References of "Lebailly, Philippe"
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See detailLe goût amer du chocolat européen
Lebailly, Philippe ULg

Conference (2014)

La Directive 73/241 du 24 juillet 1973 avait été adoptée dans le cadre du droit communautaire alimentaire afin d'établir des règles communes pour la composition, les caractéristiques de fabrication,le ... [more ▼]

La Directive 73/241 du 24 juillet 1973 avait été adoptée dans le cadre du droit communautaire alimentaire afin d'établir des règles communes pour la composition, les caractéristiques de fabrication,le conditionnement et l'étiquetage des produits de cacao et de chocolat. Lors des discussions de la Directive, la possibilité d'une adjonction de matières grasses végétales (MGV) autres que celles contenues naturellement dans le cacao n'avait pas pu faire l'objet d'une entente entre les neuf états qui composaient alors la Communauté européenne. Avec l'arrivée de nouveaux Etats, le rapport de force s'est modifié et les négociations pour une révision de la Directive de 1973 ont été relancées en 1996. L'argument principal pour une harmonisation des législations faisait référence à la libre circulation des marchandises avec le Marché unique en faisant valoir que le maintien de normes différentes créait des obstacles aux échanges, cloisonnant le marché du chocolat dans l'Union Européenne. La question qui restait posée était d'autoriser ou pas les matières grasses végétales (MGV). Les plaidoyers en faveur du respect de la tradition et de la qualité et les intérêts des producteurs de cacao n'ont pas réussi à convaincre et la nouvelle réglementation communautaire du chocolat fait à l'évidence le bonheur des multinationales du secteur pour lesquelles son adoption a été une victoire : depuis le 23 juin 2000, la Directive 2000 / 36 abroge la directive de 1973 et permet d'utiliser d'autres MGV, moins chères que le beurre de cacao pour la fabrication du chocolat, dans la limite de 5 % du poids total du produit fini. En théorie, sont considérés comme MGV: l'illipé, l'huile de palme, le sal, le beurre de karité, le kogum gurgi et les noyaux de mangue. Dans les faits, c'est l'huile de palme qui est le produit de substitution. Dix ans après avoir autorisé l'incorporation d'huile de palme dans le chocolat, le consommateur européen découvre les méfaits de celle-ci sur la santé et l'environnement ! Un bien triste constat et ce d'autant que l'adoption de la Directive a privé les planteurs africains (l'offre de fèves de cacao est pour 70% d'origine africaine) d'un revenu bien nécessaire pour lutter contre la pauvreté en zone rurale. [less ▲]

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See detailLe zonage de l’insécurité alimentaire du Système d’Alerte Précoce au Niger : l’indice de vulnérabilité
Andres, Ludovic ULg; Lebailly, Philippe ULg

in Actes du Premier Colloque de l'université de Parakou (2013, November 27)

La République du Niger a mis en place à partir de 1989 le Système d’Alerte Précoce (SAP) à cause des crises alimentaires récurrentes. L’objectif du SAP vise à prévenir et gérer les crises alimentaires. La ... [more ▼]

La République du Niger a mis en place à partir de 1989 le Système d’Alerte Précoce (SAP) à cause des crises alimentaires récurrentes. L’objectif du SAP vise à prévenir et gérer les crises alimentaires. La prévention des crises alimentaires est réalisée en décrivant l’état de l’insécurité alimentaire par département. Il est évalué par un indice composite construit à partir de données secondaires récoltées par des fiches d’identification durant le mois d’octobre. L’objectif de l’article est de décrire la méthode d’évaluation de l’indice et d’étudier l’évolution de l’indice de vulnérabilité. L’étude de l’évolution de l’indice de vulnérabilité du SAP est réalisée grâce à l’étude d’une série chronologique. Les tendances évolutives seront caractérisées pour la période allant de 1992 à 2011, soit l’évolution de l’indice sur vingt ans. L’étude de l’indice du SAP nous permettra de valider les observations que nous avons déjà réalisées dans certains articles abordant les méthodes d’évaluation de la vulnérabilité alimentaire. Le zonage géographique des indices des 37 départements du Niger montre une différence entre les départements pastoraux, agropastoraux et agricoles (Andres L. et Lebailly Ph., 2011a ; Andres L. et Lebailly Ph., 2011b ; Andres L. et Lebailly Ph., 2012 ; Andres L., 2012). En outre, nos résultats démontreront l’aspect conjoncturel des crises alimentaires sans montrer une tendance générale en fonction des départements et des systèmes de production même si les départements présentent une résilience. [less ▲]

