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See detailLes Ressources Sauvages des Bois de Tapia (Uapaca bojeri) à Madagascar
Barsics, Fanny ULg; Malaisse, François ULg; Razafimanantsoa, Tsiresy et al

Poster (2013, October 19)

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See detailFood intake of Tibetan children living in Kashin Beck disease endemic areas in Central Tibet
Rooze, Shancy; de Voghel, Pauline; Mathieu, Françoise et al

Conference (2013, October 14)

Introduction: Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) is a bone and joint pathology. KBD begins during childhood, causes deformities, pain, lack of mobility, and short stature. The pathophysiology of the disease is ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) is a bone and joint pathology. KBD begins during childhood, causes deformities, pain, lack of mobility, and short stature. The pathophysiology of the disease is unknown. Nutrition possibly plays a role. Children living in KBD endemic areas in Central Tibet present severe growth retardation, signs of chronic malnutrition and a high prevalence of rickets. A food consumption study was conducted. We have focused our attention on total energy intake, calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D. Material and methods: Prospective food intake measurements have been performed. The investigation concerned children from 9 to 16 years old living in KBD endemic areas. All food and drinks have been measured during several days at the 4 seasons of the year. Anthropometric data were obtained. Results: 30,5% of the children presented with stunting (height for age ratio below -2 z score); 13,8% of the cohort suffered from acute malnutrition (body mass index below -2 z score). Mean total energy intake was 87% of the recommended value. Calcium and vitamin D intakes never covered the needs (44 % and 14 %, respectively). Phosphorus intake was high. Mean Ca / P ratio was 0.54. Conclusion: Calcium and vitamin D deficiency may play a role in the etiology of bone and joint diseases in this population. To improve the nutritional status of the children, a large program of calcium and vitamin D supplementation among 0 - 5 years old children living in KDB endemic areas was started. Besides, chemical analyses of locally grown foods are performed, in order to have a more precise evaluation of nutrient intake. In the future, the effect of increased energy intakes will be evaluated. [less ▲]

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See detailFirst Evidence of a Volatile Sex Pheromone in Harmonia axyridis (Pallas)
Fassotte, Bérénice ULg; Fischer, Christophe ULg; Durieux, Delphine ULg et al

Poster (2013, October)

Until now, no volatile sex pheromone has been highlighted in Coccinellidae but various studies have suggested the existence of such molecules. In the present work, we have sampled volatile organic ... [more ▼]

Until now, no volatile sex pheromone has been highlighted in Coccinellidae but various studies have suggested the existence of such molecules. In the present work, we have sampled volatile organic compounds released in the headspace of virgin females in the multicolored Asian ladybeetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), that were either allowed or not to feed on pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris). When fed on aphids, virgin females showed a stereotypical “calling behavior”, commonly associated with the emission of a sex pheromone in several Coleoptera species. Behavioral assays conducted with calling females in a four-arm olfactometer demonstrated that the blend of released volatile compounds was attractive at a distance for males, but not for other females. The headspace of virgin females that were not previously fed with aphids was not attractive for either sex. GC-MS analyses revealed the presence of five compounds in the volatile blend: (–)-β-caryophyllene, β-elemene, methyl-eugenol, α-humulene and α-bulnesene. Subsequently, we have collected and quantified the constituents from the blend over a period of 9 days after exposure to aphids. All five compounds were produced exclusively after feeding virgin females with aphids, and their quantity significantly increased during the whole period of collection. (–)-β-caryophyllene was found to be the major constituent, representing between 80 and 86 % of the total blend. All these results could promote the development of more specific and efficient management methods to manipulate the movements of this invasive ladybeetle and to reduce its negative impacts on biodiversity. [less ▲]

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See detailFirst evidence of a volatile sex pheromone in the invasive Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)
Fassotte, Bérénice ULg; Fischer, Christophe ULg; Durieux, Delphine ULg et al

Conference (2013, September 10)

Until now, volatile sex pheromone have not been identified in the Coccinellidae, although various studies have suggested the existence of such molecules. In this work, we have sampled volatile organic ... [more ▼]

