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See detailAnalyse des contraintes de développement du fruit de la passion au Burundi. Cas de la commune Matongo province Kayanza
Bashangwa Mpozi, Bosco ULg; Ndimanya, Patrice; Lebailly, Philippe ULg

in Brot, Jean (Ed.) Les Cahiers de l'Association Tiers-Monde n° 30-2015 : XXXes Journées sur le Développement "Ethique, entrepreneuriat et développement" (2015)

Face à une situation de manque de terre et de pression démographique sans aucune amélioration des techniques de production, le choix des cultures à pratiquer permettant de rentabiliser la petite surface ... [more ▼]

Face à une situation de manque de terre et de pression démographique sans aucune amélioration des techniques de production, le choix des cultures à pratiquer permettant de rentabiliser la petite surface agricole disponible devient donc crucial pour les producteurs de Matongo en particulier et du Burundi en général. C'est dans ce contexte que le fruit de la passion est intégré dans les systèmes de production de certains ménages de Matongo dans le but d'améliorer leurs conditions de vie grâce à un supplément de revenu. Vu l'état actuel de la vulnérabilité de l'agriculture et de l'économie dans cette commune, il s'avère important de connaître les contraintes rencontrées par les adoptants du fruit de la passion en tenant compte de l'environnement dans lequel se pratique sa culture. [less ▲]

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See detailÉvolution du rôle des femmes dans les entreprises d’artisanat traditionnel à la périphérie de Hanoi (Vietnam)
Nguyen, Thi Thu Hien ULg; Lebailly, Philippe ULg

in Académie de Recherche et d'Enseignement Supérieur (ARES) (Ed.) "Gender, migration and rural development" (2015)

La femme vietnamienne a depuis très longtemps assuré un rôle très important dans le développement socio-économique et culturel du Vietnam. Toutefois, en raison d’une forme de paternalisme lié à des ... [more ▼]

La femme vietnamienne a depuis très longtemps assuré un rôle très important dans le développement socio-économique et culturel du Vietnam. Toutefois, en raison d’une forme de paternalisme lié à des aspects sociaux et culturels, les femmes n’ont pas été autorisées à jouer un rôle prépondérant dans les métiers traditionnels des entreprises rurales développées au Vietnam. Aujourd’hui, avec le changement des conditions économiques et sociales, on assiste à une participation accrue des femmes dans les activités autrefois réservées aux hommes comme la production directe, le commerce et même la gestion de l’entreprise. Au travers d’une recherche empirique dans les petites entreprises d’artisanat d’art des communes où se trouvent des villages traditionnels célèbres du Vietnam, on peut observer le changement dans le rôle exercé par les femmes. Cela doit néanmoins encore être accompagné par des politiques convenables capables de réduire l’inégalité du genre dans les activités de métier traditionnel et contribuer ainsi à un développement rural équilibré. [less ▲]

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See detailMigrants in industrial zones - Push and pull factors. A case study in industrial zones in Bac Ninh province, Vietnam
Ngo Trung, Thanh; Lebailly, Philippe ULg; Nguyen Thi, Dien

in Académie de Recherche et d'Enseignement Supérieur (ARES) (Ed.) ARES "Gender, migration and rural development" (2015)

Since migration was mentioned as a pattern of development, the debates have never ended. In Vietnam, the industrial zone has been developed rapidly for more than 20 years. However, the rate of migrant ... [more ▼]

Since migration was mentioned as a pattern of development, the debates have never ended. In Vietnam, the industrial zone has been developed rapidly for more than 20 years. However, the rate of migrant labor is high. Based on push and pull theory of migration the study is to find the reasons that push or pull rural labors to migrate to industrial zones. By surveying 190 migrants in industrial zone, the study found that the employment in the zones is not stable in the long run. Migration not always driven by poor economic condition of the houhsehold in the areas of origin, it is the way of life of young rural labor and the migrants in the zones seem to be pulled rather than pushed. [less ▲]

