References of "Léonard, Angélique"
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See detailA road map for explorative scenario creation on Belgian rail freight transport development
Troch, Franck; Vanelslander, Thierry; Sys, Christa et al

in Competition and Regulation in Network Industries (in press)

The starting point of this article is the weak usage of rail freight in Belgium and Europe, both as a sustainable mode of land transportation in itself as well as a part of the intermodal chain. The ... [more ▼]

The starting point of this article is the weak usage of rail freight in Belgium and Europe, both as a sustainable mode of land transportation in itself as well as a part of the intermodal chain. The results are obtained by transversal research on rail freight transport in Belgium, taking into account the European context. This interdisciplinary research develops a road map for the creation of three integrated scenarios: a best case, medium case and worst case scenario for rail freight development, based on a detailed SWOT (strength, weakness, opportunities, threats) analysis. It includes the most probable future developments for rail freight transport and hinterland connections. These developments are obtained from literature review and discussions with a heterogeneous panel of experts in the fields of (i) optimal corridor and hub development, (ii) macroeconomic impact, (iii) sustainability, (iv) effective market regulation and (v) governance and organization for a well-functioning intermodality. The Delphi approach is used in combination with a survey analysis. Frequency tables and the H-index allow defining a ranking and selection of SWOT elements. The obtained scenarios allow future research to quantify and measure the impact of future developments and decisions towards the Belgian rail freight market. [less ▲]

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See detailRecent Evolutions and Trends in the Use of Computer Aided Chemical Engineering for Educational Purposes at the University of Liège
Léonard, Grégoire ULiege; Belboom, Sandra ULiege; Toye, Dominique ULiege et al

in Computer Aided Chemical Engineering (2017)

The present paper addresses the evolution and perspectives in the teaching of CAPE methods in the Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Liège. The transition that happened in the 90ies ... [more ▼]

The present paper addresses the evolution and perspectives in the teaching of CAPE methods in the Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Liège. The transition that happened in the 90ies with the arrival of commercial software is highlighted, as the learning outcomes evolved from the ability of building programs to solve chemical engineering problems towards the ability to use complex commercial software and to understand their limitations. Moreover, CAPE methods were extended to non-dedicated CAPE courses, which is illustrated here by the goals and challenges of their use in courses like “Reactor Engineering” and “Life Cycle Analysis”. It was observed that students sometimes assume that CAPE softwares provide straightforward and trustworthy solutions without the need of understanding their mathematical bases and assumptions. Thus, solutions to make students aware of these limitations are proposed, including the creation of an integrated project focussing on complex multi-disciplinary issues, evidencing the need for critical input from the operator. [less ▲]

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See detailEnvironmental impact of food waste treatment in an EcoCleaner, a portable accelerated composter
Groslambert, Sylvie ULiege; Léonard, Angélique ULiege; Finet, Sébastien

Poster (2017, September 06)

Canteen and catering food wastes represent a challenge in waste management since they contain a large part of water and can be subject to biological processes during the waste management chain, especially ... [more ▼]

