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See detailImpacts of the carbonyl group location of ester bond on interfacial properties of sugar-based surfactants: experimental and computational evidences
Razafindralambo, Hary ULg; Blecker, Christophe ULg; Mezdour, Samir et al

in Journal of Physical Chemistry B (2009), 113

Interfacial properties of surfactants are dependent on the conformation adopted by the hydrophilic headgroup or/and the hydrophobic tail at the boundary limit of two immiscible phases. Here, we ... [more ▼]

Interfacial properties of surfactants are dependent on the conformation adopted by the hydrophilic headgroup or/and the hydrophobic tail at the boundary limit of two immiscible phases. Here, we demonstrate the impacts of the carbonyl group (-CO-) location of the ester bond of sugar-based surfactants by comparing some properties of two closely related esters, octyl glucuronate and glucose octanoate, at the air-water interface. The carbonyl group location influences the rate and extent of interfacial adsorption and the rheology properties of sugar esters at the air-water interface, which were evaluated by dynamic surface tension and complex surface viscoelastic measurements. Octyl glucuronate adsorbs the fastest at the air-water interface whereas glucose octanoate reduces the dynamic surface tension at the lowest value and exhibits the highest film viscoelasticity. Differences are attributed to molecular conformation constraints inducing relevant changes to the surface coverage kinetic capacity and the interaction strengths of the octyl sugar ester adsorbed films at the air-water interface. All of the results are supported by the minimum cross-sectional area values per molecule determined by both experimental and computational approaches. [less ▲]

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See detailImplication of tilted peptides in viral fusion
Lins, Laurence ULg; Brasseur, Robert ULg

Poster (2008, August)

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See detailDéstabilisation membranaire et peptides obliques : état des lieux
Lins, Laurence ULg

Conference (2008, June)

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See detailDéstabilisation membranaire et peptides obliques : état des lieux
Lins, Laurence ULg

Conference (2008, May 13)

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See detailAntiangiogenic peptides
Martial, Joseph ULg; Struman, Ingrid ULg; Nguyen, Ngoc-Quynh-Nhu ULg et al

Patent (2008)

The present invention refers to a pharmaceutical composition comprising an isolated antiangiogenic peptide or a recombinant protein comprising the antiangiogenic peptide, wherein the peptide is between 11 ... [more ▼]

The present invention refers to a pharmaceutical composition comprising an isolated antiangiogenic peptide or a recombinant protein comprising the antiangiogenic peptide, wherein the peptide is between 11 and 40 amino acids in length and having antiangiogenic activity, the peptide comprising the amino acid sequence: X1-X2-X3-X4-X5-X6-X7-X8-X9-X10-X11-X12-X13-X14, wherein X1 is any amino acid residue comptabile with forming a helix; X2 is an amino acid redisue of : Leu, Ile, Val; X3 is an amino acid residue of: Arg, Lys, His, Ser, Thr; X4 is an amino acid residue of: Ile, Leu, Val; X5 is any amino acid residue compatible with forming a helix; X6 is an amino acid residue of: Leu, Ile, Val; X7 is an amino acid residue of: Leu, Ile, Val, Ser, Thr; X8 is any amino acid residue compatible with forming a helix; X9 is any amino acid residue compatible with forming a helix; X10 is an amino acid residue of: Gln, Glu, Asp, Arg, His, Lys, Asn; X11 is an amino acid residue of: Ser, Thr; X12 is an amino acid residue of: Trp, Tyr, Phe; X13 is an animo acid residue of Leu, Ile, Val, Asn, Gln; X14 is an amino acid residue of: Glu, Gln, Asp, Asn. [less ▲]

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See detailIxodes ricinus Tick Lipocalins: Identification, Cloning, Phylogenetic Analysis and Biochemical Characterization
Beaufays, Jérôme ULg; Adam, Benoit; Decrem, Yves et al

in PLoS ONE (2008), 3(12), 3941

Background: During their blood meal, ticks secrete a wide variety of proteins that interfere with their host's defense mechanisms. Among these proteins, lipocalins play a major role in the modulation of ... [more ▼]

