References of "Lekeux, Pierre"
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See detailLaboratory findings in respiratory fluids of the poorly-performing horse
Richard, Eric ULg; Fortier, Guillaume; Lekeux, Pierre ULg et al

in Veterinary Journal (2009)

Any disorder impairing a performance horse’s ability to ventilate its lungs and exchange oxygen compromises exercise performance in any discipline. Since bronchoalveolar lavage was described in horses in ... [more ▼]

Any disorder impairing a performance horse’s ability to ventilate its lungs and exchange oxygen compromises exercise performance in any discipline. Since bronchoalveolar lavage was described in horses in the early 1980s, laboratory evaluation of respiratory fluids, along with clinical and functional assessment of the respiratory system, has become a relevant step in the diagnosis of respiratory disease affecting performance. The aim of this review is to provide objective information to assist clinicians in interpreting laboratory findings by (1) summarising published cytological references values in both clinically healthy horses and those with various airway diseases, (2) assessing the influence of physiological circumstances, such as exercise, on the cytological evaluation, (3) discussing the relationship between cytological and microbiological analyses, clinical signs and respiratory function, and (4) suggesting how this latter relationship may affect performance. [less ▲]

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See detailComment investiguer la contre-performance d’origine médicale : de la clinique au laboratoire
Richard, Eric; Pitel, P. H.; Fortier, G. et al

in 35ème Journée de la Recherche équine (2009)

Clinical affections of the locomotor and respiratory systems are the two main causes of poor performance in sport horses. Nevertheless, each subclinical affection of any system implicated in the oxygen ... [more ▼]

Clinical affections of the locomotor and respiratory systems are the two main causes of poor performance in sport horses. Nevertheless, each subclinical affection of any system implicated in the oxygen system (respiratory, cardiovascular, blood, muscular and metabolic) may also become a limiting factor concerning the athletic capacities of the horse. A systematic medical examination of the horse, combining ail the clinical and laboratory exams, is thus necessary in order to establish a precise and comprehensive diagnosis regarding the different affections. The objectives of this communication are therefore to present the different methods currently available for the practitioner as well as the techniques recently developed for horses. The complementarity of the different clinical and laboratory exams, as well as the ideal moment for performing each test are clarified in order to accurately determine the different causes of poor performance as well as their functional repercussions [less ▲]

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See detailPourquoi examiner le cheval à l’effort ?
Van Erck, Emmanuelle; Lekeux, Pierre ULg

in 35ème Journée de la Recherche équine (2009)

Examination of the horse during daily work is essential to follow-up his athletic préparation, however a good level of expérience is required to judge if he is ready to perform in compétition. Beyond thé ... [more ▼]

Examination of the horse during daily work is essential to follow-up his athletic préparation, however a good level of expérience is required to judge if he is ready to perform in compétition. Beyond thé subjective estimation of his behaviour and progress, objective parameters can be measured to evaluate his athletic capacity, level of fitness and health. Simple exercise tests can be integrated to thé horse's regular work schedule and parameters such as speed, heart rate and cardio-respiratory recovery may be readily monitored and compared during thé course of thé season. More sophisticated tests allow investigating exercise physiology of thé horse during exertion and thé way he tolerates and adapts to physical strain. It also allows early détection of subclinical diseases liable to impair performance. Like in human sports medicine, treadmill tests represent a safe investigation tool that is particularly well adapted to examining horses during exercise and helps diagnose one or several causes of poor performance, as many ancillary examinations may be implemented. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of betamethasone on inflammation and emphysema induced by cadmium nebulisation in rats
Fievez, Laurence ULg; Kirschvink, N.; Zhang, Wenhui H. et al

in European Journal of Pharmacology (2009), 606(1-3), 210-214

Cadmium (Cd) induces centrilobular emphysema and is suspected to contribute to tobacco related lung diseases as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study aimed to check whether the ... [more ▼]