Canteen and catering food wastes represent a challenge in waste management since they contain a large part of water and can be subject to biological processes during the waste management chain, especially during storage. Different solutions exist to manage this organic waste, for instance local and centralized composting, anaerobic digestion, or co-incineration with municipal waste. Except for local composting, theses methods need to collect and transport food waste to be processed, which mean transporting a lot of water. The Life Cycle in Practice (LCiP) (LIFE12 ENV/FR/001113) project helps SMEs to reduce the environmental impacts of their products and services across the entire life cycle. Within the frame of this project, the environmental impact of the Eco-Cleaner system is evaluated with the standardized life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. Eco-Cleaner (EC) is a stand alone accelerated system that can transform food waste in valuable compost in only 24 hours. It is designed by Biowaste Recycling (http://biowasterecycling.com/). It can be declined in different capacities, from family size (about 1-2 kg/days of food waste) to large communities of 1300 place settings (up to 700 kg/days). EC technology is based on a permanent control of the ratio of humidity and temperature to optimize fermentation rate of food waste by a special consortium of more than thirty thermophilic bacteria. Waste reduction is about 90% and compost is sanitized to ensure the destruction of active parasites, insect eggs and germs. EC compost is dry (80-90% siccity level), and it has a quite high nitrogen content (about 3-4% on dry matter) and is rich in organic matter. Thanks to an activated carbon filter (replaced every two years), it is odourless and has no noxious gas emission. Since it's dry, this compost can be stored without further degradation, and its transport has a reduced environmental cost. The functional unit is the composting of one ton of food waste. The inventory includes the machine itself, its use, its refitting every twelve years, and its end of life. Refurbishing includes mainly the replacement of the motor, the heating resistance, the plastic parts, the seals, and only 5% of metals. Avoided chemical fertilizers consecutive to compost application are considered as system expansion, and it induces negative impact values in all categories. Electricity for use is the main impacting element in all categories (BE mix) but this impact can be reduced by the use of on-site photovoltaic panels. Abiotic depletion is highly impacted due to the metals the EC is made of (92% of total weight, principally steel), but a large improvement is achieved by the quadruplicating of the life span because of refurbishing, and the recycling of metals at the end of life. Specific process data are processed in SimaPro 8.1 software, using Ecoinvent 3.1 database for additional generic data, and analysed with the CML IA 3.03 method. [less ▲]

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See detailLCM of construction waste towards circular economy of buildings: VALDEM project
Roy, Aubin; Groslambert, Sylvie ULiege; Pasquet, Vanessa et al

Poster (2017, September 04)

From resource prospective, building and construction sector is responsible for more than third of global resource consumption, including 12% of the fresh water use and its generation of solid waste is ... [more ▼]

From resource prospective, building and construction sector is responsible for more than third of global resource consumption, including 12% of the fresh water use and its generation of solid waste is estimated to be 40% of the total waste volume. At European level, construction and demolition waste is the largest waste stream representing one third of all waste produced in EU. Therefore the resource efficiency and management is crucial in building construction. A very significant part of the Construction and Demolition Waste (CDW) is not recycled today. Also a very limited part is used as a recycled content in the construction and building products and materials. This lack is mainly due to heterogeneity and dispersion of waste flows decreasing efficiency and economic viability of recycling. To address this issue, VALDEM project (funded by Interreg FWVL European Fund) aims to overcome barriers to increase up-cycling applications. The project focuses its activities in North of France, Flanders and Walloon regions (Belgium), and stands out from usual approaches by its cross-border view of circular economy. VALDEM aims, on one hand, to optimize buildings end of life management by developing new deconstruction, sorting and recycling processes to produce uniform and accessible material flows. On the other hand, the project aims at increasing recycling and generating high quality secondary materials (concrete and other flows) to be used in future buildings within an up-cycling prospective. And finally it aims at validating the solutions from technical, scientific, economic and environmental point of view. The Environmental assessment, based on LCA, consists of identifying hotspots and key aspects to prioritize the efforts of different economic actors. As a first step, an LCA meta-analysis is conducted to provide an environmental picture for different potential activities within the scope of the project. As a next step, a comparative LCA is conducted to assess the environmental benefits and impacts of different solutions proposed in the framework of the project in a decision making context, and to limit the impact transfer and to generate the maximum value for all the stakeholders. Finally, results will be transferred to main actors (recycling operators, buildings contractors, product manufacturers …) in the three regions in order to consolidate future key aspects to eco-design a building in light of circular economy. [less ▲]

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See detailComprehensive study of the drying behavior of Boom clay:Experimental investigation and numerical modeling
Hubert, Julien ULiege; Plougonven, Erwan ULiege; Prime, Noémie et al

in International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics (2017)

This paper presents a thermo-hydro-mechanical framework to model the dryingbehavior of Boom clay. First, the experimental campaign conducted Noémie Primeis briefly presented because it is used to validate ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a thermo-hydro-mechanical framework to model the dryingbehavior of Boom clay. First, the experimental campaign conducted Noémie Primeis briefly presented because it is used to validate the model. The data acquisitionand processing is emphasized because of the use of X-ray microtomography to beable to more accurately compare experimental and numerical strain fields. The dif-ferent submodels are introduced. Numerical simulations are performed to illustratethe capability of the proposed model to reproduce the observed behavior. Finally,a comprehensive sensitivity study on several key model parameters associated withthe water retention curve, and the permeability of the medium, is performed to get abetter understanding of the physics behind the coupled model. [less ▲]