Background: During their blood meal, ticks secrete a wide variety of proteins that interfere with their host's defense mechanisms. Among these proteins, lipocalins play a major role in the modulation of the inflammatory response. Methodology/Principal Findings: Screening a cDNA library in association with RT-PCR and RACE methodologies allowed us to identify 14 new lipocalin genes in the salivary glands of the Ixodes ricinus hard tick. A computational in-depth structural analysis confirmed that LIRs belong to the lipocalin family. These proteins were called LIR for ``Lipocalin from I. ricinus'' and numbered from 1 to 14 (LIR1 to LIR14). According to their percentage identity/similarity, LIR proteins may be assigned to 6 distinct phylogenetic groups. The mature proteins have calculated pM and pI varying from 21.8 kDa to 37.2 kDa and from 4.45 to 9.57 respectively. In a western blot analysis, all recombinant LIRs appeared as a series of thin bands at 50-70 kDa, suggesting extensive glycosylation, which was experimentally confirmed by treatment with N-glycosidase F. In addition, the in vivo expression analysis of LIRs in I. ricinus, examined by RT-PCR, showed homogeneous expression profiles for certain phylogenetic groups and relatively heterogeneous profiles for other groups. Finally, we demonstrated that LIR6 codes for a protein that specifically binds leukotriene B4. Conclusions/Significance: This work confirms that, regarding their biochemical properties, expression profile, and sequence signature, lipocalins in Ixodes hard tick genus, and more specifically in the Ixodes ricinus species, are segregated into distinct phylogenetic groups suggesting potential distinct function. This was particularly demonstrated by the ability of LIR6 to scavenge leukotriene B4. The other LIRs did not bind any of the ligands tested, such as 5-hydroxytryptamine, ADP, norepinephrine, platelet activating factor, prostaglandins D2 and E2, and finally leukotrienes B4 and C4. [less ▲]

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See detailDistantly related lipocalins share two conserved clusters of hydrophobic residues: use in homology modeling.
Adam, Benoit; Charloteaux, Benoît ULg; Beaufays, Jérôme ULg et al

in BMC structural biology (2008), 8(1-2), 1-18

BACKGROUND: Lipocalins are widely distributed in nature and are found in bacteria, plants, arthropoda and vertebra. In hematophagous arthropods, they are implicated in the successful accomplishment of the ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Lipocalins are widely distributed in nature and are found in bacteria, plants, arthropoda and vertebra. In hematophagous arthropods, they are implicated in the successful accomplishment of the blood meal, interfering with platelet aggregation, blood coagulation and inflammation and in the transmission of disease parasites such as Trypanosoma cruzi and Borrelia burgdorferi. The pairwise sequence identity is low among this family, often below 30%, despite a well conserved tertiary structure. Under the 30% identity threshold, alignment methods do not correctly assign and align proteins. The only safe way to assign a sequence to that family is by experimental determination. However, these procedures are long and costly and cannot always be applied. A way to circumvent the experimental approach is sequence and structure analyze. To further help in that task, the residues implicated in the stabilisation of the lipocalin fold were determined. This was done by analyzing the conserved interactions for ten lipocalins having a maximum pairwise identity of 28% and various functions. RESULTS: It was determined that two hydrophobic clusters of residues are conserved by analysing the ten lipocalin structures and sequences. One cluster is internal to the barrel, involving all strands and the 310 helix. The other is external, involving four strands and the helix lying parallel to the barrel surface. These clusters are also present in RaHBP2, a unusual "outlier" lipocalin from tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. This information was used to assess assignment of LIR2 a protein from Ixodes ricinus and to build a 3D model that helps to predict function. FTIR data support the lipocalin fold for this protein. CONCLUSION: By sequence and structural analyzes, two conserved clusters of hydrophobic residues in interactions have been identified in lipocalins. Since the residues implicated are not conserved for function, they should provide the minimal subset necessary to confer the lipocalin fold. This information has been used to assign LIR2 to lipocalins and to investigate its structure/function relationship. This study could be applied to other protein families with low pairwise similarity, such as the structurally related fatty acid binding proteins or avidins. [less ▲]

