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See detailFermentable non-starch polysaccharides increase the excretion of bacterial proteins in the pig's faeces and reduce urinary N excretion.
Bindelle, Jérôme ULg; Leterme, Pascal; Wavreille, José et al

in Journal of Animal Science (2008), 86(suppl. 3), 101

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See detailThe source of fermentable carbohydrates influences the in vitro protein synthesis by colonic bacteria isolated from pigs
Bindelle, Jérôme ULg; Buldgen, André; Wavreille, José et al

in Animal (2007), 1(8), 1126-1133

Two in vitro experiments were carried out to quantify the incorporation of nitrogen (N) by pig colonic bacteria during the fermentation of dietary fibre, including non-starch polysaccharides and resistant ... [more ▼]

Two in vitro experiments were carried out to quantify the incorporation of nitrogen (N) by pig colonic bacteria during the fermentation of dietary fibre, including non-starch polysaccharides and resistant starch. In the first experiment, five purified carbohydrates were used: starch (S), cellulose (C), inulin (I), pectin (P) and xylan (X). In the second experiment, three pepsin–pancreatin hydrolysed ingredients were investigated: potato, sugar-beet pulp and wheat bran. The substrates were incubated in an inoculum, prepared from fresh faeces of sows and a buffer solution providing 15N-labelled NH4Cl. Gas production was monitored. Bacterial N incorporation (BNI) was estimated by measuring the incorporation of 15N in the solid residue at halftime to asymptotic gas production (T/2). The remaining substrate was analysed for sugar content. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) were determined in the liquid phase. In the first experiment, the fermentation kinetics differed between the substrates. P, S and I showed higher rates of degradation (P,0.001), while X and C showed a longer lag time and T/2. The sugar disappearance reached 0.91, 0.90, 0.81, 0.56 and 0.46, respectively, for P, I, S, C and X. Among them, S and I fixed more N per gram substrate (P,0.05) than C, X and P (22.9 and 23.2mg fixed N per gram fermented substrate v. 11.3, 12.3 and 9.8, respectively). Production of SCFA was the highest for the substrates with low N fixation: 562 and 565 mg/g fermented substrate for X and C v. 290 to 451 for P, I and S (P,0.01). In the second experiment, potato and sugar-beet pulp fermented more rapidly than wheat bran (P,0.001). Substrate disappearance at T/2 varied from 0.17 to 0.50. BNI were 18.3, 17.0 and 10.2 fixed N per gram fermented substrate, for sugar-beet pulp, potato and wheat bran, respectively, but were not statistically different. SCFA productions were the highest with wheat bran (913mg/g fermented substrate) followed by sugar-beet pulp (641) and potato (556) (P,0.05). The differences in N uptake by intestinal bacteria are linked to the partitioning of the substrate energy content between bacterial growth and SCFA production. This partitioning varies according to the rate of fermentation and the chemical composition of the substrate, as shown by the regression equation linking BNI to T/2 and SCFA (r250.91, P,0.01) and the correlation between BNI and insoluble dietary fibre (r520.77, P,0.05) when pectin was discarded from the database. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect Of Bovine Colostrum Supplementation On Cytokine mRNA Expression In Weaned Piglets
Boudry, Christelle ULg; Buldgen, André; Portetelle, Daniel ULg et al

