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See detailThe effects of angry and happy expressions on recognition memory for unfamiliar faces in delusion-prone individuals
Laroi, Frank ULg; D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg

in Journal of Behavior Therapy & Experimental Psychiatry (2006), 37(4), 271-282

Numerous studies suggest a cognitive bias for threat-related material in delusional ideation. However, few studies have examined this bias using a memory task. We investigated the influence of delusion ... [more ▼]

Numerous studies suggest a cognitive bias for threat-related material in delusional ideation. However, few studies have examined this bias using a memory task. We investigated the influence of delusion-proneness on identity and expression memory for angry and happy faces. Participants high and low in delusion-proneness were presented with happy and angry faces and were later asked to recognise the same faces displaying a neutral expression. They also had to remember what the initial expressions of the faces had been. Remember/know/guess judgments were asked for both identity and expression memory. Results showed that delusion-prone participants better recognised the identity of angry faces compared to non-delusional participants. Also, this difference between the two groups was mainly due to a greater number of remember responses in delusion-prone participants. These findings extend previous studies by showing that delusions are associated with a memory bias for threat-related stimuli. [less ▲]

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See detailEmotional valence influences the rates of false memories
Dehon, Hedwige ULg; Van der Linden, Martial; Laroi, Frank ULg

Poster (2006, July)

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See detailThe phenomenological diversity of hallucinations: Some theoretical and clinical implications
Laroi, Frank ULg

in Psychologica Belgica (2006), 46(1-2), 163-183

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See detailReality monitoring and motor memory in checking-prone individuals
Zermatten, A.; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Laroi, Frank ULg et al

in Journal of Anxiety Disorders (2006), 20(5), 580-596

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See detailHallucinations and delusions in children and adolescents
Laroi, Frank ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Goëb, Jean-Louis

in Current Psychiatry Reviews (2006), 2

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See detailA French adaptation of the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale: Confirmatory factor analysis in a sample of undergraduate students
Van der Linden, Martial ULg; d'Acremont, M.; Zermatten, A. et al

in European Journal of Psychological Assessment (2006), 22(1), 38-42

Impulsivity is an important and multifaceted psychological construct. Recently, Whiteside and Lynam (2001) have developed the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale that distinguishes four dimensions of ... [more ▼]

Impulsivity is an important and multifaceted psychological construct. Recently, Whiteside and Lynam (2001) have developed the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale that distinguishes four dimensions of impulsivity: Urgency, lack of Premeditation, lack of Perseverance, and Sensation seeking. In the present study, we investigated the psychometric properties of a French adaptation of the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale. Two hundred and thirty-four undergraduate students completed the UPPS Scale. Exploratory and confirmatory analyses revealed a four factors solution similar to that found in the original study. Also, the results indicated that there was good to very good internal reliability for the four subscales. [less ▲]

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See detailNonclinical Participants' Reports of Hallucinatory Experiences
Laroi, Frank ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg

in Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science = Revue Canadienne des Sciences du Comportement (2005), 37

Hallucinatory experiences in nonclinical subjects were examined using a French adaptation of a self-report questionnaire (Launay-Slade Hallucinations Scale; LSHS). The factor structure of this ... [more ▼]

Hallucinatory experiences in nonclinical subjects were examined using a French adaptation of a self-report questionnaire (Launay-Slade Hallucinations Scale; LSHS). The factor structure of this questionnaire was examined. In addition to prevalence, we explored various characteristics of the reported hallucinatory experiences, including frequency, degree of control, emotional reaction, relationship to stressful events, and personal saliency. We also examined the relationship between the presence of hallucinatory experiences and other factors, such as substance use and social desirability. Two hundred and thirty-six nonclinical participants completed a modified version of the LSHS, a social desirability scale, and answered follow up questions. Factor analysis of the present version of the LSHS revealed a five-factor structure. Results regarding participants' hallucination frequency, perceived levels of control, and affective responses are reported. Additional results and implications are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailMetacognitions in proneness towards hallucinations and delusions
Laroi, Frank ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg

in Behaviour research and therapy (2005), 43(11), 1425-1441

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See detailSource monitoring for actions in hallucination proneness
Laroi, Frank ULg; Collignon, O.; Van der Linden, Martial ULg