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See detailCoffee cooperatives promoting peacebuilding and socio-economic development of farmers in Huye District , Southern Rwanda
Bititi, Gisaro M-Ya; Lebailly, Philippe ULg; Mbonyinkebe, Déo

in Kovacevic, Dusan (Ed.) Book of Proceedings Sixth International Scientific Agricultural Symposium "AgroSym 2015" (2015)

Cooperative organisations play an important role in the peacebuilding efforts undertaken in the wake of the Rwanda genocide in1994. The genocide tore apart and destroyed large parts of the country’s socio ... [more ▼]

Cooperative organisations play an important role in the peacebuilding efforts undertaken in the wake of the Rwanda genocide in1994. The genocide tore apart and destroyed large parts of the country’s socio-economic and institutional foundations, its consequences are still evident. Coffee is the main source of income for approximatively 500.000 households. The paper aimed to analyze the impact of coffee cooperatives and the coffee washing stations in the peacebuilding socio-economic changes of coffee farmer’s members in Huye District, Southern Province of Rwanda. A research surveyed selected 70 small coffee farmers from 3 cooperatives to measure socio-economic development of coffee washing stations on the growers. Results reveal that cooperatives increase production and improve the socioeconomic households’ income (86.5%). Jobs are created for women and girls especially during the harvesting and the coffee processing (98.7%). When farmers are working together, a synergy is created among them, by disucussion, exchanging experiences, which avoide discrimination, conflict, division between antagonist ethnic groups Hutu and Tutsi (67.1%). Results reveal that coffee cooperatives promote a spirit of understanding each other and the tolerance between farmers (72.3%). Cooperatives provide loans to the members through the “rotating funds: Ibimina”. They also educate members through vocational trainings by enhancing and empowering farmers especially women and girls (97.1%). This is evidenced by the provision of adequate shelter, the observation of human rights, access to the medical insurance, school fees for children, undertaking entrepreneurial activities, unity and reconciliation between members, participating in the household’s incomes allocation. Cooperatives uses various strategies in peacebuilding such as working together to construct new schools and houses, land inheritance for women, clubs for peacebuilding and visiting each others (74.3%). [less ▲]

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See detailCosts and Added Value in the Marketing of Charcoal in Bujumbura
Sabuhungu, Emery Gaspard ULg; Ndimanya, Patrice; Bogaert, Jan ULg et al

in Global Journal of Emerging Trends in e-Business, Marketing and Consumer Psychology (2015), 1(2), 328-336

This study analysed the costs, the added value and its components in the marketing of charcoal in Bujumbura to identify areas in which interventions could improve efficiency in the charcoal marketing ... [more ▼]

This study analysed the costs, the added value and its components in the marketing of charcoal in Bujumbura to identify areas in which interventions could improve efficiency in the charcoal marketing system. The study surveyed 100 retailers and 30 wholesale traders of charcoal. The information on their business was collected using a standardized questionnaire. The structure of marketing costs shows that transport and rental to civil servants are the main items in which significant efficiency gains could be achieved. Charcoal marketing is a wealth-creating activity as it generates positive added value. Our results suggest that any improvement in transport infrastructure in rural areas will benefit market efficiency. ___________________________________________________________________________ [less ▲]

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See detailCompetiveness and incentive production of cotton sector in Mali
Koné, B.; Lebailly, Philippe ULg; Berti, Fabio ULg et al

in Research Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Management (2015), 4(12), 509-517

The Cotton production of has enormous problems originate from external factors (higher fertilizer prices, the producer price fluctuation) and internal factors (internal credit, claims of producers of ... [more ▼]

The Cotton production of has enormous problems originate from external factors (higher fertilizer prices, the producer price fluctuation) and internal factors (internal credit, claims of producers of short period payment of cotton seed to creditors), whose effects influence supply of Malian cotton. This work intervenes during an economic crisis when measures have been taken to increase cotton production in Mali. The objective of this work is to analyze the effects of input subsidies and increase seed cotton prices in relation with the global market of cotton fiber on the performance of the cotton sector in Mali. Surveys were conducted with a sample of 240 farms in four CMDT zones with two villages by area in 2008 /09, 2010/ 11 and 2011 /12, and the data from the CMDT (CMD, 2012) were used to develop a matrix of Policy Analysis. The results of analysis showed an improvement in the level of competitiveness of the cotton sector in Mali, and the level of incentives for the production of seed cotton with a subsidy of 50 % of the normal market price and the price increase of cotton seed with motivating factors. [less ▲]

