References of "Léonard, Angélique"
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See detailRecent Evolutions and Trends in the Use of Computer Aided Chemical Engineering for Educational Purposes at the University of Liège
Léonard, Grégoire ULg; Belboom, Sandra ULg; Toye, Dominique ULg et al

in Computer Aided Chemical Engineering (2017)

The present paper addresses the evolution and perspectives in the teaching of CAPE methods in the Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Liège. The transition that happened in the 90ies ... [more ▼]

The present paper addresses the evolution and perspectives in the teaching of CAPE methods in the Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Liège. The transition that happened in the 90ies with the arrival of commercial software is highlighted, as the learning outcomes evolved from the ability of building programs to solve chemical engineering problems towards the ability to use complex commercial software and to understand their limitations. Moreover, CAPE methods were extended to non-dedicated CAPE courses, which is illustrated here by the goals and challenges of their use in courses like “Reactor Engineering” and “Life Cycle Analysis”. It was observed that students sometimes assume that CAPE softwares provide straightforward and trustworthy solutions without the need of understanding their mathematical bases and assumptions. Thus, solutions to make students aware of these limitations are proposed, including the creation of an integrated project focussing on complex multi-disciplinary issues, evidencing the need for critical input from the operator. [less ▲]

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See detailEVOLUTION OF SLUDGE INTERNAL STRUCTURE DURING DRYING: EFFECT OF THE CONDITIONING CONDITIONS
Fraikin, Laurent ULg; Pambou, Yvon-Bert; Salmon, Thierry ULg et al

Conference (2017, July 07)

This paper investigated the influence of dual conditioning of waste water treatment sludge on the evolution of sludge internal structure during convective drying. Results showed clearly an impact of ... [more ▼]

This paper investigated the influence of dual conditioning of waste water treatment sludge on the evolution of sludge internal structure during convective drying. Results showed clearly an impact of chemical conditioners on the evolution of the created porosity. For sludge flocculated by single conditioning, a centered porosity delimited by an external crust was shown, while for dual conditioning, a porosity structured in lamellae, was identified. [less ▲]

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See detailSTUDY OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE DEWATERING : USING BIOBASED COAGULANTS
Fraikin, Laurent ULg; Clermont, Quentin; Salmon, Thierry ULg et al

Poster (2017, July 06)

This paper focuses on the dewatering efficiency of activated sludge from waste water treatment plant using biobased coagulants in addition with classical flocculant and compares the results with those ... [more ▼]

This paper focuses on the dewatering efficiency of activated sludge from waste water treatment plant using biobased coagulants in addition with classical flocculant and compares the results with those obtained with a sole classical coagulant. For this work, a standard compression-expression cell is used and an experimental design is develop to highlight the effect of the biobased coagulants. [less ▲]

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See detailConclusions of the 6th European Drying Conference
Léonard, Angélique ULg

Conference (2017, June 21)

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See detailImpact of conditioning on sludge internal structure evolution during drying
Fraikin, Laurent ULg; Pambou, Yvon Bert; Salmon, Thierry ULg et al

Conference (2017, June 20)

This paper investigated the influence of dual conditioning of waste water treatment sludge on the evolution of sludge internal structure during convective drying. Results showed clearly an impact of ... [more ▼]

This paper investigated the influence of dual conditioning of waste water treatment sludge on the evolution of sludge internal structure during convective drying. Results showed clearly an impact of chemical conditioners on the evolution of the created porosity. For sludge flocculated by single conditioning, a centered porosity delimiting by external crust was shown, while for dual conditioning, a porosity structured in lamellae, was identified. [less ▲]

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See detailSTUDY ON THE STRUCTURAL EVOLUTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE DURING CONVECTIVE DRYING
Li, Jie; Fraikin, Laurent ULg; Salmon, Thierry ULg et al

Poster (2017, June 19)

The structure of the sludge sample continues changing during drying as a result of the shrinkage phenomenon. Then the exchange area becomes smaller and the drying rate decreases. The sludge collected in a ... [more ▼]

The structure of the sludge sample continues changing during drying as a result of the shrinkage phenomenon. Then the exchange area becomes smaller and the drying rate decreases. The sludge collected in a wastewater treatment plant (Grosses Battes WWTP, Belgium) was chosen for both lab-scale experiment and pilot-scale experiment. X-ray macrotomography (resolution: 0.36 mm per pixel) and X-ray microtomography (resolution: 41 μm per pixel) were used to explore the structure evolution of the sludge bed and the single extrudate respectively. 2D cross-sections of the sludge bed and the single extrudate were acquired, which supply a convenient way to investigate the evolution of the structure. The results show that the structure of both the sludge bed and the single extrudate distinctly changes during the drying process. [less ▲]

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See detailDEVELOPMENT OF A MULTISCALE CONVECTIVE LABSCALE DRYER
Fraikin, Laurent ULg; Salmon, Thierry ULg; Léonard, Angélique ULg

Poster (2017, June 19)

The convective drying technology is currently used in many industries but the industrial process is frequently poorly mastered and some design security factors are used. The lack of optimized conception ... [more ▼]

The convective drying technology is currently used in many industries but the industrial process is frequently poorly mastered and some design security factors are used. The lack of optimized conception rules lead to large energy consumptions. In the same perspective, the use of superheated steam as drying fluid expands and requests the improvement of the knowledge about this specific drying process. For this goal, the PEP’s developed a new convective labscale dryer to conduct various studies. This article presents the new dryer called VESAC. [less ▲]

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See detailUse of a bio-based binder in the building sector
Gerbinet, Saïcha ULg; Briard, Vincent; Pigeolet, Jean-Pierre et al

Poster (2017, May 15)