in Cognitive Neuropsychiatry (2005), 10

INTRODUCTION: In the present study we explored the role of cognitive factors in hallucinatory proneness by utilising an incidental source monitoring task consisting of actions. METHOD: A total of 65 ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION: In the present study we explored the role of cognitive factors in hallucinatory proneness by utilising an incidental source monitoring task consisting of actions. METHOD: A total of 65 normal subjects were administered a source monitoring task and were asked either to: (1) perform the action; (2) watch the experimenter perform the action; (3) imagine him/herself performing the action; (4) imagine the experimenter performing the action; (5) or listen to the experimenter say the action verbally. Following a delay, actions were presented consisting of those already presented in one of the 5 conditions (old), and those never before presented (new). For each action, subjects were required to identify if the action was old or new. If the action was identified as old, subjects were required to identify the source of the word (i.e., one of the 5 conditions). Subjects also completed a questionnaire assessing metacognitive beliefs. Subjects were grouped according to their scores on a revised and elaborated version of the Launay-Slade Hallucinations Scale (LSHS). Those with scores within the top 25% were included in the hallucination-prone group (HP) (n = 16), whereas scores within the lower 25% were included in the nonhallucination-prone group (NHP) (n = 16). RESULTS: Within the internal conditions, hallucination-prone subjects confused two internal sources (a specific internal-internal source discrimination error). That is, for imagined actions where the subjects performed the action, HP subjects erroneously attributed these towards an imagined action performed by the experimenter. Results also revealed that hallucination-proneness was associated with metacognitive beliefs. Finally, there was a significant relation between certain metacognitive beliefs and the internal-internal source discrimination error on the source monitoring task. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from the present study suggest that an important cognitive deficit in the genesis of hallucinations may be a perturbation in the control of interna [less ▲]

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See detailAssociations between hallucinations and personality structure in a non-clinical sample : comparison between young and elderly samples
Laroi, Frank ULg; DeFruyt, F.; van Os, J. et al

in Personality and Individual Differences (2005), 39(1), 189-200

Few studies have explored the prevalence of hallucinations in the non-clinical, elderly population. Also, the association between personality structure and hallucinations remains poorly investigated. The ... [more ▼]

Few studies have explored the prevalence of hallucinations in the non-clinical, elderly population. Also, the association between personality structure and hallucinations remains poorly investigated. The aims of the present study were twofold. First, to explore the influence of age on the prevalence of hallucination-proneness, and second, to examine the association between personality and hallucination-proneness in young and elderly subjects. A sample of young (n = 230) and elderly adults (n = 183) completed an elaborated and validated version of the Launay-Slade Hallucinations Scale (LSHS; Laroi, Marczewski, & Van der Linden, 2004) and the Five Factor Inventory version of the NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-FFI; Costa, [less ▲]

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See detailThe neuropsychology of insight
Laroi, Frank ULg; Barr, William; Keefe, Richard

in Amador, Xavier; David, Anthony (Eds.) Insight and Psychosis (2004)

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See detailFurther evidence of the multi-dimensionality of hallucinatory predisposition: factor structure of a modified version of the Launay-Slade Hallucinations Scale in a normal sample
Laroi, Frank ULg; Marczewski, P.; Van der Linden, Martial ULg

in European Psychiatry (2004), 19

Recent years has seen an increasing interest in the hallucinatory experience, including investigations of its phenomenological prevalence and character both in pathological and normal (predisposed ... [more ▼]

Recent years has seen an increasing interest in the hallucinatory experience, including investigations of its phenomenological prevalence and character both in pathological and normal (predisposed) populations. We investigated the multi-dimensionality of hallucinatory experiences in 265 subjects from the normal population, who completed a modified version of the Launay-Slade Hallucinations Scale. Principal components analysis was performed on the data. Four factors were obtained loading on items reflecting (1) sleep-related hallucinatory experiences (2) vivid daydreams (3) intrusive thoughts or realness of thought and (4) auditory hallucinations. The results offer further evidence of the multi-dimensionality of hallucinatory disposition in the normal population. Directions for future research in hallucinatory predisposition are discussed. <LF>(C) 2003 Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailEmotional processing in a non-clinical psychosis-prone sample
Van't Wout, M.; Aleman, A.; Kessels, R. P. C. et al

in Schizophrenia Research (2004), 68

Symptoms of psychosis have been proposed to form part of a continuous distribution of experiences in the general population rather than being an all-or-nothing phenomenon. Indeed, schizotypal signs have ... [more ▼]