Cadmium (Cd) induces centrilobular emphysema and is suspected to contribute to tobacco related lung diseases as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study aimed to check whether the inflammatory process observed in rats exposed to nebulised Cd is resistant to betamethasone as observed in COPD and to determine the influence of this drug on airspace enlargement together with the MMP-2-9/TIMP-1-2 imbalance. Our results showed that betamethasone induced emphysema by itself in healthy rats. Moreover, pre-treatment of rats with betamethasone could only partially modulate the increase in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cell counts and the absence of preventive effect of this compound against emphysema development is associated with its inability to rebalance the MMP-2-9/TIMP-1-2 ratio. [less ▲]

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See detailSyndrome d'inflammation trachéale : évaluation clinique et bactériologique
Richard, Eric ULg; Maillard, K.; Dupuis, Marie-Capucine ULg et al

in Pratique Vétérinaire Equine (2009), 41(162), 45-49

Lower airway inflammation is a frequent cause of poor-performance in hors e s .An association between inflammation and bacterial isolation in tracheal wash fluid has previously been found ; bacterial ... [more ▼]

Lower airway inflammation is a frequent cause of poor-performance in hors e s .An association between inflammation and bacterial isolation in tracheal wash fluid has previously been found ; bacterial counts were neve rtheless not defined.The aims of this study were to qualitatively and quantitatively compare tracheal bacterial flora of French Trotters with tracheal inflammation (SIT) and control horses (CTL), and evaluate association between endoscopic, cytological and microbiological evaluation of the trachea. Neutrophil percentage in tracheal wash was significantly different between groups whereas tracheal mucus accumulation was not. No significant difference was found between groups for neither percentage of respectively sterile samples or percentage pathogenic bacteria being isolated. Bacterial counts in SIT group were however 10 to 200 times higher than in the CTL group.This study suggests that isolation of pathogenic bacteria alone do not allow estimation of the level of airway inflammation; whereas severe tracheal inflammation may be present in absence of any bacteriological infection [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of subclinical inflammatory airway disease on equine respiratory function evalueated by impulse oscillometry
Richard, Eric ULg; Fortier, Guillaume; Denoix, Jean-Marie et al

in Equine Veterinary Journal (2009), 41(4), 384-389

Reasons for performing study: Inflammatory airway disease (IAD) is a nonseptic condition of the lower respiratory tract. Its negative impact on respiratory function has previously <br /><br />been ... [more ▼]

Reasons for performing study: Inflammatory airway disease (IAD) is a nonseptic condition of the lower respiratory tract. Its negative impact on respiratory function has previously <br /><br />been described using either forced expiration or forced oscillations techniques. However, sedation or drug-induced bronchoconstriction were usually required. The impulse <br /><br />oscillometry system (IOS) is a noninvasive and sensitive respiratory function test validated in horses, which could be useful to evaluate IAD-affected horses without further <br /><br />procedures. <br /><br />Objectives: To determine the sensitivity of IOS in detecting alterations of the respiratory function in subclinically IAD-affected horses without inducing bronchoprovocation and to characterise their respiratory impedance according to frequency for each respiratory phase. <br /><br />Methods: Pulmonary function was evaluated at rest by IOS in 34 Standardbred trotters. According to the cytology of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), 19 horses were defined <br /><br />as IAD-affected and 15 horses were used as control (CTL). Total respiratory resistance (Rrs) and reactance (Xrs) from 1–20 Hz as well as their inspiratory and expiratory <br /><br />components were compared between groups. <br /><br />Results: A significant increase of Rrs at the lower frequencies (R1–10 Hz) as well as a significant decrease of Xrs beyond 5 Hz (X5–20 Hz) was observed in IAD compared to CTL horses. IOS-data was also significantly different between inspiration and expiration in IAD-affected horses. In the whole population, both BALF eosinophil and mast cell counts were <br /><br />significantly correlated with IOS measurements. <br /><br />Conclusions: Functional respiratory impairment may be measured, even in the absence of clinical signs of disease. In IAD-affected horses, the different parameters of respiratory <br /><br />function (Rrs or Xrs) may vary depending on the inflammatory cell profiles represented in BALF. <br /><br />Potential relevance: Impulse oscillometry could be used in a routine clinical setting as a noninvasive method for early detection of subclinical respiratory disease and of the results <br /><br />of treatment in horses. [less ▲]