Until now, volatile sex pheromone have not been identified in the Coccinellidae, although various studies have suggested the existence of such molecules. In this work, we have sampled volatile organic compounds released in the headspace of virgin females of the multicolored Asian ladybeetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), that were either allowed or not to feed on pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris). When fed on aphids, virgin females showed a stereotypical “calling behavior”, commonly associated with the emission of a sex pheromone in several Coleoptera species. Behavioral assays conducted with calling females in a four-arm olfactometer demonstrated that the blend of released volatile compounds was attractive for males, but not for other females. The headspace of virgin females that were not previously fed with aphids was not attractive for either sex. GC-MS analyses revealed the presence of five compounds in the volatile blend: (–)-β-caryophyllene, β elemene, methyl-eugenol, α-humulene and α-bulnesene. Subsequently, we have collected and quantified the constituents from the blend over a period of 9 days after exposure to aphids. All five compounds were produced exclusively after feeding virgin females with aphids, and their quantity significantly increased during the whole period of collection. (–)-β-caryophyllene was found to be the major constituent, representing between 80 and 89 % of the total blend. These results could promote the development of more specific and efficient management methods to manipulate the movements of this invasive ladybeetle and to reduce its negative impacts on biodiversity. [less ▲]

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See detailEmission of sulfur-containing volatiles from Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh Col-0 related to diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella (L.)) infestation
Hien, Truong Thi Dieu ULg; Delaplace, Pierre ULg; Francis, Frédéric ULg et al

Poster (2013, June 10)

Herbivore-infested plants often release a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Here, we studied the effects of feeding Plutella xylostella (L.) (0, 3, 9, 20 pest larvae within 0-4 h and 4-8 h ... [more ▼]

Herbivore-infested plants often release a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Here, we studied the effects of feeding Plutella xylostella (L.) (0, 3, 9, 20 pest larvae within 0-4 h and 4-8 h infestation, respectively) on the emission of sulfur-containing VOCs in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh Col-0 (A.t. Col-0) by headspace solid-phase micro-extraction coupled to gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC/MS). The analytical results showed that the relative emission of sulfur-containing metabolites increased significantly in Arabidopsis plants subjected to P. xylostella infestation according to the density and residence duration of pest larvae on shoot organs. The main compound from infested plants was dimethyl disulfide. We suggest that the correlations between the stress level (density and time infestation) and the sulfides observed in this study provide a means to understand the changes of VOCs profile of plant under chewer infestation. [less ▲]

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See detailValidation d'une méthode d'analyse quantitative de l'équol dans le lait par UPLC-MSMS
Daems, Frédéric ULg; Jasselette, Christophe; Lognay, Georges ULg et al

Poster (2013, June 04)

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See detailElectrophysiological and behavioural responses of Thanatophilus sinuatus F. (Coleoptera: Silphidae) to selected cadaveric volatile organic compounds
Dekeirsschieter, Jessica ULg; Frederickx, Christine ULg; Lognay, Georges ULg et al

in Journal of Forensic Sciences (2013)

Soon after death, carcasses release volatile chemicals that attract carrion insects including Silphidae. Nevertheless, it is not known which chemical cues are involved in the attractiveness of the carcass ... [more ▼]

Soon after death, carcasses release volatile chemicals that attract carrion insects including Silphidae. Nevertheless, it is not known which chemical cues are involved in the attractiveness of the carcass. So far, little information is available on the chemical ecology of carrion beetles, particularly concerning the subfamily of Silphinae. The biological role of selected cadaveric volatile organic compounds including: dimethyldisulfide (DMDS), butan-1-ol, n-butanoic acid, indole, phenol, p-cresol, putrescine, and cadaverine on the silphine species, Thanatophilus sinuatus Fabricius, was investigated by using both electrophysiological and behavioural techniques. Among the tested cadaveric compounds, butan-1-ol and DMDS elicited the strongest EAG from both T. sinuatus male and female antennae. In a two-arm olfactometer, males and females were significantly attracted to dimethyldisulfide (DMDS) for both tested doses, whereas only males were attracted to p-cresol at 100 ng. Putrescine was repellent to males at the dose of 1 µg [less ▲]

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See detailFumigant toxicity of Mentha pulegium and Citrus aurantium essential oils to Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) and Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae)
Attia, Sabrine; Grissa, K.L.; Lognay, Georges ULg et al

in Boeckx; Bossier, Peter; Smagghe, Guy (Eds.) et al Proceedings of the 65th international symposium on crop protection (2013, May 21)

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See detailSubstrate Marking by an Invasive Ladybeetle: Seasonal Changes in Hydrocarbon Composition and Behavioral Responses
Durieux, Delphine ULg; Fassotte, Bérénice ULg; Vanderplanck, Maryse ULg et al

in PLoS ONE (2013), 8(4),

The multicolored Asian ladybeetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), aggregates inside dwellings during the winter to survive the cold. Recent published reports have highlighted that overwintering individuals ... [more ▼]

