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See detailSchmallenberg virus circulation among red and roe deer populations in Belgium
Garigliany, Mutien-Marie ULg; Volpe, Rosario ULg; Paternostre, Julien ULg et al

in 31th Congress of the International Union of Game Biologists, Abstract Book (2013, August 27)

Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is a recently discovered vector-borne Orthobunyavirus targeting ruminants. It is transmitted by Culicoides biting midges and caused a large outbreak in European sheep and cattle ... [more ▼]

Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is a recently discovered vector-borne Orthobunyavirus targeting ruminants. It is transmitted by Culicoides biting midges and caused a large outbreak in European sheep and cattle populations in 2011 and 2012. The infection of adults was associated with a drop in milk production, fever and diarrhea. But the virus was further shown to cross the placental barrier and to be responsible for a hydrocephaly/arthrogryposis syndrome in calves and lambs. After its occurrence in 2011 in Germany, SBV quickly spread across Europe and in spring 2012 more than 90% of Belgian domestic cattle had seroconverted. To assess the susceptibility of wild ruminants to the infection, a total number of 547 and 494 sera, from red (Cervus elaphus) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), respectively, were collected during the hunting seasons 2010 to 2012 and tested for the presence of anti-SBV antibodies. While no samples from 2010 revealed to be positive, about two-thirds of red deer and half of roe deer sampled in 2011 were seropositive. In 2012, the seroprevalence dropped to 33% in red deer and remained stable in roe deer. The high seroprevalence rates found in both species in Belgium shows that wild ruminants are susceptible to the infection by SBV. If the infection of deer was associated to a hydrocephaly/arthrogryposis syndrome similar to that observed in domestic ruminants is still unknown. There is currently no evidence of such a transplacental passage in red or roe deer. The decrease in the seroprevalence observed in red deer in 2012 might be the result of the turn-over in the red deer population and reflect an absence of virus circulation in 2012. Further investigations in the upcoming years will help to enlighten this point. [less ▲]

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See detailDetection of antibodies against Schmallenberg virus in wild boars, Belgium, 2010-2012
Desmecht, Daniel ULg; Garigliany, Mutien-Marie ULg; Beer, Martin et al

in Lecoq, Yves (Ed.) 31th Congress of the International Union of Game Biologists (2013, August 27)

In the summer/fall of 2011, a nonspecific febrile syndrome characterized by hyperthermia and drop in milk production with occasional reports of watery diarrhea and abortion was reported among dairy cows ... [more ▼]

In the summer/fall of 2011, a nonspecific febrile syndrome characterized by hyperthermia and drop in milk production with occasional reports of watery diarrhea and abortion was reported among dairy cows on farms in northwestern Europe. Further, in November 2011, an enzootic outbreak of malformed neonates emerged in several European countries, with stillbirth and birth at term of lambs, kids and calves with neurological signs or malformations of the head, spine, or limbs. Both syndromes were associated with the presence in the blood (adults) or in the central nervous system (newborns) of a new Shamonda/Sathuperi-like orthobunyavirus, provisionally named Schmallenberg virus (SBV) after the town in Germany where the first positive clinical samples were identified. Defining as precisely as possible the host range of the newcomer is a key point to predict the outcome of the emergence of SBV disease in Europe. In this respect, it must be pointed out that orthobunyaviruses infect more animal species than those in which the foetus is damaged. Recently, serological evidence for SBV infection in wild ruminant species (Cervus elaphus and Capreolus capreolus) was reported (Linden et al., 2012). In the present study, the objective was to seek after serological evidence of SBV infection among wild boars living in a geographical area where exposure to infected insect vectors was high in 2011, as judged from the very high seroprevalence reported among cattle in that region. About 700 animals were sampled during the 2010-2012 hunting seasons. All serum samples collected during the fall of 2010 were seronegative. On the contrary, apparent seroprevalence among wild boars in 2011 was ~27% and started to decline in 2012 (~11%). Acquired immunity against the new virus was thus already very high in the wild boar populations sampled in the fall 2011, suggesting that the new virus had quickly spread throughout the region since its emergence about 250 km northeast in the late summer 2011. The drop in seroprevalence recorded in 2012 suggests that the virus was no more circulating in the region. [less ▲]

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See detailEpizootic spread of emerging Schmallenberg virus in wild cervids, Belgium, fall 2011
Linden, Annick ULg; Desmecht, Daniel ULg; Volpe, Rosario ULg et al

in Emerging Infectious Diseases (2012), 18(12), 2006-2008

The Schmallenberg virus emerged in summer-fall 2011 in North-West Europe. During the fall of 2011, the virus widely spread in red and roe deer populations living about 250 km from the emergence location.