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See detailInteractions Of Ciprofloxacin With Dppc And Dppg: Fluorescence Anisotropy, Atr-Ftir And P-31 Nmr Spectroscopies And Conformational Analysis
Bensikaddour, H.; Snoussi, K.; Lins, Laurence ULg et al

in Biochimica et Biophysica Acta-Biomembranes (2008), 1778(11), 2535-43

The interactions between a drug and lipids may be critical for the pharmacological activity. We previously showed that the ability of a fluoroquinolone antibiotic, ciprofloxacin, to induce disorder and ... [more ▼]

The interactions between a drug and lipids may be critical for the pharmacological activity. We previously showed that the ability of a fluoroquinolone antibiotic, ciprofloxacin, to induce disorder and modify the orientation of the acyl chains is related to its propensity to be expelled from a monolayer upon compression [1]. Here, we compared the binding of ciprofloxacin on DPPC and DPPG liposomes (or mixtures of phospholipids [DOPC:DPPC], and [DOPC:DPPG]) using quasi-elastic light scattering and steady-state fluorescence anisotropy. We also investigated ciprofloxacin effects on the transition temperature (T(m)) of lipids and on the mobility of phosphate head groups using Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared-Red Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and (31)P Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) respectively. In the presence of ciprofloxacin we observed a dose-dependent increase of the size of the DPPG liposomes whereas no effect was evidenced for DPPC liposomes. The binding constants K(app) were in the order of 10(5) M(-1) and the affinity appeared dependent on the negative charge of liposomes: DPPG>DOPC:DPPG (1:1; M:M)>DPPC>DOPC:DPPC (1:1; M:M). As compared to the control samples, the chemical shift anisotropy (Deltasigma) values determined by (31)P NMR showed an increase of 5 and 9 ppm for DPPC:CIP (1:1; M:M) and DPPG:CIP (1:1; M:M) respectively. ATR-FTIR experiments showed that ciprofloxacin had no effect on the T(m) of DPPC but increased the order of the acyl chains both below and above this temperature. In contrast, with DPPG, ciprofloxacin induced a marked broadening effect on the transition with a decrease of the acyl chain order below its T(m) and an increase above this temperature. Altogether with the results from the conformational analysis, these data demonstrated that the interactions of ciprofloxacin with lipids depend markedly on the nature of their phosphate head groups and that ciprofloxacin interacts preferentially with anionic lipid compounds, like phosphatidylglycerol, present at a high content in these membranes. [less ▲]

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See detailIr-LBP, an ixodes ricinus tick salivary LTB4-binding lipocalin, interferes with host neutrophil function.
Beaufays, Jérôme ULg; Adam, Benoit; Menten-Dedoyart, Catherine ULg et al

in PLoS ONE (2008), 3(12), 3987

BACKGROUND: During their blood meal, ticks secrete a wide variety of proteins that can interfere with their host's defense mechanisms. Among these proteins, lipocalins play a major role in the modulation ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: During their blood meal, ticks secrete a wide variety of proteins that can interfere with their host's defense mechanisms. Among these proteins, lipocalins play a major role in the modulation of the inflammatory response. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We previously identified 14 new lipocalin genes in the tick Ixodes ricinus. One of them codes for a protein that specifically binds leukotriene B4 with a very high affinity (Kd: +/-1 nM), similar to that of the neutrophil transmembrane receptor BLT1. By in silico approaches, we modeled the 3D structure of the protein and the binding of LTB4 into the ligand pocket. This protein, called Ir-LBP, inhibits neutrophil chemotaxis in vitro and delays LTB4-induced apoptosis. Ir-LBP also inhibits the host inflammatory response in vivo by decreasing the number and activation of neutrophils located at the tick bite site. Thus, Ir-LBP participates in the tick's ability to interfere with proper neutrophil function in inflammation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These elements suggest that Ir-LBP is a "scavenger" of LTB4, which, in combination with other factors, such as histamine-binding proteins or proteins inhibiting the classical or alternative complement pathways, permits the tick to properly manage its blood meal. Moreover, with regard to its properties, Ir-LBP could possibly be used as a therapeutic tool for illnesses associated with an increased LTB4 production. [less ▲]