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See detailPrice transmission mechanism analysis: An application to selected foodstuffs on the main markets of the Southern Rwanda
Musabanganji, Edouard ULg; Karangwa, Antoine; Lebailly, Philippe ULg

in East African Journal of Science and Technology (2015), 5(2), 179-200

This study analysed the transmission of the prices of the major foodstuffs on local markets of the Southern Rwanda. It used time series data collected on Huye, Nyanza and Muhanga markets from January 1997 ... [more ▼]

This study analysed the transmission of the prices of the major foodstuffs on local markets of the Southern Rwanda. It used time series data collected on Huye, Nyanza and Muhanga markets from January 1997 to June 2014. The cointegration analysis has been applied to analyse the data and the Error Correction Mechanism was used to integrate, around the long-run, the short-run fluctuations. The obtained results have confirmed the relationship between the variation of the price of bean, the seasonal calendar and the prices of maize flour and potato on the markets covered by this study. It is revealed that during the first quarter, the price of beans decreased on the three markets while the third quarter influenced the increase of the price of beans only on the market of Muhanga. A positive influence of white maize flour price on that of beans was noticed on Huye and Muhanga markets in the same period. The previous and the current monthly price of potato is likely to influence the increase of the current monthly price of beans respectively on Huye and Nyanza markets. In light of the findings, the following main recommendations emerge. Policy makers and local authorities should consider the price transmission mechanism and the relationship between foodstuffs' prices in the control of prices of major staple food; a study analysing the mutual influence between these main markets by assessing their level of integration for these important staple foods is suggested. [less ▲]

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See detailScaling up the Benefits of Smallholder Forestry beyond Timber: Success story of Teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) Leaves Marketing in Southern Benin
Aoudji, A.K.N.; Burny, Philippe ULg; Adégbidi, A. et al

in Tropicultura (2015), 33(4), 322-332

The marketing of teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) leaves was studied in southern Benin, in order to seek out opportunities for increased financial returns in smallholder tree growing. A survey was carried out ... [more ▼]

The marketing of teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) leaves was studied in southern Benin, in order to seek out opportunities for increased financial returns in smallholder tree growing. A survey was carried out across the commercialization system. Seventy-six traders were interviewed in nine markets purposely selected, based on their functions in the commercialization system. Respondents provided information on their marketing functions, the costs borne, and their revenues. The marketing system was led by women who controlled the main functions. Three categories of traders were identified, namely collectors-wholesalers-retailers, collectors-retailers, and retailers. The commercialization of teak leaves increases the return from tree growing. Traders' monthly revenue was XOF 4,659-15,927 (USD 9.3-31.9) during the rainy season and XOF 6,621-21,655 (USD 13.2-43.3) during the dry season. As substitute for polyethylene bags in food packaging, teak leaves offer a potential to tackle environmental pollution in southern Benin. The study shows the necessity to consult beneficiaries to ensure the proper selection of tree species in farm forestry programmes. [less ▲]

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See detailAn analysis the value chain of fresh milk in the northern area Vietnam: a case study in Son La Province
Bui Thi, Nga; Lebailly, Philippe ULg; Tran Huu, Cuong

Book published by Centres d'Etudes du Développement, UCL; Unité d'Economie et Développement rural, Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, ULG; Centre for Interdisciplinary Research on Rural Development (CIRRD), Hanoi University of Agriculture (HUA) (2015)

In Vietnam, the consumption of dairy products has increased dramatically in recent years due to rising incomes. To meet this growing demand, and reduce imports, the Vietnamese Government has encouraged ... [more ▼]