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See detailIRF3 is required for induction of allergic airway inflammation by dendritic cells
Marichal, Thomas ULg; Bedoret, Denis; Goriely, S et al

Poster (2009)

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See detailIRF3 is required for the induction of allergic airway inflammation by lung dendritic cells in a mouse model of house dust mite-induced atopic asthma
Marichal, Thomas ULg; Bedoret, Denis; Goriely, M. et al

in Abstracts of the 17th Annual European Respiratory Society Congress, Vienna, Austria (2009)

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See detailIRF3 is required for induction of allergic airway inflammation by dendritic cells
Marichal, Thomas ULg; Bedoret, Denis; Goriely, M. et al

Conference (2009)

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See detailEssential role of sirtuins in the pathogenesis of allergic airway inflammation
Legutko, Agnieszka ULg; Marichal, Thomas ULg; Fievez, Laurence ULg et al

in Short book of the Annual Congress of the European Respiratory Society (ERS), Vienne (2009)

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See detailIntérêt du suivi sportif à la piste des chevaux d’endurance dans la détection des problèmes subcliniques
Fraipont, Audrey ULg; Van Erck, Emmanuelle; Art, Tatiana ULg et al

in 35ème Journée de la Recherche équine (2009)

The aim of this study was to evaluate a field exercise test specifically designed for endurance horses and to determine the relevant parameters allowing discrimination between healthy horses (H) and ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to evaluate a field exercise test specifically designed for endurance horses and to determine the relevant parameters allowing discrimination between healthy horses (H) and horses presenting subclinical disorders (SP). Twenty four endurance horses underwent blood analyses, general examination and special exams to define a posteriori 2 groups: group H composed of healthy horses (n=12) and group SP included horses presenting subclinical disorders (n=12). The exercise test consisted of a warm-up followed by 3 gallop steps (27 km, 1.5km, 1.5km) at incremental speed. Lactates were measured after each step, an ECG was recorded during effort and recovery, speed was monitored by a GPS. Significant differences were observed between H and SP groups for VLA4, V160 and heart rate during recovery with better values for H horses. These results demonstrate the pertinence of a medical athletic follow-up in endurance horses: this field exercise test is easily achievable and allows the detection of subclinical disorders which would otherwise remain unsuspected by the riders. [less ▲]

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See detailExpression microarrays in equine sciences
Ramery, Eve ULg; Closset, Rodrigue; Art, Tatiana ULg et al

in Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology (2009), 127(3-4), 197-202

Microarrays have become an important research tool for life science researchers. Expression microarrays are capable of profiling the gene expression pattern of tens of thousands of genes in a single ... [more ▼]

Microarrays have become an important research tool for life science researchers. Expression microarrays are capable of profiling the gene expression pattern of tens of thousands of genes in a single experiment. It appears to be the platform of choice for parallel gene expression profiling. Various equine-specific gene expression microarrays have been generated and used. However, homologous microarrays are not yet commercially available for the horse. An alternative is the use of heterologous microarrays, mainly microarrays specific for mice or humans. Although the use of microarrays in equine research is still in its infancy, gene expression microarrays have shown their potential in equine research. This review presents the previous, current and potential use of expression microarrays in equine research. [less ▲]

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See detailAssociation between lower airway inflammation and EIPH in 196 standarbred racehorses
Simon, Valérie ULg; Art, Tatiana ULg; Ramery, Eve ULg et al

in Tessier, Caroline; Gerber, Vincent (Eds.) Abstract book: 4th World Equine Airways Symposium (WEAS) (2009)