The multicolored Asian ladybeetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), aggregates inside dwellings during the winter to survive the cold. Recent published reports have highlighted that overwintering individuals use hydrocarbon markings deposited on surfaces by conspecifics to orient toward aggregation sites. In the current study, monthly GC-MS analyses revealed seasonal modifications in the chemical profile of substrate markings deposited by moving individuals. The markings of overwintering ladybeetles contained larger proportions of heptacosadiene, nonacosadiene, hentriacontadienes, and methyl-nonacosanes, along with a lower proportion of heptacosene and nonacosene. This finding suggests the importance of the unsaturated and/or branched hydrocarbons in the H. axyridis aggregation process. Subsequently, we conducted behavioral assays to test whether (1) there is seasonal variation in the behavioral response of H. axyridis individuals toward substrate markings deposited by conspecifics in the same physiological state and (2) the observed behavioral modification is due to a change in ladybeetle sensitivity and/or a change in the chemical composition of the substrate marking. The results indicate that overwintering individuals exhibit a stronger ‘‘following’’ response toward conspecific substrate markings. This behavior is linked to both the physiological state of ladybeetles and the specific chemical profile of the marking biomolecules deposited under overwintering conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of a performant method for glucocapparin determination in Boscia senegalensis Lam ex. Poir. : A study of the variability
Gueye, Momar Talla; Seck, Dogo; Diallo, Abdoulaye et al

in American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (2013), 4

This study describes a glucocapparin determination method. Based on rapeseed determination of glucosinolate (GSL), the equation of the average straight regression line is Y = 100.42X − 0.03 (R2 = 0.9998 ... [more ▼]

This study describes a glucocapparin determination method. Based on rapeseed determination of glucosinolate (GSL), the equation of the average straight regression line is Y = 100.42X − 0.03 (R2 = 0.9998). Enzymatic hydrolysis of glucocapparin extracted from leaves and fruits of B. senegalensis, analyzed by SPME-GC-MS confirmed the presence of methylisothiocyanate as the main hydrolysis glucocapparin product. Monitoring glucocapparin contents in B. senegalensis leaves and fruits collected in 4 localities in Senegal showed differences between organs according localities and periods of harvest. Glucocapparin content was very high in dry season particularly in January and the lowest rates were recorded during the rainy period between August and November. [less ▲]

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See detailRelationships between carcass traits and offal components in local poultry populations (gallus gallus) of Benin
Tougan, P.U.; Dahouda, M.; Salifou, C.F.A. et al

in Journal of Applied Biosciences (2013), 69

Objectives : The current work was carried out to determine the relationships between live weight, carcass traits and the offal components traits in Holli, Fulani, Sahoue, North and Southe indigenous ... [more ▼]

Objectives : The current work was carried out to determine the relationships between live weight, carcass traits and the offal components traits in Holli, Fulani, Sahoue, North and Southe indigenous chicken ectoypes of Benin. [less ▲]

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See detailRelationships between technological and nutritional meat quality parameters in local poultry populations (Gallus gallus) of Benin
Tougan, P.U.; Dahouda, M.; Salifou, C.F.A. et al

in International Journal of Biological Chemistry (2013), 7(6), 2450-2467

The current work aims at determining relationships between technological and nutritional meat quality parameters in Holli, Fulani, Sahoue, North and South indigenous chicken ecotypes of Benin.

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See detailEffect of processing conditions on phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties of date syrup
Abbès, F.; Kchaou, W.; Blecker, Christophe ULg et al

in Industrial Crops & Products (2013), 44

Commercial hydrolytic enzymes (pectinase and cellulase) were investigated for their influence on phenolics and antioxidant activities of date syrup. Content of total phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids ... [more ▼]

Commercial hydrolytic enzymes (pectinase and cellulase) were investigated for their influence on phenolics and antioxidant activities of date syrup. Content of total phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids contents were determined spectrophotometrically. Polyphenols composition was examined using HPLC. Seven phenolic compounds (catechin, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and sinapic acid) were detected in all date syrup extracts. p-Coumaric acid was the major compound of all date syrup extracts, representing 49.223-63.397%. The antioxidant activity of date syrup was evaluated by various antioxidant assays, including total antioxidant, DPPH scavenging test, FRAP, hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity and metal chelating activity.Results showed that the date syrup prepared after extraction with pectinase and cellulase mixture gave the lowest phenolic and flavonoid contents. For same variety, date syrup prepared after extraction with pectinase and cellulase mixture gave the highest carotenoids amounts. The antioxidant activity, determined by several methods, was significantly affected by the extraction method as well as date varieties. In fact, the date syrup prepared after extraction with pectinase and cellulase mixture gave the lowest antioxidant activity. A good correlation between the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content and flavonoid was observed. The discovery of our research is very important to scientists as well as to the fruit-processing industry to produce juice and syrup with high antioxidant activity. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. [less ▲]