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See detailParatuberculosis in wildlife
Linden, Annick ULg

in Gavier-Widen, Dolores; Duff, Paul; Meredith, Anna (Eds.) Infectious Diseases of Wild Mammals and Birds in Europe (2012)

Paratuberculosis, or Johne’s disease, is a chronic granulomatous enteritis of ruminants found worldwide and caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map). The disease remains a subject of ... [more ▼]

Paratuberculosis, or Johne’s disease, is a chronic granulomatous enteritis of ruminants found worldwide and caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map). The disease remains a subject of concern in many countries because diagnosis and control in livestock are difficult and expensive and due to possible zoonotic links with Crohn’s disease. The table of contents of the chapter “Paratuberculosis in wildlife” is presented below: - Aetiology - Epidemiology - Pathogenesis, Pathology and Immunity - Clinical signs and treatment - Diagnosis - Management, control and regulations - Public health concern - Significance and implication for animal health - Acknowledgements - References [less ▲]

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See detailSchmallenberg virus: a new Shamonda/Sathuperi-like virus on the rise in Europe
Garigliany, Mutien-Marie ULg; Bayrou, Calixte ULg; Kleijnen, Déborah ULg et al

in Antiviral Research (2012), 95

In the summer-fall of 2011, a nonspecific febrile syndrome characterized by hyperthermia, drop in milk production and watery diarrhea was reported in adult dairy cows from a series of farms located in ... [more ▼]

In the summer-fall of 2011, a nonspecific febrile syndrome characterized by hyperthermia, drop in milk production and watery diarrhea was reported in adult dairy cows from a series of farms located in North-West Europe. Further, in November 2011, an enzootic outbreak of abortion, stillbirth and birth at term of lambs, kids and calves with neurologic signs and/or head, spine or limb malformations emerged throughout several European countries. Both syndromes were associated with the presence in the blood (adults) or in the central nervous system (newborns) of the genome of a new Shamonda-like orthobunyavirus provisionally named Schmallenberg virus after the place where the first positive samples were collected. The clinical, pathological, virological and epidemiological facts that were made publicly available during the first 6 months after the emergence are presented here. Current knowledge of the epidemiology of the phylogenetically closest relatives of the newcomer (Shamonda, Aino and Akabane viruses) is not exhaustive enough to predict whether the current outbreak of Schmallenberg virus is the prelude to endemicity or to a 2 years long outbreak before the infection burns out when serologically naïve animals are no longer available. In the future, cyclic epizootic reemergences are a possibility too, either synchronized with a global decrease of herd immunity or due to antigenic variants escaping the immunity acquired against their predecessors. The latter hypothesis seems unlikely because of the wide array of biologic constraints acting on the genome of viruses whose life cycle requires transmission by a vector, which represses genetic drift. The remarkable stability of the Shamonda virus genome over the last forty years is reassuring in this regard. [less ▲]

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See detailClinical significance of Escherichia albertii
Ooka, Tadasuke; Seto, Kazuko; Linden, Annick ULg et al

in Emerging Infectious Diseases (2012), 18(3), 488-492

Discriminating Escherichia albertii from other Enterobacteriaceae is diffi cult. Systematic analyses showed that E. albertii represents a substantial portion of strains currently identifi ed as eae ... [more ▼]

Discriminating Escherichia albertii from other Enterobacteriaceae is diffi cult. Systematic analyses showed that E. albertii represents a substantial portion of strains currently identifi ed as eae-positive Escherichia coli and includes Shiga toxin 2f–producing strains. Because E. albertii possesses the eae gene, many strains might have been misidentifi ed as enterohemorrhagic or enteropathogenic E. coli. [less ▲]

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See detailFoci report on indigenous Dermacentor reticulatus populations in Belgium and a preliminary study of associated babesiosis pathogens.
Cochez, C.; Lempereur, Laetitia ULg; Madder, Maxime et al

in Medical and Veterinary Entomology (2012), 26(3), 355-358

The occurrence of autochthonous clinical cases of canine and equine babesiosis in Belgium during the last two decades suggests that the vector of the pathogens responsible for these diseases, Dermacentor ... [more ▼]

The occurrence of autochthonous clinical cases of canine and equine babesiosis in Belgium during the last two decades suggests that the vector of the pathogens responsible for these diseases, Dermacentor reticulatus (Ixodida: Ixodidae), may be present in this country. Consequently, evidence for the presence of this tick species in different locations within Belgium was investigated. Four different locations were monitored by flagging in 2010; these included the locations at which D. reticulatus was previously found on a dog in 2009 and on two red deer in 2007. Two different species of tick were identified, Ixodes ricinus (Ixodida: Ixodidae) and D. reticulatus. A total of 282 D. reticulatus adult ticks (98 males, 184 females) were collected from the four sites. Ticks were found mainly from early March until the end of May and a peak in activity was apparent in March. A Babesia spp. (Piroplasmida: Babesiidae) genus-specific polymerase chain reaction test based on the amplification of a fragment of the 18S rRNA gene was used to investigate the potential presence of Babesia spp. All DNA extracts isolated from the total tick samples yielded negative results. Additional studies to accurately determine the distribution and vectorial capacity of this important tick species in Belgium are warranted. [less ▲]