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See detailPutative implication of equine herpesvirus in lower airway inflammation: systematic PCR assays of 708 respiratory fluids
Fortier, Guillaume ULg; Richard, Eric ULg; Pronost, S. et al

in Tessier, Caroline; Gerber, Vincent (Eds.) Abstract book: 4th World Equine Airways Symposium (WEAS) (2009)

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See detailAssociation between inflammatory airway disease, tracheal inflammation and respiratory function evaluated by impulse oscillometry
Richard, Eric ULg; Fortier, G.; Dupuis, Marie-Capucine ULg et al

in Tessier, Caroline; Gerber, Vincent (Eds.) Abstract book: 4th World Equine Airways Symposium (WEAS) (2009)

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See detailEffects of high and low inspired fractions of oxygen on horse erythrocyte membrane properties, blood viscosity and muscle oxygenation during anaesthesia
Portier, Karine; Crouzier, David; Guichardant, Michel et al

in Veterinary Anaesthesia & Analgesia (2009), 36(4), 287-298

To evaluate whether a period of hyperoxia or after a period of hypoxia produced changes attributable to reactive oxygen species in anaesthetized horses. Prospective randomized experimental study. Six ... [more ▼]

To evaluate whether a period of hyperoxia or after a period of hypoxia produced changes attributable to reactive oxygen species in anaesthetized horses. Prospective randomized experimental study. Six healthy (ASA I) geldings, aged 4.5-9.5 years and weighing 510-640 kg(-1). After 30 minutes breathing air as carrier gas for isoflurane, horses were assigned randomly to breathe air as carrier gas (CG0.21) or oxygen as carrier gas (CG1.00) for a further 90 minutes. After an interval of 1 month each horse was re-anaesthetized with the other carrier gas for the 90 minute test period. Ventilation was controlled throughout anaesthesia. Arterial blood was sampled to measure gas tensions, lactate, cholesterol, vitamin E, 4-hydroxy-alkenals, 8-epi-PGF(2 alpha), half haemolysis time, half erythrolysis time, and erythrocyte membrane fluidity. Muscle blood flow and oxygenation were evaluated by near infrared spectroscopy and coloured Doppler. After the first 30 minutes horses were hypoxemic. Subsequently the CG1.00 group became hyperoxaemic (PaO2 similar to 240 mmHg) whereas the CG0.21 group remained hypoxaemic (PaO2 similar to 60 mmHg) and had increased lactate concentration. No significant changes in vitamin E, 4-hydroxy-alkenals, or 8-epi-PGF(2 alpha) concentrations were detected. During the 90 minute test period the CG0.21 group had increased resistance to free-radical-mediated lysis in erythrocytes, whereas the CG1.00 group had slightly decreased resistance of whole blood to haemolysis. CG0.21 induced a progressive muscle deoxygenation whereas CG1.00 induced an increase in muscle oxygen saturation followed by progressive deoxygenation towards baseline. During isoflurane anaesthesia in horses, the hyperoxia induced by changing from air to oxygen induced minimal damage from reactive oxygen species. Using air as the carrier gas decreased skeletal muscle oxygenation compared with using oxygen [less ▲]

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See detailAerosol administration of cefquinome in healthy horses – effect on pulmonary function and lung inflammation
Art, Tatiana ULg; Ramery, Eve ULg; Fraipont, Audrey ULg et al

in Tessier, Caroline; Gerber, Vincent (Eds.) Abstract book: 4th World Equine Airways Symposium (WEAS) (2009)

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See detailPTX3: a new marker for local inflammation ?
Ramery, Eve ULg; Bureau, Fabrice ULg; Art, Tatiana ULg et al

in Proceedings of the 11th ECVCP congress, Thessaloniki, Grece (2009)

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See detailLes maillons de la chaîne de l’oxygène, facteurs potentiels limitant la santé des animaux domestiques
Lekeux, Pierre ULg

in Proceedings: Réunion de l’académie vétérinaire de France (2009)

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See detailRespiratory problems in a high productive dairy herd
Lekeux, Pierre ULg

in In Proceedings: Dutch Bovine Conference (2009)

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