are still largely unknown. This study aims to identify semiochemicals involved in the establishment of this relation, using both chemical and behavioral approaches. Bioassays revealed that the great-est part of ant attraction toward aphid colonies is due to honeydew volatile compounds; enabling ant scouts to find more quickly aphid colonies and distantly recognize myrmecophilous species. Many of those VOCs seeming to have microbial origins, the main honeydew microorganisms have been isolated and their roles in VOCs production and ant attraction have been investigated. It appeared that honeydew microflora holds a key role in the establishment of ant-aphids mutualistic relationship. [less ▲]

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See detailMicroorganisms from aphid honeydew attract natural enemies and tending ants
Verheggen, François ULg; Leroy, Pascal; Fischer, Christophe ULg et al

Conference (2012, February)

Aphids are some of the most serious pests of cultivated crops worldwide, causing major yield and economic losses. Previous works have demonstrated ants and natural enemies (including ladybeetles and ... [more ▼]

Aphids are some of the most serious pests of cultivated crops worldwide, causing major yield and economic losses. Previous works have demonstrated ants and natural enemies (including ladybeetles and hoverflies) to be able to use aphid volatile chemicals to locate aphid colonies. Here, we report the first isolation of a bacterium from the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum honeydew, Staphylococcus sciuri, which produces kairomones used by the aphidophagous hoverfly Episyrphus balteatus and the Asian Ladybeetle Harmonia axyridis during their search for prey colonies. Some specific semiochemicals produced by S. sciuri were identified as attractants and ovipositional stimulants. Similarly, we have shown scouts of the aphid tending ant species, Lasius niger, to orientate their foraging behaviour toward an Aphis fabae infested plant and we have demonstrated that the odours released by this aphid honeydew were attractive for ant scouts. Again, bacteria were involved in the production of these honeydew semiochemicals. Interestingly, ant scouts were also able to discriminate honeydew odour from A. fabae (usually attended by L. niger) and A. pisum (unattendedby L. niger). Comparison of the volatile and bacteria composition of both aphid species honeydew were attended. [less ▲]

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See detailFast-GC quantifacation of harmonine, the major defense alkaloid of the multicolored Asian ladybird Harmonia axyridis (Pallas)
Fischer, Christophe ULg; Laurent, Pascal ULg; Heuskin, Stéphanie ULg et al

in American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (2012), 3

These last few years the multicolored Asian ladybird, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), previously introduced in Europe and North America as a biological control agent, has swiftly spread out on those ... [more ▼]

These last few years the multicolored Asian ladybird, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), previously introduced in Europe and North America as a biological control agent, has swiftly spread out on those territories and turns out to be a pest in several ways. In order to improve understanding of several key points of the biology of this ladybird, a novel fast-GC method of quantification of harmonine, the main defense alkaloid of H. axyridis, has been designed and validated using the accuracy profile concept for concentrations ranging from 13 to 264 µg/individual. This method allows quantifying harmonine in a single insect with a maximal error risk of 20%. For ladybirds collected in spring, mean harmonine concentration observed was 106.6 µg/individual with a very high standard deviation of 80.2 µg/individual, which can easily be explained by the strong asymmetry of the results distribution. Males and females seem equally chemically protected as the harmonine concentration did not significantly differ between sexes. This method is currently used to improve our comprehension of several key points of H. axyridis biology including aggregation behavior and aposematism. [less ▲]

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See detailTesting semiochemicals from aphid, plant and conspecific: attraction of Harmonia axyridis
Leroy, Pascal ULg; Schillings, Thomas ULg; Farmakidis, Julien ULg et al

in Insect Science (2012), 19

Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is an invasive specie affecting the dynamics and composition of several guilds. Nowadays, no biological control method is available to reduce the ... [more ▼]

Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is an invasive specie affecting the dynamics and composition of several guilds. Nowadays, no biological control method is available to reduce the populations of this harmful coccinellid. Attractants and semiochemicals seem to be the best alternative but only few studies have tested the impact of semiochemicals on this Asian lady beetle. In this work, through wind-tunnel experiments, semiochemicals from aphids [Z,E-nepetalactone, (E)-β-farnesene, α-pinene and β-pinene], from coccinellids [(-)-β-caryophyllene] and from the nettle Urtica dioica L. were envisaged as potential attractants. The nettle volatile compounds [(Z)-3-hexenol and (E)-2-hexenal] were extracted using a Clevenger Apparatus® and identified by headspace-GC-MS. The main components of the aphid alarm pheromone as well as a component of the aphid sexual pheromone strongly attracted both sexes of the Asian lady beetle while (-)-β-caryophyllene only attracted few individuals and had no impact on the males. The nettle extract as well as the (Z)-3-hexenol oriented both males and females to the odour source. The (E)-2-hexenal was showed to have no effect on females even if this green leaf volatile attracted males. This study highlighted that some semiochemicals from aphids and from nettle extracts orientated the harlequin ladybird H. axyridis. These volatile compounds could certainly help for an efficient biological control approach against this invasive specie. [less ▲]

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See detailLe cloisonnement des interbuttes en culture de pommes de terre : essai réalisé en collaboration avec Bayer CropScience (Huldenberg 2011)
Olivier, C.; Goffart, J.P.; Baets, D. et al

in FIWAP : Brochure du CCP 2012, partie 9.5 (2012)

Dans le sillage du projet « Contrôle du ruissellement et de ses impacts en culture de pomme de terre en Région wallonne 2009-2010 », un essai a été mis en place à Huldenberg sur demande de l’entreprise ... [more ▼]