In Vietnam, the consumption of dairy products has increased dramatically in recent years due to rising incomes. To meet this growing demand, and reduce imports, the Vietnamese Government has encouraged milk production. In this context, our research is primarily interested in the distribution of value added among the actors within the fresh milk chain observed in the province of Son La. Our study demonstrates that value added within the fresh milk chain was unequally distributed among actors in the chain in the bias orientation to the non-farmers (non-producer). The key feature in the chain was the dairy farmers, but they were also the most vulnerable actors of the chain. Given the balance of power among the actors, the most appropriate method to promote the added value for dairy producers is to help a better control on their production costs by improving the management at the dairy farm. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment in Red River Delta, Vietnam
Nguyen Thi Minh Khué, ULg; Nguyen Thi, Dien; White, Ben et al

Poster (2015)

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See detailCapacity building and services to assist local farmers to improve aquaculture management in Vietnam
Lebailly, Philippe ULg; Bui Thi, Nga; Ngo Thi Thu Hang, ULg et al

in Rajamangala University of Technology Isan (Ed.) The 5th International Conference on Sustainable Animal Agriculture for Developing Countries (SAADC 2015) : Abstract Book (2015)

Since 2000, we can observe important changes in traditional production systems of coastal communes in North Vietnam. Faced with relatively low incomes, rice farms converted the surfaces available to them ... [more ▼]

Since 2000, we can observe important changes in traditional production systems of coastal communes in North Vietnam. Faced with relatively low incomes, rice farms converted the surfaces available to them in aquaculture ponds. These are difficult to reverse conversions were carried out by farmers seeking to improve family income in areas of relatively low rice productivity. These changes have had a significant impact on the revenues generated in coastal villages with changes in work organization and the upstream business opportunities for feed plants. This type of family aquaculture has grown rapidly to meet domestic demand but also to export markets. Faced with these voluntary initiatives, the Vietnamese authorities have had difficulties to coach and support these new producers in sustainable development schemes for fresh water or brackish water aquaculture. In addition, climate change could significantly affect these areas particularly exposed to rising sea waters. Moreover, aquaculture producers respond to logic relatively isolated individual entrepreneurs. They deliver their products to many collectors who engage strong competition. This is particularly true at the sub-sectors supplying the domestic market. The Vietnamese marketing system for aquaculture products is generally considered competitive and efficient. It involves different stakeholders (collectors, dealers, wholesalers and processors) that develop often difficult short-term strategies to understand and which do not permit a good traceability of production. At producer level, understanding of market mechanisms is very limited which makes it difficult to decision support for investments and marketing. Meanwhile, producers are exposed to high price volatility. Small producers oriented towards the local market are particularly exposed and vulnerable to this issue and it is important to understand the strategies that can be implemented to ensure against this form of risk. In this context, this paper describes two initiatives conducted in the Northern area of Vietnam to strengthen the sustainability of clam’s farms and supported by researchers from Vietnam National University of Agriculture. [less ▲]

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See detailEuropean directive related to chocolate composition is unfair for the African cocoa planters
Lebailly, Philippe ULg; Ahouissou, Brice; Namé, M.

in EC Agriculture (2015), 2(4), 384-390

Coming from the cocoa bean, chocolate is one of the most important sectors of the European food industry with sustained growth for many years and creating very high values in the food. Whether the cocoa ... [more ▼]

Coming from the cocoa bean, chocolate is one of the most important sectors of the European food industry with sustained growth for many years and creating very high values in the food. Whether the cocoa bean is largely produced in the African countries (Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, and Cameroon), its derivatives are mainly consumed in industrialized countries. After negotiation at EU level, since 23 June 2000, Directive 2000/36 has repealed Directive of 1973 and allows the use of other veg¬etable fats (CBEs) cheaper than cocoa butter to chocolate making in limit of 5% of the total weight of the finished product, at delight of some multinational companies. Are considered CBEs: illipe, palm oil, sal, shea butter and gurgikogum and mango kernels. But, in fact, it is palm oil, which is the substitute. Fifteen years after having authorized the incorporation of palm oil in chocolate, we remark in European level, the evils of it on health and the environment! A sad commentary and especially since the adoption of the Directive has deprived the African planters (sup¬ply of cocoa beans is 70% of African origin) of a much-needed income to fight against poverty rural area. As firstly, markets have anticipated the decision, prices remained subdued and secondly it redirects a portion of the demand related to the vegetable fats to Asia which focuses supply of palm oil. Once again, Africa appears to be the big loser in this saga led by the lobby of the oilseed industry in Brussels. [less ▲]