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See detailIntensification durable de l’agriculture au Bénin, mythe ou réalité ? Une analyse à partir des systèmes de coton biologique et Cotton made in Africa.
Assogba, Sonagnon Claude-Gervais ULg; Tossou, Cocou Rigobert; Lebailly, Philippe ULg et al

Conference (2013, November)

In agriculture, the concept of sustainable development emergence and its omnipresence in political discourses suggests that farming systems move toward systems considered as more environment-friendly and ... [more ▼]

In agriculture, the concept of sustainable development emergence and its omnipresence in political discourses suggests that farming systems move toward systems considered as more environment-friendly and human health-friendly. In Benin, cotton is one of the most sectors concerned by this transformation. Indeed, in spite of the importance of cotton in the economy of Benin, its sustainable production is nowadays threatened by conventional production approach. Various alternatives of production are developed and considered as more environment-friendly than the conventional production approach. This article analyses the sustainability of the organic and cotton made in Africa (CmiA) farming alternatives from the sustainable agricultural intensification theoretical perspective. Structured and non-structured interviews with individuals and focus groups were used to collect data from 90 organic cotton farmers of the municipality of Kandi, and 100 CmiA farmers of the municipality of Pehunco, one of the largest areas of cotton production in the North of Benin. Data were analyzed with methods of normative and relativist comparison, descriptive statistics and analysis of variance. Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) test was used to verify the normality conditions and in some cases, logarithmic transformation was done to test the variance homogeneity. The comparison of means was done with the test of Least Significant Difference. It appears from the results that in the current condition of implementation, the alternatives system to conventional cotton production approach are not intensively sustainable. Soils fertility and pests’ management face enormous constraints and do not allow improvement of yields, economic performances, and environment protection. So, the sustainability of the alternative systems of cotton production is not guaranteed and can hardly become a reality if additional relevant conditions are not created. [less ▲]

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See detailPastoral dynamics in the Region of Diffa (Niger) : a descriptive analysis of livestock capital
Rouchet, François ULg; Abdoulkadri, Laouali; Lebailly, Philippe ULg et al

Conference (2013, October 05)

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See detailAn agro-economic characterization of the Niger household : case of Tahoua
Moussa dit Kalamou, Mahamadou ULg; Andres, Ludovic ULg; Rouchet, François ULg et al

in Kovacevic, Dusan (Ed.) Book of Abstracts Fourth International Scientific Symposium "AgroSym 2013" (2013, October)

Since the big drought of 1984, the department of Tahoua in the Republic of Niger is very vulnerable on structural and temporal disruptions. The food vulnerability is defined as “the analysis of coping ... [more ▼]

Since the big drought of 1984, the department of Tahoua in the Republic of Niger is very vulnerable on structural and temporal disruptions. The food vulnerability is defined as “the analysis of coping strategies and reactions faced with the structural or/and temporary shocks, if the coping strategies are not effectives, the people are in a temporary or structural situation of food vulnerability” (Andres L., Lebailly Ph., 2011a; Andres L., Lebailly Ph., 2011b; Andres L., 2012). The environment is much degraded by the wind and water erosion. Despite many opportunities to develop the rural sector, the region of Tahoua has a structural problem because the income is not very high and the major part of the population is poor. This paper analyzes the population of the region of Tahoua in function of these agro-economic characteristics. The target is to classify the population in relation to the agro-ecologic system, food system. Each class is defined and characterized by a global description of the agricultural system and the sources of income. The paper is based on a survey realized during 2010 and 2011. The investigations have interviewed 420 heads of household. The results are obtained from Excel and SPSS software. The statistical analysis is a cluster hierarchization, comparison of mean and the descriptive statistics. The results show a difference between the north (pastoral) and the south (agricultural) of the region of Tahoua. But the major constraint is the degradation of the land and the weak fertility of this land. [less ▲]