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See detailWild Cervids Are Host for Tick Vectors of Babesia Species with Zoonotic Capability in Belgium
Lempereur, Laetitia ULg; Wirtgen, Marc ULg; Nahayo, Adrien ULg et al

in Vector Borne & Zoonotic Diseases (2012), 12(4), 275-280

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See detailTickborne encephalitis virus antibodies in wild cervids in Belgium
Linden, Annick ULg; Wirtgen, Marc ULg; Nahayo, Adrien et al

in Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association (2012), 170

This study is the first TBE serological screening of wild sentinel species performed in Belgium. Our results provide indirect evidence of the presence of TBEV in at least two different microfoci in ... [more ▼]

This study is the first TBE serological screening of wild sentinel species performed in Belgium. Our results provide indirect evidence of the presence of TBEV in at least two different microfoci in southern Belgium. Larger-scale screenings are currently being carried out to evaluate the potential TBE risk areas in the region. [less ▲]

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See detailPost-mortem examination and laboratory-based analysis for the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis among dairy cattle in Ecuador
Proano-Perez, F.; Benitez-Ortiz, Washington; Desmecht, Daniel ULg et al

in Preventive Veterinary Medicine (2011), 101(1-2), 65-72

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See detailDetection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Dermacentor reticulatus ticks
Wirtgen, Marc ULg; Nahayo, A.; Linden, Annick ULg et al

in Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association (2011), 168(9), 248

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See detailSurveillance of wildlife diseases in Belgium
Linden, Annick ULg; Wirtgen, Marc ULg; Volpe, Rosario ULg et al

in Epidémiologie et Santé Animale (2011), 59-60

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See detailSituation of bovine tuberculosis in Ecuador
Proano-Perez, Freddy; Benitez, Washington; Portaels, Franç!oise et al

in Revista panamericana de salud publica (2011), 30(3), 279-286

Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a chronic and contagious disease that affects domestic animals, wildlife, and humans. Caused by Mycobacterium bovis, BTB causes major economic losses and poses a serious ... [more ▼]

Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a chronic and contagious disease that affects domestic animals, wildlife, and humans. Caused by Mycobacterium bovis, BTB causes major economic losses and poses a serious constraint to international livestock trade. Moreover, in developing countries where BTB controls are lacking, M. bovis is a public health concern. In most developing countries, the prevalence of BTB in livestock is unknown because the information is either not reported or not available. In Ecuador, there is no national BTB control program. This article reviews the BTB situation in Ecuador by examining exhaustive data from tuberculin testing surveys and slaughterhouse surveillance studies conducted in 1972–2008 in a variety of the country’s geographic areas. In Ecuador, several factors, including the dairy industry’s expansion (preempted by the high demand for milk and its byproducts), intensified efforts to increase the cattle population, the presence of M. bovis, and a lack of BTB controls, have caused a rise in BTB prevalence, and consequently, a growing push for the implementation of a national BTB control program. [less ▲]

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See detailRole of wild animals in epidemiology of paratuberculosis
Linden, Annick ULg

in Paratuberculosis of ruminants (2010)

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See detailEnteropathogenic (EPEC), enterohaemorragic (EHEC) and verotoxigenic (VTEC) Escherichia coli in wild cervids
Bardiau, Marjorie ULg; Grégoire, Fabien ULg; Muylaert, Adeline ULg et al

in Journal of Applied Microbiology (2010), 109(6), 2214-2222

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See detailCattle enterotoxaemia and Clostridium perfringens: description, diagnosis and prophylaxis
Lebrun, M.; Mainil, Jacques ULg; Linden, Annick ULg

in Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association (2010), 167(1), 13-22

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See detailBluetongue virus in wild deer, Belgium, 2005-2008
Linden, Annick ULg; Grégoire, Fabien ULg; Nahayo, A. et al

in Emerging Infectious Diseases (2010), 16(5), 833-836

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See detailComparative intradermal tuberculin test in dairy cattle in the north of Ecuador and risk factors associated with bovine tuberculosis
Proano-Perez, F.; Benitez-Ortiz, Washington; Celi-Erazo, M. et al

in American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (The) (2009), 81(6), 1103-1109

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