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See detailAn Analysis of the Urban Consumption of Charcoal by Household: The Case of the City of Bujumbura in Burundi
Sabuhungu, Emery Gaspard ULg; Ndimanya, Patrice; Lebailly, Philippe ULg

in International Review of Research in Emerging Markets and the Global Economy (2015), 1(1), 206-2017

A study of charcoal consumption, involving 240 households, was conducted in three different districts of the city of Bujumbura in Burundi. These districts were selected according the standard of living ... [more ▼]

A study of charcoal consumption, involving 240 households, was conducted in three different districts of the city of Bujumbura in Burundi. These districts were selected according the standard of living for residents and the level of property taxes received by district. The main objective of this study was to show the different aspects of charcoal consumption by households in the city of Bujumbura. Specific requirements to identify were: charcoal consumption patterns, the amount of daily cooking, an analysis of charcoal expenditures, the coefficient of charcoal consumption (kg per person per day), and the relationship between charcoal consumption and socio- economic and demographic parameters. The results indicate that households in Bujumbura fall into three categories according to charcoal consumption patterns: those households that only use charcoal (83%), those that combine charcoal and firewood (5 %) and those that combine charcoal and electricity (12%). These results show that charcoal is the main cooking fuel for households in Bujumbura. Average spending per person per day totalled 299 BIF. A person consumes 0.78 kg of charcoal per day. The following factors influence household expenditure on charcoal: household income, the charcoal price, the household size, the number of cooking sessions per day in the household and the preparation of time consuming foods (such as cassava leaves). Charcoal consumption can lead to deforestation in areas of supply. The dissemination of improved cooking stoves can help alleviate this situation. [less ▲]

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See detailDéveloppement rural et petite paysannerie en Asie du Sud-Est : Leçons d'expériences au Vietnam et au Cambodge
Lebailly, Philippe ULg; Peemans, Jean-Philippe; Vu Dinh, Ton et al

Book published by L'Harmattan (2015)

Le fil conducteur de cet ouvrage repose sur un constat : l’agriculture continue de représenter le moteur essentiel du développement économique et social pour les pays d’Asie de l’Est et du Sud-Est. Elle y ... [more ▼]

Le fil conducteur de cet ouvrage repose sur un constat : l’agriculture continue de représenter le moteur essentiel du développement économique et social pour les pays d’Asie de l’Est et du Sud-Est. Elle y occupe la majorité de la main-d’œuvre et doit à la fois assurer la subsistance de la population rurale, faire face à l’augmentation et à la diversification de la consommation urbaine et contribuer à produire des ressources pour l’exportation. L’approche pluridisciplinaire du développement rural prônée dans le cadre des contributions à cet ouvrage collectif a voulu placer au cœur de ses préoccupations les petites exploitations villageoises se situant tant au niveau de la production que de la transformation et la commercialisation de ces produits, dans le contexte actuel de la libération des marchés. L’un des grands défis est d’y intégrer la dimension de durabilité, sur le plan social et sur le plan environnemental. Les différentes parties de l’ouvrage illustrent cette perspective et partagent ces questionnements. [less ▲]

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See detailAgricultural Land Conversion Drivers in Northeast Iran: Application of Structural Equation Model
Azadi, Hossein ULg; Barati, Ali Akbar; Rafiaani, Parisa et al

in Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy (2015)

Identifying driving forces behind agricultural land conversion (ALC) remains one of the most difficult challenges that agricultural and environmental scientists must continually deal with. The difficulty ... [more ▼]