Symptoms of psychosis have been proposed to form part of a continuous distribution of experiences in the general population rather than being an all-or-nothing phenomenon. Indeed, schizotypal signs have been reported in subjects from nonclinical samples. Emotional processing has been documented to be deficient in schizophrenia. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis whether putatively psychosis-prone subjects would show abnormalities in emotion processing. Based on the extremes of Launay-Slade Hallucination Scale (LSHS) ratings of 200 undergraduate students, two groups of subjects (total N= 40) were selected. All 40 participants filled in the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ). We compared both groups on an alexithymia questionnaire and on four behavioral emotional information processing tasks. Hallucination-proneness was associated with an increased subjective emotional arousal and fantasy-proneness. Although no differences between the high and low group were observed on three behavioral emotion processing tasks, on the affective word-priming task presentation of emotional stimuli was associated with longer reactions times to neutral words in high schizotypal subjects. Also, SPQ scores correlated with several emotion processing tasks. We conclude that these findings lend partial support to the hypothesis of continuity between symptoms characteristic of schizophrenia and psychosis-related phenomena in the normal population. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailThe effects of emotional salience, cognitive effort and meta-cognitive beliefs on a reality monitoring task in hallucination-prone subjects
Laroi, Frank ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Marczewski, P.

in British Journal of Clinical Psychology [=BJCP] (2004), 43

Objectives. A tendency to externalize internal information on reality monitoring tasks has been documented in psychiatric patients with hallucinations. Furthermore, previous studies suggest that factors ... [more ▼]

Objectives. A tendency to externalize internal information on reality monitoring tasks has been documented in psychiatric patients with hallucinations. Furthermore, previous studies suggest that factors such as the emotional salience of the material, cognitive effort and meta-cognitive beliefs are important contributory factors in this tendency to externalize internal information on reality monitoring tasks. However, few studies have investigated these aspects in hallucination-prone subjects. Also, these factors have never been examined simultaneously. In the following study we wished to examine the effects of emotional salience, cognitive effort and meta-cognitive beliefs on reality monitoring functioning in hallucination-prone subjects. Design. Between-participants group design. Method. One hundred normal subjects were administered a reality monitoring task. Words were presented by the experimenter. After each word, subjects were asked to say the first word that came to their mind. Words varied in terms of emotional valence and cognitive effort (high cognitive effort for words requiring longer latency times to associate a word and vice versa). Following a delay, words were presented consisting of those already presented by the experimenter or the subject (old) and those never presented before (new). For each word, subjects were required to identify whether the word was old or new. If the word was identified as old, subjects were required to identify the source of the word (subject or experimenter). Subjects also completed a questionnaire assessing meta-cognitive beliefs. Results. Subjects were grouped according to their scores on a revised and elaborated version of the Launay-Slade Hallucinations Scale (LSHS). Those with scores within the top 25% were included in the hallucination-prone group (HP) (N = 25), whereas scores within the lower 25% were included in the non-hallucination-prone group (NHP) (N = 25). Results showed that the HP subjects had significantly more source discrimination errors than NHP subjects for self-generated items. In other words, HP subjects tended to misattribute to the experimenter items that they had produced themselves. This pattern was especially marked with emotionally charged material and with words that required more cognitive effort. In addition, HP subjects scored significantly higher on a scale assessing meta-cognitive beliefs compared with NHP subjects. Finally, scores on a scale assessing meta-cognitive beliefs were positively associated with source discrimination errors. Conclusions. These results suggest that cognitive effort, emotional salience and meta-cognitive beliefs all play a prominent role in the externalizing bias in hallucination-prone subjects. The results also provide evidence for the validity of the idea of a continuity between hallucination-prone subjects and psychotic patients with hallucinations on reality monitoring tasks, including a number of contributing factors in the occurrence of hallucinations. [less ▲]

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See detailA cognitive approach to hallucination-proneness in non-clinical subjects
Laroi, Frank ULg

Doctoral thesis (2003)

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