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See detailTilted peptides: a structural motif involved in protein membrane insertion?
Lins, Laurence ULg; Brasseur, Robert ULg

in Journal of Peptide Science : An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society (2008), 14(4), 416-22

Tilted peptides are short hydrophobic protein fragments characterized by an asymmetric distribution of their hydrophobic residues when helical. They are able to interact with a hydrophobic/hydrophilic ... [more ▼]

Tilted peptides are short hydrophobic protein fragments characterized by an asymmetric distribution of their hydrophobic residues when helical. They are able to interact with a hydrophobic/hydrophilic interface (such as a lipid membrane) and to destabilize the organized system into which they insert. They were detected in viral fusion proteins and in proteins involved in different biological processes involving membrane insertion or translocation of the protein in which they are found. In this paper, we have analysed different protein domains related to membrane insertion with regard to their tilted properties. They are the N-terminal signal peptide of the filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA), a Bordetella pertussis protein secreted in high amount and the hydrophobic domain from proteins forming pores (i.e. ColIa, Bax and Bcl-2). From the predictions and the experimental approaches, we suggest that tilted peptides found in those proteins could have a more general role in the mechanism of insertion/translocation of proteins into/across membranes. For the signal sequences, they could help the protein machinery involved in protein secretion to be more active. In the case of toroidal pore formation, they could disturb the lipids, facilitating the insertion of the other more hydrophilic helices. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of the interactions between fluoroquinolone antibiotics and lipids: a multitechnique approach.
Bensikaddour, Hayet; Fa, Nathalie; Burton, Ingrid et al

in Biophysical Journal (2008), 94(8), 3035-46

Probing drug/lipid interactions at the molecular level represents an important challenge in pharmaceutical research and membrane biophysics. Previous studies showed differences in accumulation and ... [more ▼]

Probing drug/lipid interactions at the molecular level represents an important challenge in pharmaceutical research and membrane biophysics. Previous studies showed differences in accumulation and intracellular activity between two fluoroquinolones, ciprofloxacin and moxifloxacin, that may actually result from their differential susceptibility to efflux by the ciprofloxacin transporter. In view of the critical role of lipids for the drug cellular uptake and differences observed for the two closely related fluoroquinolones, we investigated the interactions of these two antibiotics with lipids, using an array of complementary techniques. Moxifloxacin induced, to a greater extent than ciprofloxacin, an erosion of the DPPC domains in the DOPC fluid phase (atomic force microscopy) and a shift of the surface pressure-area isotherms of DOPC/DPPC/fluoroquinolone monolayer toward lower area per molecule (Langmuir studies). These effects are related to a lower propensity of moxifloxacin to be released from lipid to aqueous phase (determined by phase transfer studies and conformational analysis) and a marked decrease of all-trans conformation of acyl-lipid chains of DPPC (determined by ATR-FTIR) without increase of lipid disorder and change in the tilt between the normal and the germanium surface (also determined by ATR-FTIR). All together, differences of ciprofloxacin as compared to moxifloxacin in their interactions with lipids could explain differences in their cellular accumulation and susceptibility to efflux transporters. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects Of Six Apoa5 Variants, Identified In Patients With Severe Hypertriglyceridemia, On In Vitro Lipoprotein Lipase Activity And Receptor Binding
Dorfmeister, B.; Zeng, Ww.; Dichlberger, A. et al

in Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology (2008), 28(10), 1866-71