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See detailEVOLUTION OF SLUDGE INTERNAL STRUCTURE DURING DRYING: EFFECT OF THE CONDITIONING CONDITIONS
Fraikin, Laurent ULiege; Pambou, Yvon-Bert; Salmon, Thierry ULiege et al

Conference (2017, July 07)

This paper investigated the influence of dual conditioning of waste water treatment sludge on the evolution of sludge internal structure during convective drying. Results showed clearly an impact of ... [more ▼]

This paper investigated the influence of dual conditioning of waste water treatment sludge on the evolution of sludge internal structure during convective drying. Results showed clearly an impact of chemical conditioners on the evolution of the created porosity. For sludge flocculated by single conditioning, a centered porosity delimited by an external crust was shown, while for dual conditioning, a porosity structured in lamellae, was identified. [less ▲]

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See detailSTUDY OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE DEWATERING : USING BIOBASED COAGULANTS
Fraikin, Laurent ULiege; Clermont, Quentin; Salmon, Thierry ULiege et al

Poster (2017, July 06)

This paper focuses on the dewatering efficiency of activated sludge from waste water treatment plant using biobased coagulants in addition with classical flocculant and compares the results with those ... [more ▼]

This paper focuses on the dewatering efficiency of activated sludge from waste water treatment plant using biobased coagulants in addition with classical flocculant and compares the results with those obtained with a sole classical coagulant. For this work, a standard compression-expression cell is used and an experimental design is develop to highlight the effect of the biobased coagulants. [less ▲]

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See detailConclusions of the 6th European Drying Conference
Léonard, Angélique ULiege

Conference (2017, June 21)

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See detailImpact of conditioning on sludge internal structure evolution during drying
Fraikin, Laurent ULiege; Pambou, Yvon Bert; Salmon, Thierry ULiege et al

Conference (2017, June 20)

This paper investigated the influence of dual conditioning of waste water treatment sludge on the evolution of sludge internal structure during convective drying. Results showed clearly an impact of ... [more ▼]

This paper investigated the influence of dual conditioning of waste water treatment sludge on the evolution of sludge internal structure during convective drying. Results showed clearly an impact of chemical conditioners on the evolution of the created porosity. For sludge flocculated by single conditioning, a centered porosity delimiting by external crust was shown, while for dual conditioning, a porosity structured in lamellae, was identified. [less ▲]

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See detailConvective drying : experimental campaign and numerical modelling
Hubert, Julien ULiege; Plougonven, Erwan ULiege; Léonard, Angélique ULiege et al

Conference (2017, June 19)

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See detailSTUDY ON THE STRUCTURAL EVOLUTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE DURING CONVECTIVE DRYING
Li, Jie; Fraikin, Laurent ULiege; Salmon, Thierry ULiege et al

Poster (2017, June 19)

The structure of the sludge sample continues changing during drying as a result of the shrinkage phenomenon. Then the exchange area becomes smaller and the drying rate decreases. The sludge collected in a ... [more ▼]

The structure of the sludge sample continues changing during drying as a result of the shrinkage phenomenon. Then the exchange area becomes smaller and the drying rate decreases. The sludge collected in a wastewater treatment plant (Grosses Battes WWTP, Belgium) was chosen for both lab-scale experiment and pilot-scale experiment. X-ray macrotomography (resolution: 0.36 mm per pixel) and X-ray microtomography (resolution: 41 μm per pixel) were used to explore the structure evolution of the sludge bed and the single extrudate respectively. 2D cross-sections of the sludge bed and the single extrudate were acquired, which supply a convenient way to investigate the evolution of the structure. The results show that the structure of both the sludge bed and the single extrudate distinctly changes during the drying process. [less ▲]

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See detailDEVELOPMENT OF A MULTISCALE CONVECTIVE LABSCALE DRYER
Fraikin, Laurent ULiege; Salmon, Thierry ULiege; Léonard, Angélique ULiege

Poster (2017, June 19)