in Livestock Science (2007), 108(1-3), 295-298

The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of a bovine colostrum supplementation on the immune Th1/Th2 response in weaned piglets. After weaning at 21 days, 21 piglets were fed daily ad libitum ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of a bovine colostrum supplementation on the immune Th1/Th2 response in weaned piglets. After weaning at 21 days, 21 piglets were fed daily ad libitum with a starter diet supplemented for 3 weeks with 0, 1 or 5 g of bovine colostrum. Growth performances were measured weekly. Spleen and gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) (ileal Peyer’s patch (iPP), jejunum wall (JW) and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN)) biopsies were collected on each piglet after the 3 weeks treatment and analyzed for their cytokine mRNA expression (IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12 and IFN) by RT-PCR. Growth performances were not affected by bovine colostrum (P > 0.05). In the colostrum groups, the iPP cells showed higher IL-4, IL-10 and IL-12 cytokine levels (P < 0,05), associated with a decrease of IFN-γ (P < 0,01) and no effect on IL-2 production (P > 0,05). IL-10, IL-2 and IL-12 productions increased (P < 0,05) in MLN, with no effect on IFN-γ and IL-4 levels (P > 0,05). The IL-12 production was also increased (P < 0,01) in JW cells with no modification for the other cytokine. No modification of cytokine production was observed in the spleen (P > 0,05). These results suggest an immunomodulatory effect of bovine colostrum on the GALT which answered by producing, at different levels, both Th1 pro-inflammatory cytokines - IL-2, IFN-γ and IL-12 - and Th2 anti-inflammatory cytokines - IL-4 and IL-10. This bipolarity of the Th1/Th2 response protects the weaned piglets from both allergic (food) as well as infectious (pathogens) diseases. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of purified dietary fibre on bacterial protein synthesis in the large intestine of pigs, as measured by the gas production technique.
Bindelle, Jérôme ULg; Buldgen, André; Michaux, David et al

in Livestock Science (2007), 109

Microbial fermentation of non-digestible carbohydrates in the pig's large intestine induces a shift of N excretion from urea in urine to bacterial protein in faeces. Experiments were carried out to ... [more ▼]

Microbial fermentation of non-digestible carbohydrates in the pig's large intestine induces a shift of N excretion from urea in urine to bacterial protein in faeces. Experiments were carried out to measure the mineral N incorporation by the pig intestinal microflora using 5 purified carbohydrates in a gas-test: starch (S), cellulose (C), inulin (I), pectin (P) and xylan (X). Fermentation kinetics was modelled. N source in the buffer solution was replaced by 15N labelled NH4Cl. The bacterial N fixation was determined at mid-fermentation, measuring 15N incorporation into the solid phase of the buffer. The bacterial N fixation was higher (Pb0.001) with I and S (19.9 and 18.1 mg N/g incubated DM), compared to P, C and X (8.7, 5.9 and 5.5 respectively). Inulin and S were fermented also more rapidly, even if I (0.081 h−1) and C (0.074 h−1) showed lower half time fractional rate of degradation than S (0.153 h−1), P (0.133 h−1) and X (0.104 h−1). The insoluble dietary fibre content of the substrates was negatively correlated to bacterial N fixation (r=−0.957, P=0.011). The high crude protein content of P (32.5 mg g−1DM) might explain the lower impact of this substrate on bacterial N fixation, despite its rapid fermentation. Beside the proportion of insoluble fibre, the N content and the rate of fermentation seem to be the major factors influencing bacterial protein synthesis. Further studies including ingredients with variable content of indigestible protein and mean retention time in the pig's intestines are necessary. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of pig faecal donor and of pig diet composition on in vitro fermentation of sugar beet pulp.
Bindelle, Jérôme ULg; Buldgen, André; Lambotte, Damien et al

in Animal Feed Science & Technology (2007), 132

Two experiments were undertaken to investigate the influence of (1) pig bodyweight and (2) dietary fibre content of the diet on the in vitro gas production of sugar beet pulp fibre using faecal inoculum ... [more ▼]