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See detailAn agro-economic characterizaton of the Niger household : case of Tahoua
Rouchet, François ULg; Moussa dit Kalamou, Mahamoudou; Andres, Ludovic ULg et al

Conference (2013, October)

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See detailInterview pour capacity4dev.eu (EuropeAid) : Follow-up to Asian Agricultural Development
Lebailly, Philippe ULg

Diverse speeche and writing (2013)

In this video Mr Lebailly discusses the double sidedness of south-east Asian agriculture: intensive agriculture for exportation with foreign investment, versus family farming. Intensive agriculture has a ... [more ▼]

In this video Mr Lebailly discusses the double sidedness of south-east Asian agriculture: intensive agriculture for exportation with foreign investment, versus family farming. Intensive agriculture has a negative externality on the environment; it is not taken into account and is easily delocalisable. He goes on to say that rural development should improve the value chain to respond to local demand. Finally Mr Lebailly concluded with an interesting example of litchi production: public investment has been made for agri-food processing. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalyse de l'évolution de la consommation de plats préparés en Belgique
Winandy, Stéphane ULg; De Fays, Maud; Lebailly, Philippe ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2013), 17(4), 593-603

This study aims to analyze the evolution of the consumption of ready-made food in Belgium and to discern any trends. The data used are expenditure made on convenience food from 1999 and 2009 (in euros ... [more ▼]

This study aims to analyze the evolution of the consumption of ready-made food in Belgium and to discern any trends. The data used are expenditure made on convenience food from 1999 and 2009 (in euros) and socio-demographic characteristics, obtained from the Household Budget Survey undertaken annually by the Federal Public Service Economy (DGSIE). Statistical analyses (simple, multiple and binary logistic regressions) enable the study of consumption trends in terms of exependiture and percentage of consumers as well as the determination of consumer profiles. Convenience food is part of the eating habits of Belgian households, with more than nine out of ten households being consumers. Convenience food prepared from meat is the most frequently purchased. For all ready-made food, the variable of household size explains the most variability in consumption, followed by the variables of income and age. [less ▲]

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See detailRural resilience and the role of social capital among farmers in Kirundo Province, Northern Burundi
Minani, Bonaventure ULg; Rurema, Déo-Guide; Lebailly, Philippe ULg

in APSTRACT Applied Studies in Agribusiness and Commerce (2013), 7(2-3), 121-125

In Burundi, more than 90% of the active population is engaged in family agriculture, which plays a vital role in food production and constitutes more than 50% of the GDP. Before the civil war of 1993 ... [more ▼]

In Burundi, more than 90% of the active population is engaged in family agriculture, which plays a vital role in food production and constitutes more than 50% of the GDP. Before the civil war of 1993, Kirundo was deemed the "breadbasket of the country", as the region fed many parts of Burundi through growing particular foods such as legumes and cereals. Family farming was market-oriented. Kirundo alone includes 8 lakes which offer opportunities for field irrigation. Today, this region is the first province in Burundi which shows a high rate of malnutrition, as poverty has increased and a sharp 53.9 % decline in agricultural production has been witnessed between 1996 and 2009. The aim of this article is to analyse the role of social capital through the local association network in improving family agriculture and the resilience to climate change and conflict crisis. In this study, 73 farmers were surveyed in Kirundo province through means of a questionnaire, and the study was completed by collecting secondary data. Analysis of the data reveals that, despite recurrent droughts in that region which caused deaths due to famines and displacement of people to neighbouring countries such as Rwanda and Tanzania, 44% of the farmers who were surveyed were shown to have resilience to climate change. The analysis of data shows that these farmers were members of well organised local associations, and had learned about specific topics such as financial management, processing and storage of agricultural products and livestock. The social capital network positively influences their income and their resilience to climate change and conflict crisis. [less ▲]

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See detailThe relation between the coping strategies and the state of food insecurity in the Republic of Niger
Andres, Ludovic ULg; Lebailly, Philippe ULg

Conference (2013, June 26)

The Niger’s rural population represents 80 percent of the total population. This very high percentage creates an important pressure over the environment because of the high density of population. Indeed ... [more ▼]