The convective drying technology is currently used in many industries but the industrial process is frequently poorly mastered and some design security factors are used. The lack of optimized conception ... [more ▼]

The convective drying technology is currently used in many industries but the industrial process is frequently poorly mastered and some design security factors are used. The lack of optimized conception rules lead to large energy consumptions. In the same perspective, the use of superheated steam as drying fluid expands and requests the improvement of the knowledge about this specific drying process. For this goal, the PEP’s developed a new convective labscale dryer to conduct various studies. This article presents the new dryer called VESAC. [less ▲]

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See detailEcodesign of a “vapour and air barrier membrane – insulator” system, following a cradle-to-cradle approach – ATISOL C2C
Groslambert, Sylvie ULiege; Léonard, Angélique ULiege; Getlicherman, Michel et al

Poster (2017, May 15)

Buildings account for 40% of the total energy consumption of the European Union. This sector is growing, as its energy demands. The construction sector is also one of the most important contributors of ... [more ▼]

Buildings account for 40% of the total energy consumption of the European Union. This sector is growing, as its energy demands. The construction sector is also one of the most important contributors of waste generated at the EU level (up to one third). The European directive on the energy efficiency of buildings requires the members to put on the market solutions for insulation of buildings that are simple, effective and last-ing, but also respectful of the environment and of the users. A low energy consumption house requires to be thermally insulated and to have an ef-fective ventilation. To reduce energy losses and to guarantee the durability of the thermal insulation, it is necessary to have a vapor and air barrier on the warm side of the building, situated between the thermal insulation and the inside. Hence the passage of moisture in the building is reduced, preventing condensation problems in the insulating material. Cur-rently, the implementation of an insulation system combined with a vapor barrier presents three major problems: an important time for placing, a random durability in time (durabil-ity of tapes of junction, adherence to the existing walls, punching resistance), and finally a low disassembly and re-use level. As part of the improvement of energy performance of buildings, the ATISOLC2C pro-ject aims to develop a complete solution (insulation + vapor barrier + coating), with the lowest environmental impact on its whole life cycle. The solution combines a renewable vapor/air barrier combined with ecological insulation. The solution can be used both in new construction in timber or during renovation. The constructive system will be validated in both existing building and new construction. Compared to the state of the art, the solution that is developed is unique and innova-tive by its simplicity in terms of materials by integration of a vegetal self-adhesive binder to the spunbond reinforcement of the membrane, itself obtained from renewable re-sources. The material is appropriate for application on the different wall coverings exist-ing in a building. Due to the self-adhesive characteristics, the implementation is made easier in both common surfaces (walls, roofs and ceilings) and to the level of detail such as corners and junctions. In addition, the application of a natural top coating on the membrane completes the offer. The constructive system can be dismantled at the end-of-life of the building and the various elements are recovered and valued in a cradle-to-cradle perspective. At the level of the consortium, the development and commercialization of the ATISOL solution is achieved through the close partnership between Derbigum and Sioen Felt & Filtration, and with the scientific and technical support of the University of Liège, Cen-texbel and the Belgian Building Research Institute. A life cycle assessment supports the whole project to quantify the environmental impacts of both raw materials and processes (manufacturing, installation and dismantling). The aim is to ensure that the selected solu-tion is the most sustainable and that it is environmentally better than existing products on the market. This project is supported by the GreenWin Competition Clusters and subsidized by the Walloon Region (BE). [less ▲]

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See detailUse of a bio-based binder in the building sector
Gerbinet, Saïcha ULiege; Briard, Vincent; Pigeolet, Jean-Pierre et al

Poster (2017, May 15)

A binder is a material or a substance that holds materials together, like a glue. In the building sector, binders have several applications: they can be used in producing wood panels such as MDF to paste ... [more ▼]