Two experiments were undertaken to investigate the influence of (1) pig bodyweight and (2) dietary fibre content of the diet on the in vitro gas production of sugar beet pulp fibre using faecal inoculum. In the first experiment, inocula prepared from young pigs (Y; 16–50 kg), growing pigs (G; 62–93 kg) and sows (S; 216–240 kg) were compared. Sugar beet pulp, hydrolysed in vitro with pepsin and then pancreatin, was used as the fermentation substrate. The cumulated gas productions over 144 h were modelled and the kinetics parameters compared. Lag times (Y: 4.6 h; G: 6.4 h; S: 9.2 h) and halftimes to asymptote (Y: 14.7 h; G: 15.9 h; S: 20.8 h) increased with pig bodyweight (P<0.001) and the fractional degradation rates of the substrate differed between the pig categories (Y: 0.110 h−1; G: 0.115 h−1; S: 0.100 h−1; P<0.001). The final gas productionwas not affected (P=0.10) by the inoculum source. In the second experiment hydrolysed sugar beet pulp was fermented with four inocula prepared from pigs fed diets differing in their total and soluble dietary fibre contents, i.e. low fibre diet rich in soluble fibre (LOW-S) or in insoluble fibre (LOW-I) or high fibre diet rich in soluble fibre (HIGHS) or in insoluble fibre (HIGH-I). The total and the soluble dietary fibres influenced the kinetics of gas production. The presence of soluble fibres decreased the lag times, whatever the total dietaryfibre content (2.7 h for LOW-S versus 3.5 h for LOW-I, 4.0 h for HIGH-S versus 4.4 h for HIGH-I; P<0.001). The half-times to asymptote were higher with the low fibre diets (P<0.001) and, for similar total dietary fibre contents, they were lower when the proportion of soluble fibres increased (LOW-S: 9.9 h; LOW-I: 11.4 h; HIGH-S: 8.9 h; HIGH-I: 10.1 h; P<0.001). The fractional degradation rates of the substrate were the highest with the fibre-rich diet containing a high proportion of soluble fibres (0.158 h−1; P<0.001). In conclusion, the bodyweight of the faeces donors and the dietary fibre composition of the pig diet influence the in vitro fermentation kinetics of hydrolysed sugar beet pulp, but not the final gas production. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect Of Inoculum And Pepsin-Pancreatin Hydrolysis On Fibre Fermentation Mecasured By The Gas Production Technique In Pigs
Bindelle, Jérôme ULg; Buldgen, André; Boudry, Christelle ULg et al

in Animal Feed Science & Technology (2007), 132(1-2), 111-122

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See detailBacterial protein synthesis in the pig's large intestine varies according to the fermented non-starch polysaccharides.
Bindelle, Jérôme ULg; Leterme, Pascal; Destain, Jean-Pierre ULg et al

in Journal of Animal Science (2007), 85(Suppl. 2), 114-115

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See detailEfecto del derivado de la lactosa sobre la población microbiana de muestras fecales de cerdos posdestete.
Rosero, Olga Lucia; Leterme, Pascal; Bindelle, Jérôme ULg et al

in Acta Agronomica (2006), 55

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See detailNutritive value of tropical tree leaf meals in adult sows.
Leterme, Pascal; Botero, M.; Londono, A. M. et al

in Animal Science (2006), 82

Tree leaf meals (TLM) are increasingly used in the tropics to feed pigs. The nutritive value of the TLM of cocoyam (Xanthosoma saggitifolium), mulberry (Morus alba) and Trichanthera gigantea, their effect ... [more ▼]

Tree leaf meals (TLM) are increasingly used in the tropics to feed pigs. The nutritive value of the TLM of cocoyam (Xanthosoma saggitifolium), mulberry (Morus alba) and Trichanthera gigantea, their effect on the digestive tract and their fermentation rate in the large intestine, were determined in adult sows given diets containing 150 or 300 g TLM per kg. The TLM contained from 8·5 to 12·0 MJ digestible energy per kg dry matter (DM) and from 60 to 125 g digestible protein per kg DM. The digestibility was not affected ( P>0·05) by their rate of incorporation in the diet. The apparent ileal protein digestibility of the diets containing 300 g TLM per kg was also determined by the slaughtering method. It reached 80% for the basal diet and 54, 70 and 74% for the Trichanthera-, mulberry- and cocoyam-based diets, respectively. No diet effect ( P>0·05) was observed on the weight and length of the gastro-intestinal tract, with the exception of a heavier caecum in sows given the Trichanthera-based diet ( P<0·01). The pH of the gastric fluid of these sows was also higher ( P<0·001). The fermentation of the dietary fibre in the large intestine was evaluated by the gas technique using syringes. The cocoyam leaves presented the highest amount of total gas produced after fibre fermentation ( P<0·001). The ranking order of gas production was identical to that observed for the digestibility coefficients: Trichanthera <mulberry <cocoyam. In conclusion, TLM can represent up to 0·3 of a diet for sows. Their use in sow nutrition may be considered in tropical regions where protein sources are scarce. [less ▲]