Identifying driving forces behind agricultural land conversion (ALC) remains one of the most difficult challenges that agricultural and environmental scientists must continually deal with. The difficulty emerges from the fact that in ALC, multiple actions and interactions between different factors (i.e., economic, political, environmental, biophysical, institutional, and cultural) exist and make it difficult to understand the function of the processes behind the changes. The phenomenon of ALC in different countries is varied in terms of intensity, trends and drivers. The main goal of this study was to understand these drivers in Northeast Iran through applying structural equation model (SEM). Using multi-stage stratified random sampling, 101 executive officers participated in the study. Data were collected through a structured questionnaire. A multi-stakeholder analysis and a mixed-method (qualitative and quantitative) approach were applied. Results revealed that not only from the policy makers’ perspective but also based on the SEM, "economic", "political", "technological", "social" and "environmental" factors should respectively be the five major drivers of ALC. The results also showed that among other drivers, "more profitability of non-agriculture sectors", "excessive rising of land prices", "farmers’ income instability", "land fragmentation", "urban sprawl" and "inheritance laws" are the main six causes of ALC. Hence, it can be concluded that policy-makers and planners need to take these drivers and subsidiaries more into consideration in order to properly respond to ALC. [less ▲]

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See detailQuel développement agricole pour la RDC ?
Lebailly, Philippe ULg; Michel, Baudouin ULg; Ntoto M'Vubu, Alphonse Roger

in Omasombo Tshonda, Jean; Marysse, Stefaan (Eds.) Conjonctures congolaises 2014 : politiques, territoires et ressources naturelles : changements et continuités (2015)

Cette partie d'ouvrage s'intéresse au secteur agricole de la République démocratique du Congo en tant que perspective de développement intéressante susceptible de contribuer au décollage économique et à ... [more ▼]

Cette partie d'ouvrage s'intéresse au secteur agricole de la République démocratique du Congo en tant que perspective de développement intéressante susceptible de contribuer au décollage économique et à la réduction de la pauvreté du pays. [less ▲]

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See detailÉvaluation technico-économique de la production de plants de teck (Tectona grandis L.f.) dans les pépinières villageoises au Sud-Bénin
Séhouéto, Caroline K. P.; Aoudji, Augustin K. N.; Avocèvou-Ayisso, Carolle et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2015), 19(1), 32-41

The present study deals with the production of the seedlings of teak (Tectona grandis L.f.), a species used in forest plantations in southern Benin. The aim of the study was to evaluate the techniques and ... [more ▼]

The present study deals with the production of the seedlings of teak (Tectona grandis L.f.), a species used in forest plantations in southern Benin. The aim of the study was to evaluate the techniques and the profitability of teak seedling production in the community nurseries of southern Benin. [less ▲]

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See detailEconomic efficiency of milk production farms in Hanoi Suburbs, Vietnam
Le Dinh, Khan; Phan Dang, Thang ULg; Lebailly, Philippe ULg et al

Poster (2014, November 14)

Dairy production has presented in Vietnam since 50 years, but these dairy farms really developed from 2001. In the period 2001 – 2010, the average growth rate of dairy herds was up to 30% per year ... [more ▼]