The Niger’s rural population represents 80 percent of the total population. This very high percentage creates an important pressure over the environment because of the high density of population. Indeed, the agricultural favorable area is equivalent to a third of the total area of Niger. This area is located in the South of Niger over a strip 300 kilometers of broad. Furthermore, the rural population is subjected to the temporal and structural disruptions. The temporal shocks are defined by the “natural” disruptions such as the hydrometeorological disruption, etc. The structural disruptions are caused by the chronicle difficulties (low income, etc.). The capacity to struggle against the disruptions is defined by the resilience (Lhomme et al., 2010). The resilience is illustrated and assessed by the different coping strategies practiced by the Niger’s rural population. The target of the paper is to demonstrate the state of food insecurity and the coping strategies developed in the departments of Niger. The state of food insecurity and the coping strategy index are calculated as from the data of an annual survey realized by the Early Alert System (EAS) and the Statistical National Institute of Niger (INS). This survey investigates around 10.000 households in December 2009 and April 2010. The sample is extrapolated to estimate the number of people suffering from food insecurity per department. The paper illustrates the state of food insecurity of each department and coping strategy index of the departments. The results will demonstrate the differences between departments. The answers of the paper at the following question: Which are the most vulnerable departments and what is the situation of the coping strategies index in each department? This paper creates also a typology bringing together the same departments in comparison with the coping strategies and the state of food insecurity. [less ▲]

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See detailThe coping strategies to fight against the food insecurity in the Republic of Niger
Andres, Ludovic ULg; Lebailly, Philippe ULg

Poster (2013, June 06)

During the last decade, the Niger’s population has been affected by the food crisis (2001, 2004-2005, 2008, 2010-2011). Each year, she is subjected to many structural and temporary shocks. The structural ... [more ▼]

During the last decade, the Niger’s population has been affected by the food crisis (2001, 2004-2005, 2008, 2010-2011). Each year, she is subjected to many structural and temporary shocks. The structural shocks are caused by the chronicle difficulties (income) while the temporary shocks are tied at the "natural" disasters such as the hydrometeorological disasters, demographic crisis. The risk that the people fall in a state of food insecurity because of structural and temporary shocks is characterized by food vulnerability. The food vulnerability is defined as “the analysis of coping strategies and reactions faced with the structural or/and temporary shocks, if the coping strategies are not effectives, the people have in a temporary or structural food vulnerability” (Andres L. and Lebailly Ph., 2011). The target of this paper is to demonstrate the diversity of coping strategies in the different departments of Niger. The database is created as from an annual survey realized by the Early Alert System (EAS) and the Statistical National Institute of Niger (INS). This survey characterizes the state of food insecurity of households of Niger. The investigations of the household are based on stratified sampling. It exists two levels: region and enumeration areas. The investigations of the household are based from the database of the population census of 2001. This population census has determined the “enumeration areas”. These “enumeration areas” are defined as a “geographical area of 200 households on average” (INS, 2007). The sample of this investigation is established from a significant sample a point of view of the departments of Niger. The time period studied is spread the 2008 at 2011. The results have demonstrated that the departments of Tchintarabaden, Abalak, Tessaoua and Magaria have weakest number of collective meals, and the highest percentage of household practicing of selling the goods and land. Furthermore, the Niger’s population develops many strategies to struggle against the shocks. [less ▲]

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See detailLe financement rural du Niger, élément clé du développement
Andres, Ludovic ULg; Lebailly, Philippe ULg

Conference (2013, June 06)

The Niger economy is mainly based on the rural sector such as the agricultural and breeding activities. Indeed, 80 percent of population is rural. The agricultural financing is a necessary condition to ... [more ▼]

The Niger economy is mainly based on the rural sector such as the agricultural and breeding activities. Indeed, 80 percent of population is rural. The agricultural financing is a necessary condition to increase the livelihood of the rural populations. The paper establishes a typology of the rural financing mode. This typology identifies the strengths and weaknesses of the financing actors (public and private). In conclusion, the real demand isn’t satisfied because the rural financing stay weak on account of the high risk and the higher costs linked with the agricultural activities. [less ▲]

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See detailRole of KOPAKAMA in promoting socio-economic development of coffee farmers
Gisaro Ca-Madeberi, Ya-Bititi ULg; Lebailly, Philippe ULg; Burny, Philippe ULg et al

in International NGO Journal (2013), 8(3), 61-67

Coffee is the main source of income for a large number of households and provides major foreign currencies for the national economy. Although it covers only 6.3% of cultivated areas, coffee is produced by ... [more ▼]