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See detailA rapid estimation of nitrogen bound to neutral detergent fibre in forages by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy.
Bindelle, Jérôme ULg; Sinnaeve, Georges; Dardenne, Pierre et al

in XXth International Grassland Congress: Offered papers (2005)

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See detailProductions animales et contraintes environnementales.
Thewis, André ULg; Leterme, Pascal

in Thewis, André; Bourbouze, R.; Compère, Roger (Eds.) et al Manuel de Zootechnie comparée Nord-Sud. (2005)

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See detailMise au point d'une méthode de détermination in vitro du taux de fermentation des fibres dans le gros intestin du porc
Boudry, Christelle ULg; Buldgen, André; Anciaux, Benoit et al

in 36èmes Journées de la Recherche Porcine (2004, February)

L’objectif des études synthétisées dans cette communication consiste à mettre au point une méthode in vitro, simple, fiable et respectueuse du bien-être animal, pour mesurer la fermentation des fibres ... [more ▼]

L’objectif des études synthétisées dans cette communication consiste à mettre au point une méthode in vitro, simple, fiable et respectueuse du bien-être animal, pour mesurer la fermentation des fibres dans le gros intestin du porc. Les travaux ont été réalisés en adaptant la méthode de BOISEN et FERNANDEZ à la pepsine-pancréatine pour simuler la digestion des aliments dans la première partie du tube digestif. La méthode d’incubation en seringues de MENKE et STEINGASS a ensuite été utilisée pour quantifier la production de gaz des résidus de la prédigestion. Les expériences, réalisées au moyen de porcs en croissance, ont porté sur la quantité et le mode de filtration des substrats prédigérés par la pepsine-pancréatine, l’identification d’un aliment de référence, la dilution des inoculi dans la solution tampon en seringues et la comparaison des fermentations, en utilisant comme inoculi des contenus d’intestin ou des matières fécales. Les résultats montrent que la répétabilité de la digestion in vitro par la pepsine-pancréatine est satisfaisante et que les quantités d’aliment incubées peuvent être augmentées par rapport à la méthode de référence. La filtration des résidus peut être réalisée sur creusets filtrants ou sur toile Nylon. La pulpe de betterave constitue un aliment témoin idéal. Après 24 h d’incubation, la production de gaz obtenue à partir d’inoculi fécaux dilués 20 fois dans la solution tampon est identique à celle enregistrée à partir d’inoculi intestinaux dilués 10 fois dans le même tampon. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect Of Pig Bodyweight On Ileal Amino Acid Endogenous Losses After Ingestion Of A Protein-Free Diet Enriched In Pea Inner Fibre Isolates
Leterme, Pascal; Thewis, André ULg

in Reproduction Nutrition Development (2004), 44(5), 407-417

The present study was conducted to evaluate whether bodyweight and the micronisation of dietary fibre affect the endogenous nitrogen and amino acid losses (ENL and EAAL) in pigs. The effect of the ... [more ▼]

The present study was conducted to evaluate whether bodyweight and the micronisation of dietary fibre affect the endogenous nitrogen and amino acid losses (ENL and EAAL) in pigs. The effect of the micronising process was tested by providing pigs with 90 g DM·kg–1 BW0.75 of a N-free diet supplemented with isolated pea inner fibres, presented in native or micronised form and with a water-holding capacity of 12 and 4 g water·g–1 DM, respectively. ENL and EAAL were measured on pigs weighing 24, 62 and 105 kg. In all cases, daily ENL increased linearly (P < 0.05) with BW, for the majority of the AA and total N. As BW increased, daily ENL, total EAAL and the majority of EAAL increased linearly independently of micronisation (P < 0.05). When expressed per kg DMI, total EAAL and the majority of each EAA decreased curvilinearly and reached nadir at around 100 kg BW. For ENL expressed per kg DMI, micronisation resulted in a curvilinear decrease with increasing BW, as compared to a linear decrease for pigs fed the native pea fibre diet (non-micronised). Micronisation of pea inner fibres did not decrease ENL or EAAL daily, except for proline. When the losses were expressed as g·k–1g DMI, micronisation did not decrease ENL but decreased (P < 0.05) endogenous losses for a majority of AA as well as for total AA. The results suggest that small pigs excrete more endogenous N per kg DMI than large pigs and that pea fibre micronisation reduces EAAL but not ENL when expressed per kg DMI. [less ▲]