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify rare APOA5 variants in 130 severe hypertriglyceridemic patients by sequencing, and to test their functionality, since no patient recall was possible ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify rare APOA5 variants in 130 severe hypertriglyceridemic patients by sequencing, and to test their functionality, since no patient recall was possible. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied the impact in vitro on LPL activity and receptor binding of 3 novel heterozygous variants, apoAV-E255G, -G271C, and -H321L, together with the previously reported -G185C, -Q139X, -Q148X, and a novel construct -Delta139 to 147. Using VLDL as a TG-source, compared to wild type, apoAV-G255, -L321 and -C185 showed reduced LPL activation (-25% [P=0.005], -36% [P<0.0001], and -23% [P=0.02]), respectively). ApoAV-C271, -X139, -X148, and Delta139 to 147 had little affect on LPL activity, but apoAV-X139, -X148, and -C271 showed no binding to LDL-family receptors, LR8 or LRP1. Although the G271C proband carried no LPL and APOC2 mutations, the H321L carrier was heterozygous for LPL P207L. The E255G carrier was homozygous for LPL W86G, yet only experienced severe hypertriglyceridemia when pregnant. CONCLUSIONS: The in vitro determined function of these apoAV variants only partly explains the high TG levels seen in carriers. Their occurrence in the homozygous state, coinheritance of LPL variants or common APOA5 TG-raising variant in trans, appears to be essential for their phenotypic expression. [less ▲]

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See detailRelationships between the orientation and the structural properties of peptides and their membrane interactions.
Lins, Laurence ULg; Decaffmeyer, Marc ULg; Thomas, Annick ULg et al

in Biochimica et biophysica acta (2008), 1778(7-8), 1537-44

Physical properties of membranes, such as fluidity, charge or curvature influence their function. Proteins and peptides can modulate those properties and conversely, the lipids can affect the activity and ... [more ▼]

Physical properties of membranes, such as fluidity, charge or curvature influence their function. Proteins and peptides can modulate those properties and conversely, the lipids can affect the activity and/or the structure of the former. Tilted peptides are short hydrophobic protein fragments characterized by an asymmetric distribution of their hydrophobic residues when helical. They were detected in viral fusion proteins and in proteins involved in different biological processes that need membrane destabilization. Those peptides and non lamellar lipids such as PE or PA appear to cooperate in the lipid destabilization process by enhancing the formation of negatively-curved domains. Such highly bent lipidic structures could favour the formation of the viral fusion pore intermediates or that of toroidal pores. Structural flexibility appears as another crucial property for the interaction of peptides with membranes. Computational analysis on another kind of lipid-interacting peptides, i.e. cell penetrating peptides (CPP) suggests that peptides being conformationally polymorphic should be more prone to traverse the bilayer. Future investigations on the structural intrinsic properties of tilted peptides and the influence of CPP on the bilayer organization using the techniques described in this chapter should help to further understand the molecular determinants of the peptide/lipid inter-relationships. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Minimal Fusion Peptide Of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Corresponds To The 11 First Residues Of Gp32
Lorin, A.; Lins, Laurence ULg; Stroobant, V. et al

in Journal of Peptide Science (2008), 14(4), 423-8

We had previously predicted successfully the minimal fusion peptides (FPs) of the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) gp41 and the bovine leukemia virus (BLV) gp30 using an original approach based on ... [more ▼]

We had previously predicted successfully the minimal fusion peptides (FPs) of the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) gp41 and the bovine leukemia virus (BLV) gp30 using an original approach based on the obliquity/fusogenicity relationship of tilted peptides. In this paper, we have used the same method to predict the shortest FP capable of inducing optimal fusion in vitro of the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) mac isolate and of other SIVs and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-2) isolates. In each case, the 11-residue-long peptide was predicted as the minimal FP. For the SIV mac isolate, liposome lipid-mixing and leakage assays confirmed that this peptide is the shortest peptide inducing optimal fusion in vitro, being therefore the minimal FP. These results are another piece of evidence that the tilted properties of FPs are important for the fusion process and that our method can be used to predict the minimal FPs of other viruses. [less ▲]