Coffee is the main source of income for a large number of households and provides major foreign currencies for the national economy. Although it covers only 6.3% of cultivated areas, coffee is produced by 500,000 households in Rwanda. Since its introduction in the country in 1904, coffee has always been operated by individual producers. However, after the liberalization of the coffee sector in 1998, the quantity and quality produced are steadily decreasing which affects the price and the income of coffee growers. To search for a solution, the Rwandan government has striven to consolidate coffee growing cooperatives in different parts of the country by building coffee washing stations (CWS). These stations were mainly meant to help coffee growing cooperatives produce high quality coffee which is competitive on the international markets. The goal is to produce a fully washed coffee, exportable and better valued on the international market, which can provide better income for peasant producers. Coffee washing stations are then seen as tools to produce quality coffee and are mainly run by cooperatives, which are structural elements in the rural world. Through these facilities and structures put in place, jobs are created for coffee producers, loans are granted, farmers are motivated due to the increase of income, the market is guaranteed and the prices become attractive for the members. Thus, the socio-economic welfare of coffee growers is improved, which reduces poverty among coffee growers’ households. This study focuses on the analysis of the role resulting from the structuring action of the peasants through CWS and coffee cooperative KOPAKAMA Rutsiro District, Western Province of Rwanda on the socio-economic development and technical assistance of members and the surrounding world. [less ▲]

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See detailL'impact des activités non-agricoles sur la pauvreté et l'inégalité rurales, cas des groupements Bugorhe et Irhambi-Katana (Territoire de Kabare, Province du Sud-Kivu)
Furaha Mirindi, Germaine ULg; Mastaki, Leki; Lebailly, Philippe ULg

in Société Française d'Economie Rurale (Ed.) 7èmes Journées de Recherches en Sciences Sociales : actes du colloque (2013)

Dans un contexte d’abandon ou négligence du secteur agricole par le pouvoir public, cette étude cherche à analyser la contribution de l’activité non agricole sur la réduction de la pauvreté et des ... [more ▼]

Dans un contexte d’abandon ou négligence du secteur agricole par le pouvoir public, cette étude cherche à analyser la contribution de l’activité non agricole sur la réduction de la pauvreté et des inégalités dans le territoire de kabare dans la province du Sud-kivu. La présente étude se focalise sur deux groupements du territoire de kabare de la province du Sud-Kivu à savoir Bugorhe et Irhambi-katana dont le centre de kavumu a été retenu dans l’échantillonnage pour le premier et le centre Katana dans le second. Deux grandes catégories des ont intéressées la présente étude : les ménages qui exercent l’activité agricole uniquement et les ménages combinant l’activité agricole et le commerce (notés ici ménages agricommerçants). A partir des données de l’enquête menée en mars et avril 2012, nous examinons l’effet du revenu non-agricole sur la pauvreté et l’inégalité en zone rurale de la province du Sud-kivu. Nous partons d’une approche qui considère le revenu non-agricole comme un « transfert exogène » qui s’ajoute au revenu total du ménage et analysons la contribution des différents types de revenus à l’inégalité en utilisant la décomposition de l’indice de Gini. Nous analysons la pauvreté en référence à l’approche de la Banque Africaine de Développement (2010) de l’analyse de la pauvreté en RDC. L’approche absolue de mesure de la pauvreté (pauvreté monétaire) qui est mesurée par les indices de Foster-Greer Thorbecke (F.G.T, 1984). L’étude a porté sur un échantillon de 135 ménages obtenu à partir de la technique de sondage systématique appliquée sur les ménages agri-commerçants, et d’un échantillonnage par quotas appliqué sur les ménages à unique activité agricole. Selon ces enquêtes, les ménages agricommerçants échappent aux chocs négatifs grâce à l’activité commerciale qui assure les besoins de base et finance l’activité agricole. Malgré le déclin relatif et structurel du secteur agricole du Sud-Kivu, 98,3% des ménages n’abandonnent pas cette activité pour des raisons d’autoconsommation (100% des ménages), de sécurité et d’estime sociale (73%), de stabilité économique (82%). Les ménages à unique activité agricole sont plus exposés au phénomène de pauvreté : 80,9% d’eux vivent avec un revenu inférieur au seuil minimum de 171,2$/pers/an. La profondeur de la pauvreté est plus accentuée chez les ménages agriculteurs (37,6%) que chez les ménages agri-commerçants (1,9%). En plus, la pauvreté est plus sévère chez les ménages agriculteurs (21,9%) que chez les ménages agri-commerçants (0,3%). Le secteur agricole contribue moins à l’inégalité par rapport à l’activité de commerce. En effet, pour un indice de Gini de 0,5242, le revenu issu du commerce contribue fortement à l’inégalité de revenus des ménages à l’ordre de 58,7% contre une contribution à l’inégalité de l’ordre de 24,4% du revenu agricole pour un indice de Gini de 0,2356. Dans le contexte du milieu d’étude, l’activité commerciale permet aux ménages de survivre mais n’est pas un moyen efficace pour un développement rural durable dans ce milieu à fort potentialité agricole. [less ▲]