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See detailCola pierlotii R.Germ. : étude de la composition chimique de la graine
Lognay, Georges ULg; Wathelet, Bernard ULg; Maesen, Philippe ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2013), 17(2), 309-311

This note reports the first analysis of the chemical composition of Cola pierlotii seed. It compares the recorded values with various literature data on Cola nitida and Cola acuminata that are the two ... [more ▼]

This note reports the first analysis of the chemical composition of Cola pierlotii seed. It compares the recorded values with various literature data on Cola nitida and Cola acuminata that are the two most used species or as agent flavor or as a precursor drugs. Cola pierlotii is characterized in particular by a high caffeine content up to 1.27%. [less ▲]

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See detailImportance nutritionnelle du manioc et perspectives pour l’alimentation de base au Sénégal (synthèse bibliographique)
Diallo, Younoussa; Gueye, Momar Talla; Sakho, Mama et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2013), 17(4), 634-643

Cassava is one of the main plants and starchy roots grown in the world. In 2008, the total yield of cassava in West Africa represented 29% of the world production. However, in many West African countries ... [more ▼]

Cassava is one of the main plants and starchy roots grown in the world. In 2008, the total yield of cassava in West Africa represented 29% of the world production. However, in many West African countries such as Senegal, cassava is not used as a staple food. In fact, the processing techniques used for cassava are poorly known. In addition, the chemical composition of local cassava varieties has not yet been determined, nor has their toxicity been assessed. In 2004, showing an aggressive agricultural policy and revived interest, the Senegalese government launched a major program for intensifying the production of cassava for food security purposes. Cassava is an important source of calories and can be an interesting option for imported rice and wheat. Although many food products made from cassava are well known in the region, their use in the Senegalese diet is rare. Nevertheless, these cassava products are found as delicacies in some restaurants, and are consumed by the Senegalese and many other Africans. The objective of the present study is to demonstrate the nutritional value and the dietary possibilities of using cassava as a staple food in Senegal. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of volatile organic compounds emitted by Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) roots and their attractiveness to wireworms
Gfeller, Aurélie; Laloux, Morgan; Barsics, Fanny ULg et al

in Journal of Chemical Ecology (2013), 39(8), 1129-1139

Root volatile organic compounds (VOCs), their chemistry and ecological functions have garnered less attention than aboveground emitted plant VOCs. We report here for the first time on the identification ... [more ▼]

Root volatile organic compounds (VOCs), their chemistry and ecological functions have garnered less attention than aboveground emitted plant VOCs. We report here for the first time on the identification of VOCs emitted by barley roots (Hordeum vulgare L.). Twenty nine VOCs were identified from isolated 21-d-old roots. The detection of root volatiles was dependent on the medium used for root cultivation. From 7-d-old roots cultivated on sterile Hoagland gelified medium, 24 VOCs were identified, on sterile vermiculite 33 VOCs, and on non-sterile vermiculite 34 VOCs. The major VOCs identified were fatty acid derived compounds, including hexanal, methyl hexanoate, (E)-hex-2-enal, 2-pentylfuran, pentan-1-ol, (Z)-2-(pentenyl)-furan, (Z)-pent-2-en-1-ol, hexan-1-ol, (Z)-hex-3-en-1-ol, (E)-hex-2-en-1-ol, oct-1-en-3-ol, 2-ethylhexan-1-ol (likely a contaminant), (E)-non-2-enal, octan-1-ol, (2E,6Z)-nona-2,6-dienal), methyl (E)-non-2-enoate, nonan-1-ol, (Z)-non-3-en-1-ol, (E)-non-2-en-1-ol, nona-3,6-dien-1-ol and nona-2,6-dien-1-ol. In an olfactometer assay, wireworms (larvae of Agriotes sordidus Illiger, Coleoptera: Elateridae) were attracted to chemical cues emanating from barley seedlings. We discuss the role of individual root volatiles or a blend of the root volatiles detected here and their interaction with CO2for wireworm attraction. [less ▲]

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