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See detailIn Silico tilted properties of the 67-78 fragment of alpha-synuclein are responsible for membrane destabilization and neurotoxicity
Crowet, Jean-Marc ULg; Lins, Laurence ULg; Dupiereux-Fettweis, Ingrid ULg et al

in Proteins-Structure Function and Bioinformatics (2007), 68(4), 936-947

Alpha-synuclein is a 140 residue protein associated with Parkinson's disease. Intraneural inclusions called Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites are mainly composed of alpha-synuclein aggregated into amyloid ... [more ▼]

Alpha-synuclein is a 140 residue protein associated with Parkinson's disease. Intraneural inclusions called Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites are mainly composed of alpha-synuclein aggregated into amyloid fibrils. Other amyloidogenic proteins, such as the beta amyloid peptide involved in Alzheimer's disease and the prion protein (PrP) associated with Creuztfeldt-Jakob's disease, are known to possess "tilted peptides". These peptides are short protein fragments that adopt an oblique orientation at a hydrophobic/hydrophilic interface, which enables destabilization of the membranes. In this paper, sequence analysis and molecular modelling predict that the 67-78 fragment of alpha-synuclein is a tilted peptide. Its destabilizing properties were tested experimentally. The alpha-synuclein 67-78 peptide is able to induce lipid mixing and leakage of unilamellar liposomes. The neuronal toxicity, studied using human neuroblastoma cells, demonstrated that the alpha-synuclein 67-78 peptide induces neurotoxicity. A mutant designed by molecular modelling to be amphipathic was shown to be significantly less fusogenic and toxic than the wild type. In conclusion, we have identified a tilted peptide in alpha-synuclein, which could be involved in the toxicity induced during amyloidogenesis of alpha-synuclein. [less ▲]

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See detailAntiangiogenic peptides
Martial, Joseph ULg; Struman, Ingrid ULg; Nguyen, Ngoc-Quynh-Nhu ULg et al

Patent (2007)

The present invention refers to antiangiogenic peptides, especially to tilted peptides having antiangiogenic properties and peptides from the prolactin/growth hormone familiy having antiangiogenic ... [more ▼]

The present invention refers to antiangiogenic peptides, especially to tilted peptides having antiangiogenic properties and peptides from the prolactin/growth hormone familiy having antiangiogenic properties. [less ▲]

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See detailPeculiar hydrophobic properties of the 67-78 fragment of α-synuclein are responsible for membrane destabilization and neurotoxicity
Crowet, Jean-Marc ULg; Lins, Laurence ULg; Dupiereux-Fettweis, Ingrid ULg et al

Poster (2007, March 14)

α-synuclein is a 140 residue protein linked to Parkinson’s disease. Intraneural inclusions called Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites are mainly composed of α-synuclein aggregated in amyloid fibrils. Few years ... [more ▼]

α-synuclein is a 140 residue protein linked to Parkinson’s disease. Intraneural inclusions called Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites are mainly composed of α-synuclein aggregated in amyloid fibrils. Few years ago, tilted peptides have been detected in two other amyloidogenic proteins : the amyloid β peptide involved in Alzheimer’s disease, and the PrP protein linked to Creuztfeldt-Jakob’s disease. Tilted peptides are short protein fragments that adopt an oblique orientation when inserted into biological membranes. Tilted peptides are able to destabilize membranes. In this study, we predicted by sequence analysis and molecular modelling that the 67-78 fragment of α-synuclein is a tilted peptide. Like most of them, the α-syn 67-78 peptide is able to induce lipid mixing and leakage of unilamellar liposomes. A mutant designed by molecular modelling to decrease the destabilizing properties of the peptide was shown to be significantly less fusogenic. The neuronal toxicity was studied using human neuroblastoma cells and we demonstrated that the α-syn 67-78 peptide induces neurotoxicity. In conclusion, we have identified a tilted peptide in α-synuclein which could be involved in the toxicity induced during amyloidogenesis of α-synuclein. [less ▲]