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See detailLes interventions de développement et la sécurité alimentaire dans la commune de Cobly
Tohinlo, Yecy ULg; Floquet, Anne; Mongbo, Roch et al

in Université d'Abomey-Calavi, Conseil scientifique (Ed.) Quatrième Colloque de l'Université d'Abomey-Calavi des Sciences, Cultures et Technologies : du 23 au 28 septembre, 2013 : programme & résumés/abstracts (2013)

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See detailLe sésame dans le département d'Aguié au Niger : analyse d'une culture aux atouts non-négligeables dans une zone agricole à forte potentialité
Andres, Ludovic ULg; Lebailly, Philippe ULg

in Tropicultura (2013), 31(4), 238-246

The Sahelian agro-ecological conditions and the socio-economic environment are the main factors that influence the dynamics of farming systems in the Aguié area in central Niger. In this region ... [more ▼]

The Sahelian agro-ecological conditions and the socio-economic environment are the main factors that influence the dynamics of farming systems in the Aguié area in central Niger. In this region, increasing population pressure and competition for resources between crops and animals accentuate the pressure on land. Low surfaces per inhabitant generate a reorganization of agrarian systems. Farmers favor food crops than can be consumed and sold. Crop diversification is for them a strategy to minimize risk and secure the land. This article examines the interest of sesame cultivation in the Aguié region. It was carried out from a literature review, data of the technical services of the Aguié department, surveys and observations from producers and relevant organizations. It appears that the cultivation of sesame is an opportunity to secure food and financial needs of local households. Because of the proximity of the region with Nigeria, this crop is an economic asset for the households; as demonstrated by the analysis of its operating accounts. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamics and constraints of livestock production systems in Cam Giang district, Hai Duong Province, North Vietnam
Han Quang, Hanh ULg; Vu Dinh, Ton; Lebailly, Philippe ULg

in Livestock Research for Rural Development (2013), 25(9),

In Northern Vietnam, the livestock production sector has been strongly encouraged to develop by the government for many years as an important livelihood strategy to alleviate household poverty. Over the ... [more ▼]

In Northern Vietnam, the livestock production sector has been strongly encouraged to develop by the government for many years as an important livelihood strategy to alleviate household poverty. Over the last few decades, it has been developed quickly, but remained unsustainable. This study aims to identify the dynamics of livestock production systems during the economic transformation period and their current constraints as the basic for setting up sustainable development policies. A survey, which is based on participatory and retrospective approaches, was conducted at 38 households in two communes of Hai Duong province in 2010. The results indicated a significant evolution of livestock production systems from a traditional small-scale production system into a specialized intensive one due to the land law and the rice land conversion program in 1990s and the industrialization and urbanization process in 2000s. The intensification of livestock production system, which is accompanied by the increasing dependence on imported inputs and the limited knowledge and skills in adequate techniques and disease management, poses a huge difficulty to producers in developing their livestock production systems. Therefore, the priority of development policies should be given to the promotion of the local resource utilisation as feed for animals and to the improvement of farmers’ ability to manage their production through not only government supports but also participation of social organisations and farmers. [less ▲]

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