A binder is a material or a substance that holds materials together, like a glue. In the building sector, binders have several applications: they can be used in producing wood panels such as MDF to paste together the wood particles and give the panels their stabil-ity. They are also used in insulation materials, such as glass wool or stone wool to bind the fibers together. Traditional binders are mostly fossil-based (phenol-formaldehyde, urea-formaldehyde, etc.), and previous Life Cycle Assessments (LCA) [1-3] show that these binders, even if they are a minor component on a mass basis, can have a major contribution to the environmental impact of the material, especially in wood panels. In addition, the use of these binders has raised some sanitary questions, especially con-cerning indoor air quality. Therefore alternative binders are being investigated, namely bio-based binders. In this presentation, we focus on the ECOSE binder, developed by Knauf Insulation, a global building insulation manufacturer. It has the particularity of being based on plant starch and it is currently used in glass wool products, while other applications are being developed. We underline that using biomass as raw materials instead of fossil-based ma-terials could have several benefits on the environment, especially fossil resources deple-tion and CO2 emissions, but that this is not necessarily the case for all environmental as-pects, for instance land use, even if only the direct land use is included in this study. The presentation will first underline the differences in term of environmental impact be-tween the traditional binder and ECOSE applied in glass mineral wool. Indeed, a compar-ison on a mass basis is not totally relevant: two binders can have different application conditions; therefore, we can only compare them at the application level. But the main focus of the presentation will be on the hypothesis made in the modeling of the biomass part and their influence on the results. For example, the influence of the use of bio-based raw materials instead of traditional ones will be studied, but also the influence of the dis-tance between farm and factory where the starch is produced. The use of local data will be compared with the use of databases. All these results will highlight the difficulties in studying bio-based products and to compare them with fossil-based ones. The use of LCA and a complete analysis of the results are essential to better understand the chal-lenges related to binder technology modification. ________________________________________ 1. Rivela, B., et al., Life cycle inventory of particleboard: A case study in the wood sector. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 2006. 11(2): p. 106-113. 2. Wilson, J.B., Particleboard: A Life-Cycle Inventory of Manufacturing Panels from Resource through Product, in CORRIM: Phase II Final Report. 2008, Department of Wood Science and Engineering, Oregon State University. 3. Silva, D.A.L., et al., Environmental performance assessment of the melamine-urea-formaldehy (MUF) resin manufacture: a case study in Brazil. Journal of Cleaner Production, 2015. 96. [less ▲]

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See detailLife Cycle in Practice – Helping SMEs to integrate life cycle approach in their policy
Groslambert, Sylvie ULiege; Léonard, Angélique ULiege

Poster (2017, May 10)

The application of Life Cycle Approaches – including Life Cycle Assessment, eco-design and environmental labelling – is becoming an increasing reality for business, and a growing challenge in many ... [more ▼]

The application of Life Cycle Approaches – including Life Cycle Assessment, eco-design and environmental labelling – is becoming an increasing reality for business, and a growing challenge in many economic sectors. Businesses are facing increasing legal and market requirements to enhance resource efficiency and reduce the environmental impact of their products & services. To significantly address this challenge, the Life Cycle in Practice project (LCiP - LIFE12 ENV/FR/001113) was conceived, aiming to promote the uptake of LC approaches particularly in SMEs. The overall aim of the LCiP project is to help SMEs in France, Belgium, Portugal and Spain in reducing the environmental impacts of their products and services across the entire Life Cycle and to foster the implementation of circular economy in these regions. Three sectors are selected: Buildings & Construction, Waste Management and Energy Equipment. Thirty-two businesses are involved in the four regions, twelve being located in Wallonia. GreenWin, the Walloon partner, has mandated several teams well-known for their expertise in LCA to coach them. ULg-PEPs coached three SMS's to help them to carry out the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of their product and accordingly to identify the strengths and weakness of the products and/or processes. Two of them are involved in building insulation (hemp con-crete blocs from IsoHemp and sound insulation panels Acoustix made by Pan-Terre), and the third one is developing an accelerated composting equipment for food waste (EcoCleaner). Concretely, the LCA of the three products are realised in a cradle to gate perspective. The results show possible environmental impact improvement for all the products, even if they are eco-designed. As a coach, the experience of working closely with highly motivated people in small structures is very gratifying and a smart way to help life cycle approaches to develop in our region. We are pleased to go on this initiative by hosting one of the Physical Resource Centres in the University of Liège to welcome SMEs seeking to integrate LC approaches into their businesses, and give them access to selected LCA tools, reading material, expertise, training and advice. Results and Online Resource Centre are centralised on the LCiP website: http://www.lifelcip.eu/. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamic of soil drying close to saturation: What can we learn from a comparison between X-ray computed microtomography and the evaporation method?
Parvin, Nargish ULiege; Beckers, Eléonore ULiege; Plougonven, Erwan ULiege et al

in Geoderma (2017), 302

The soil water retention curve (SWRC) is a unique relationship between water content and soil water potential. SWRC in near saturation gives the dimension of soil macroporosity which plays an important ... [more ▼]