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See detailDetermination Of The Minimal Fusion Peptide Of Bovine Leukemia Virus Gp30
Lorin, A.; Lins, Laurence ULg; Stroobant, V. et al

in Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications (2007), 355(3), 649-53

In this study, we determined the minimal N-terminal fusion peptide of the gp30 of the bovine leukemia virus on the basis of the tilted peptide theory. We first used molecular modelling to predict that the ... [more ▼]

In this study, we determined the minimal N-terminal fusion peptide of the gp30 of the bovine leukemia virus on the basis of the tilted peptide theory. We first used molecular modelling to predict that the gp30 minimal fusion peptide corresponds to the 15 first residues. Liposome lipid-mixing and leakage assays confirmed that the 15-residue long peptide induces fusion in vitro and that it is the shortest peptide inducing optimal fusion since longer peptides destabilize liposomes to the same extent but not shorter ones. The 15-residue long peptide can thus be considered as the minimal fusion peptide. The effect of mutations reported in the literature was also investigated. Interestingly, mutations related to glycoproteins unable to induce syncytia in cell-cell fusion assays correspond to peptides predicted as non-tilted. The relationship between obliquity and fusogenicity was also confirmed in vitro for one tilted and one non-tilted mutant peptide. [less ▲]

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See detailDecrease Of Elastic Moduli Of Dopc Bilayers Induced By A Macrolide Antibiotic, Azithromycin
Fa, N.; Lins, Laurence ULg; Courtoy, Pj. et al

in Biochimica et Biophysica Acta-Biomembranes (2007), 1768(7), 1830-8

The elastic properties of membrane bilayers are key parameters that control its deformation and can be affected by pharmacological agents. Our previous atomic force microscopy studies revealed that the ... [more ▼]

The elastic properties of membrane bilayers are key parameters that control its deformation and can be affected by pharmacological agents. Our previous atomic force microscopy studies revealed that the macrolide antibiotic, azithromycin, leads to erosion of DPPC domains in a fluid DOPC matrix [A. Berquand, M. P. Mingeot-Leclercq, Y. F. Dufrene, Real-time imaging of drug-membrane interactions by atomic force microscopy, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1664 (2004) 198-205.]. Since this observation could be due to an effect on DOPC cohesion, we investigated the effect of azithromycin on elastic properties of DOPC giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs). Microcinematographic and morphometric analyses revealed that azithromycin addition enhanced lipid membranes fluctuations, leading to eventual disruption of the largest GUVs. These effects were related to change of elastic moduli of DOPC, quantified by the micropipette aspiration technique. Azithromycin decreased both the bending modulus (k(c), from 23.1+/-3.5 to 10.6+/-4.5 k(B)T) and the apparent area compressibility modulus (K(app), from 176+/-35 to 113+/-25 mN/m). These data suggested that insertion of azithromycin into the DOPC bilayer reduced the requirement level of both the energy for thermal fluctuations and the stress to stretch the bilayer. Computer modeling of azithromycin interaction with DOPC bilayer, based on minimal energy, independently predicted that azithromycin (i) inserts at the interface of phospholipid bilayers, (ii) decreases the energy of interaction between DOPC molecules, and (iii) increases the mean surface occupied by each phospholipid molecule. We conclude that azithromycin inserts into the DOPC lipid bilayer, so as to decrease its cohesion and to facilitate the merging of DPPC into the DOPC fluid matrix, as observed by atomic force microscopy. These investigations, based on three complementary approaches, provide the first biophysical evidence for the ability of an amphiphilic antibiotic to alter lipid elastic moduli. This may be an important determinant for drug: lipid interactions and cellular pharmacology. [less ▲]

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