Dans le sillage du projet « Contrôle du ruissellement et de ses impacts en culture de pomme de terre en Région wallonne 2009-2010 », un essai a été mis en place à Huldenberg sur demande de l’entreprise Bayer CropScience et financé par celle-ci. Pour rappel, le cloisonnement des interbuttes est la mise en place de diguettes entre les buttes de pomme de terre afin de favoriser l’infiltration de l’eau plutôt que son ruissellement. Les résultats de cette nouvelle année d’essai confirment l’efficacité de cette technique quant à la réduction du ruissellement et de l’érosion ainsi qu’une tendance à la hausse des rendements en tubercules. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of a fungal infection on the profile of volatile organic compounds emitted by plant roots
Fiers, Marie ULg; Lognay, Georges ULg; Wathelet, Jean-Paul ULg et al

in Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences (2012), 77(3), 125-129

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See detailDo root-emitted volatile organic compounds attract wireworms?
Barsics, Fanny ULg; Latine, Rémi ULg; Gfeller, Aurélie ULg et al

in Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences (2012), 77(3), 561-567

Wireworms are the soil dwelling larvae of click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae). Their importance as crop pests increases since the efficient chemical means to control them cannot be considered anymore ... [more ▼]

Wireworms are the soil dwelling larvae of click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae). Their importance as crop pests increases since the efficient chemical means to control them cannot be considered anymore. Therefore, many integrated pest management strategies have been investigated in the past few years. Most of them rely on the understanding of the ecology of the click beetles during their whole life cycle. We focus our work on the chemical ecology of wireworms, more precisely on the root-emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that might intervene in the food-searching process of the larvae by helping them to find a suitable host-plant or by acting as key factors in the belowground defence mechanism of the plant. Here, we present our first results of dual-choice orientation tests in olfactometric pipes. Wireworms (Agriotes sordidus Illiger) were submitted individually to a variety of olfactory baits ranging from entire barley roots (Hordeum vulgare L. var. Quench) to isolated VOCs identified as part of the emitting profile. The latter was described thanks to HS-SPME samplings and GC-MS analysis, for roots grown in the exact same conditions as for the olfactometric experimentations with entire roots. Most of the experimentations gave significant results. When confronted to volatiles emitted by entire roots, wireworms significantly orientated towards the bait (χ²-goodness-of-fit test, χ²=8, P-value=0.005). This result allowed us to follow up with the same device and to progressively vary the nature of the baits. Our protocol should be used for other plant-wireworm species combinations. Our results should be taken into account in varietal selection, in crop rotation, or in trapping systems aiming at the reduction of the populations of wireworms. [less ▲]

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See detailAcaricidal activities of Santolina africana and Hertia cheirifolia essential oils against the two-spotted spidermite (Tetranychus urticae)
Attia, Sabrine; Grissa, K.L.; Mailleux, A-C et al

in Pest Management Science (2012)

BACKGROUND: Many plant essential oils show a broad spectrum of activity against pests. This study investigated the effects of two essential oils on Tetranychus urticae, one of the most serious pests in ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Many plant essential oils show a broad spectrum of activity against pests. This study investigated the effects of two essential oils on Tetranychus urticae, one of the most serious pests in the world. RESULTS: The chemical composition of the two oils was characterised by GC-MS. The most abundant component in the Santolina africana (Jord. & Fourr) oil was terpinen-4-ol (54.96%), while thymol (61%) was prevalent in the Hertia cheirifolia (L.) oil. Mortality and fecundity were measured upon treatment with oil concentrations ranging from 0.07 to 6.75 mg L-1 with a Potter spray tower.Mite mortality increased with oil concentration, with LC50 values of 2.35 mg L-1 for S. africana and 3.43mg L-1 for H. cheirifolia respectively. For both oils, a reduction in fecundity was observed at concentrations of 0.07, 0.09 and 0.29mg L-1. Artificial blends of constituents of oils were also prepared and tested with individual constituents missing from the mixture. The results showed that the presence of all constituents was necessary to equal the toxicity of the two natural oils. CONCLUSION: S. africana and H. cheirifolia oils can provide valuable acaricide activitywith significantly lower LC50 values. Thus, these oils cause important mortality and reduce the number of eggs laid by females. [less ▲]

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See detailVariations in the essential oils from ylang-ylang (Cananga odorata [Lam.] Hook f. & Thomson forma genuina) in the Western Indian Ocean islands
Benini, Céline; Ringuet, Mélanie; Wathelet, Jean-Paul ULg et al

in Flavour and Fragrance Journal (2012), 27(5), 356-366

Ylang-ylang essential oil is an important rawmaterial for the fragrance industry. Despite its economic importance, to the best of our knowledge, no study has yet been undertaken to assess the chemical ... [more ▼]

Ylang-ylang essential oil is an important rawmaterial for the fragrance industry. Despite its economic importance, to the best of our knowledge, no study has yet been undertaken to assess the chemical polymorphism of the different production areas. This underestimated variability is an interesting source of raw material for perfumers. That is why the variation in the chemical composition of four fractions of the essential oils extracted from Cananga odorata, grown in four locations Grande Comore, Mayotte, Nossi Bé and Ambanja, was studied. A total of 119 compounds, representing 85.7–96.4%of the total essential oil composition, were identified using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and quantified by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector. Thirty-two compounds previously unreported in ylang-ylang essential oil were identified. The distinction between the Comoros and Madagascar groups wasmade on the basis of the chemical classes. It was possible to significantly distinguish the Grande Comore and Mayotte essential oil samples, as well as the Ambanja and Nossi Bé essential oil samples, on the basis of their main compounds. The aromatic compounds profile for the origin of each essential oil fraction was established. <br />Regression trees were built, allowing the provenance of the essential oils prepared at the laboratory level to be easily differentiated on the basis of a limited number of major compounds. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 168 (56 ULg)