The soil water retention curve (SWRC) is a unique relationship between water content and soil water potential. SWRC in near saturation gives the dimension of soil macroporosity which plays an important role in water translocation into soil. Thus, the accurate measurement of SWRC is crucial. The aim of this study is to compare SWRC obtained through two different methods: X-ray computed microtomography (X-ray CT) and evaporation method by HYPROP device. Three different depths (0–10, 25–30 and 45–60 cm) are considered for soil sampling. The results showed significant differences in SWRC between the techniques. The SWRC from X-ray CT showed more volumetric water content at 25–30 cm (0.044) and 45–60 cm (0.024) than evaporation at saturation (0 kPa) in cases where the macroporosity was higher. Macropores may have connections with neighbouring pores of smaller sizes. Hence we assume that these pores can be observed through X-ray CT but cannot be evaluated by evaporation. As macropores with narrow opening do not evaporate at very low tension. These pores therefore got empty at relatively higher tension. Consequently, SWRC near saturation appeared rather flatter with the evaporation method where the X-ray CT presented deviation. Accordingly, interpretation of macro pores from SWRC through evaporation method would give comparatively smaller volume of macropores than they really are. Pore morphology and other hydraulic functions of soil, for example, mean connection surface of pores, hydraulic conductivity, and the efficiency of water conducting macropores also support the X-ray CT findings. [less ▲]

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See detailGlucose production: influence of the datasets and of the long term emissions on LCA results
Gerbinet, Saïcha ULiege; Belboom, Sandra ULiege; Léonard, Angélique ULiege

Poster (2017, May 08)

The aim of this study is to have a good understanding of the environmental impact of glucose production. Glucose is generally produced from corn or wheat. Since agricultural processes are known to be ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study is to have a good understanding of the environmental impact of glucose production. Glucose is generally produced from corn or wheat. Since agricultural processes are known to be difficult to evaluate by LCA, the results obtained with two different LCA databases, Gabi and EcoInvent, are compared in this work. The production of glucose from raw materials can be divided in two steps: the agricultural step allowing the cereal production, and the conversion step including the extraction of the starch from the plant and its hydrolysis into glucose. Preliminary results underline the high impact of the agricultural step, so a special attention has been paid to these data. Specific Belgian data collected by the Walloon Agricultural Research Centre (CRA-W) (2014) [1] have been used as primary data (yield, amount of fertilizers, etc.), either using EcoInvent or Gabi datasets background data to model fertilizers, diesel consumption, etc. A third model was built using only data available in Ecoinvent for corn and wheat cultures. For the conversion steps, literature data have been used along with some industrial data. Based on these multiple sources, it is possible to compare the LCA results for the production of 1 kg of glucose for three different cases. The results underlined that the differences between the two databases are smaller than the differences between specific data (Belgium data) or non-specific data (Ecoinvent) for the agricultural steps. Nevertheless, in some impact categories, the differences between the two databases remain high. The presentation will underline where these differences are coming from. This leads to also analyze the differences between background data such as energy generation or fertilizer production. Moreover, special attention has been put on the influence of long-term emissions, in the Ecoinvent database. As these emissions have a large influence in some impact categories, we have to clarify if we should include them or not in view of comparison with GaBi database. Moreover, the Ecoinvent model and the GaBi models have been realized in two different software (Simapro and GaBi, respectively), therefore, some checks have been performed to see if some differences can be induced by the software. In conclusion, this presentation will underline which is the sensibility of the results to parameters not controlled by the LCA practitioner, such as the datasets hypotheses, the software differences, etc. 1. Walloon Agricultural Research Centre (CRA-W), ALT4CER project. 2014. [less ▲]

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