Dairy production has presented in Vietnam since 50 years, but these dairy farms really developed from 2001. In the period 2001 – 2010, the average growth rate of dairy herds was up to 30% per year. However, fresh milk production satisfies about 20-25% of milk consumption. The rural areas of Hanoi Province are large for dairy production. This province builds the 7 agro-ecological sub-regions for the development of dairy farming, in which Ba Vi District is a most of sub-regions for dairy production development. But the average size is about 2.5 cows per farm. This research aims to better understand how the factors in milk sector adapt to current economic conditions in Hanoi suburbs through analyzing farming systems. These studies were conducted from January to August 2012 on 43 dairy farms with different production scales at Ba Vi District to characteristic of dairy farming systems. The data were collected by interviewing and keeping records at the farms that have milk production. The results showed that three dairy production systems in these zones: (1) Dairy small farming system has from 1 to 3 cows per farm; (2) The medium farming system has from 4 to 5 cows per farm; and (3) The dairy intensive farming system has more 5 cows per farm. The economic activities were really diversified with landless per household farm such as rice production, gardens, grass production and sylviculture. Land resources per farm of intensive farming system were largest including 9,239 m² for garden around the household; 2,574 m² for rice land; 563 m² of grass area and 3,325 m² for sylviculture. While the small farming system has the lowest potential land, each household has only 2,815 m² of garden; 1,795 m² of rice land; 2,095 m² of grazing land. The medium farming system has about 3,150 m² of garden; 2,220 m² of rice land and 3,891 m² of grazing land. Milk production cycle was quite long with intensive farming system, up to 324 days comparing with 299 days per cycle with medium farming system and to 306 days per cycle with small-scale farmers. This difference was not statistically signification (P> 0.05). Average milk production yield per cow was high with medium farming system (16 kg per cow per day) in comparison with 15 kg per day at intensive and small farming systems (P> 0.05). Milk production yield has been improved in the past years with crossbreed cows such as Holstein-Friesian 50% and 75%. But this productivity was still considered to be lower than the milk production yield with dairy cows raised in Moc Chau District under Son La Province with 20.5 kg per cow per day and 6,250 kg of milk per cow per cycle). In addition, in the period from 2006 to 2012, fresh milk prices at farm gate have continued to rise for the farmers, while feed prices increased in the period from 2006 to 2010 and these feed prices were stable between 2011 and 2012. In the period of 2006 to 2012, fresh milk prices at farm gate increased from 0.17 USD per kg in 2006 to 0.60 USD per kg in 2012 and feed prices were from 0.15 USD per kg in 2006 increasing to 0.39 USD per kg in 2012. The net incomes were calculated per a cow per year reached 1,274 USD with the small-scale farming households to 1,476 USD with medium farming system. The net income per kg of fresh milk at farm gate obtained from 0.28 USD with small farming system to 0.31 USD with medium farming system. The net household income was high from dairy production, from 2,437 USD per farm per year with small farming system to 5,487 USD per farm per year with intensive farming system. The net labor family income gained from 997 USD per active per year with small farming system to 2,757 USD per active per year with intensive farming system. Thus, dairy production farms in recent years in Hanoi Suburbs provide very high economic efficiency for farmers in comparison with other agricultural activities at the farms. This explains why the rate of dairy family farming has grown very fast in the studied zones in the period from 2009 to 2012. This trend will continue to grow in the future. This research was also showed that the price of fresh milk plays a crucial role for profitable at farm level. But medium farming system with the size from 4 to 5 dairy cows per farm is more profitable with current economic conditions at farms. [less ▲]

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See detailSocio-economic characteristics of Fulani's households in Northeastern Benin
Chabi Toko, Roukayath ULg; Adegbidi, Anselme; Lebailly, Philippe ULg

in Kovacevic, Dusan (Ed.) Book of proceeding Fourth International Scientific Agricultural Symposium "Agrosym 2014" (2014, November)

Fulani belong to a socio-cultural group predominantly met in western Africa and usually raises cattle. Known as a nomadic group, Fulani have become increasingly more settled and combine crop farming with ... [more ▼]

Fulani belong to a socio-cultural group predominantly met in western Africa and usually raises cattle. Known as a nomadic group, Fulani have become increasingly more settled and combine crop farming with livestock husbandry. In Benin Fulani are predominant in the two eastern departments of the north. This community plays a key role in meat and milk supply in the country. But deep information on their household characteristics is scarce so that specific development actions concerning their activities are scarce. This study was carried out to characterize their household and highlight their livelihood strategies in the three agroecological conditions of the study area. 150 Fulani livestock keepers randomly selected were interviewed in 2013. The results show that the average household size is 18 people of which 22% are directly involved in cattle farming. The land is mostly inherited and the average size for a household is about 10.5 ha. Half of the land size is devoted to crops farming mainly 80% for home consumption and 17% to cotton production. Their livestock includes cattle, sheep, goats and poultry (chickens and Guinea fowl). Cattle represent 50% of the household livestock size. Cattle provide daily milk consumed at 51%; the rest is sold. Fulani also sell in average one cattle per month. In less favorable ecological conditions, they derive their income mainly from livestock. While in the regions where it rains more, they diversify their incomes by investing in food crops and cash crop (cotton mainly) farming. [less ▲]

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