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See detailValor nutricional de la hoja de nacedero (Trichanthera gigantea) y de boré (Xhantosoma sp.) en cerdos
Caicedo, A. L.; Quirama, A. M.; Londoño, A. M. et al

in XII Encuentro Nacional de Zootecnia (2002, October)

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See detailValor Nutricional de las plantas acuaticas Azolla y Salvinia en cerdos
Rosales, A.; Quintero, J.; Buritica, A. et al

in XII Encuentro Nacional de Zootecnia (2002, October)

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See detailValor nutricional de la hoja de nacedero (Trichanthera gigantea) y de boré (Xhantosoma sp.) en cerdos
Quirama, A. M.; Caicedo, A. L.; Londoño, A. M. et al

in Ospina, S. (Ed.) Tres especies vegetales promisorias : Nacedero, Oro, Bore (2002)

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See detailAdditivity of ileal endogenous losses and real digestibilities of amino acids determined by means of the 15N-labelled diets technique in growing pigs fed various feedstuffs.
Dehareng, Daniel; Leterme, Pascal; Peyronnet, Corinne et al

in Lindberg, J. E.; Ogle, B. (Eds.) Digestive physiology in pigs. Proceedings of the 8th Symposium, SwedishUniversity of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden, 20-22 June 2000 (2001)

The ileal endogenous losses and the real digestibilities of protein and amino acids from wheat, barley, pea, faba bean and rapeseed meal were determined in growing pigs by means of the 15N-labelled diet ... [more ▼]

The ileal endogenous losses and the real digestibilities of protein and amino acids from wheat, barley, pea, faba bean and rapeseed meal were determined in growing pigs by means of the 15N-labelled diet technique. The ileal real digestibilities were additive when the feedstuffs were mixed together, in contrast to the ileal endogenous losses which, apart from endogenous lysine excretion, did not show any additivity. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect Of Barley Fibres And Barley Intake On The Ileal Endogenous Nitrogen Losses In Piglets
Leterme, Pascal; Souffrant, Wb.; Thewis, André ULg

in Journal of Cereal Science (2000), 31(3), 229-239

Ileal endogenous N losses (ENL) were measured, using the 15N isotope dilution technique, in piglets (17 kg) fed different barley genotypes (naked, spring, winter with low/high beta-glucan content) or ... [more ▼]

Ileal endogenous N losses (ENL) were measured, using the 15N isotope dilution technique, in piglets (17 kg) fed different barley genotypes (naked, spring, winter with low/high beta-glucan content) or diets containing 330, 530, 730 or 930 g of a blend of barleys/kg diet. The apparent protein and amino acid digestibilities of the naked variety and the winter variety with a high beta-glucan content were, on average, significantly higher than those for the other two varieties. The ENL were inversely correlated (p<0·01) with the apparent digestibilities but the difference between each of them was not significant (p>0·05). The ENL increased linearly with the inclusion level of barley in a N-free basal diet (2 mg endogenous N/g barley). Isolated hulls added to a N-free diet at the rate of 100 or 200 g/ kg diet exerted no significant effect on the ENL (1·80 g endogenous N/kg diet in both cases vs. 1·76 g for the basal level). On the contrary, the effect of isolated bran, measured under similar conditions, was significantly higher and dependent on fibre intake (2·59 and 3·31 g N/kg diet, respectively). It is concluded that the ENL are affected by the insoluble bran fibre but not by the hulls, nor by the level of beta-glucan. [less ▲]

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