A binder is a material or a substance that holds materials together, like a glue. In the building sector, binders have several applications: they can be used in producing wood panels such as MDF to paste ... [more ▼]

A binder is a material or a substance that holds materials together, like a glue. In the building sector, binders have several applications: they can be used in producing wood panels such as MDF to paste together the wood particles and give the panels their stabil-ity. They are also used in insulation materials, such as glass wool or stone wool to bind the fibers together. Traditional binders are mostly fossil-based (phenol-formaldehyde, urea-formaldehyde, etc.), and previous Life Cycle Assessments (LCA) [1-3] show that these binders, even if they are a minor component on a mass basis, can have a major contribution to the environmental impact of the material, especially in wood panels. In addition, the use of these binders has raised some sanitary questions, especially con-cerning indoor air quality. Therefore alternative binders are being investigated, namely bio-based binders. In this presentation, we focus on the ECOSE binder, developed by Knauf Insulation, a global building insulation manufacturer. It has the particularity of being based on plant starch and it is currently used in glass wool products, while other applications are being developed. We underline that using biomass as raw materials instead of fossil-based ma-terials could have several benefits on the environment, especially fossil resources deple-tion and CO2 emissions, but that this is not necessarily the case for all environmental as-pects, for instance land use, even if only the direct land use is included in this study. The presentation will first underline the differences in term of environmental impact be-tween the traditional binder and ECOSE applied in glass mineral wool. Indeed, a compar-ison on a mass basis is not totally relevant: two binders can have different application conditions; therefore, we can only compare them at the application level. But the main focus of the presentation will be on the hypothesis made in the modeling of the biomass part and their influence on the results. For example, the influence of the use of bio-based raw materials instead of traditional ones will be studied, but also the influence of the dis-tance between farm and factory where the starch is produced. The use of local data will be compared with the use of databases. All these results will highlight the difficulties in studying bio-based products and to compare them with fossil-based ones. The use of LCA and a complete analysis of the results are essential to better understand the chal-lenges related to binder technology modification. ________________________________________ 1. Rivela, B., et al., Life cycle inventory of particleboard: A case study in the wood sector. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 2006. 11(2): p. 106-113. 2. Wilson, J.B., Particleboard: A Life-Cycle Inventory of Manufacturing Panels from Resource through Product, in CORRIM: Phase II Final Report. 2008, Department of Wood Science and Engineering, Oregon State University. 3. Silva, D.A.L., et al., Environmental performance assessment of the melamine-urea-formaldehy (MUF) resin manufacture: a case study in Brazil. Journal of Cleaner Production, 2015. 96. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamic of soil drying close to saturation: What can we learn from a comparison between X-ray computed microtomography and the evaporation method?
Parvin, Nargish ULg; Beckers, Eléonore ULg; Plougonven, Erwan ULg et al

in Geoderma (2017), 302

The soil water retention curve (SWRC) is a unique relationship between water content and soil water potential. SWRC in near saturation gives the dimension of soil macroporosity which plays an important ... [more ▼]

The soil water retention curve (SWRC) is a unique relationship between water content and soil water potential. SWRC in near saturation gives the dimension of soil macroporosity which plays an important role in water translocation into soil. Thus, the accurate measurement of SWRC is crucial. The aim of this study is to compare SWRC obtained through two different methods: X-ray computed microtomography (X-ray CT) and evaporation method by HYPROP device. Three different depths (0–10, 25–30 and 45–60 cm) are considered for soil sampling. The results showed significant differences in SWRC between the techniques. The SWRC from X-ray CT showed more volumetric water content at 25–30 cm (0.044) and 45–60 cm (0.024) than evaporation at saturation (0 kPa) in cases where the macroporosity was higher. Macropores may have connections with neighbouring pores of smaller sizes. Hence we assume that these pores can be observed through X-ray CT but cannot be evaluated by evaporation. As macropores with narrow opening do not evaporate at very low tension. These pores therefore got empty at relatively higher tension. Consequently, SWRC near saturation appeared rather flatter with the evaporation method where the X-ray CT presented deviation. Accordingly, interpretation of macro pores from SWRC through evaporation method would give comparatively smaller volume of macropores than they really are. Pore morphology and other hydraulic functions of soil, for example, mean connection surface of pores, hydraulic conductivity, and the efficiency of water conducting macropores also support the X-ray CT findings. [less ▲]

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See detailGlucose production: influence of the datasets and of the long term emissions on LCA results
Gerbinet, Saïcha ULg; Belboom, Sandra ULg; Léonard, Angélique ULg

Poster (2017, May 08)

The aim of this study is to have a good understanding of the environmental impact of glucose production. Glucose is generally produced from corn or wheat. Since agricultural processes are known to be ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study is to have a good understanding of the environmental impact of glucose production. Glucose is generally produced from corn or wheat. Since agricultural processes are known to be difficult to evaluate by LCA, the results obtained with two different LCA databases, Gabi and EcoInvent, are compared in this work. The production of glucose from raw materials can be divided in two steps: the agricultural step allowing the cereal production, and the conversion step including the extraction of the starch from the plant and its hydrolysis into glucose. Preliminary results underline the high impact of the agricultural step, so a special attention has been paid to these data. Specific Belgian data collected by the Walloon Agricultural Research Centre (CRA-W) (2014) [1] have been used as primary data (yield, amount of fertilizers, etc.), either using EcoInvent or Gabi datasets background data to model fertilizers, diesel consumption, etc. A third model was built using only data available in Ecoinvent for corn and wheat cultures. For the conversion steps, literature data have been used along with some industrial data. Based on these multiple sources, it is possible to compare the LCA results for the production of 1 kg of glucose for three different cases. The results underlined that the differences between the two databases are smaller than the differences between specific data (Belgium data) or non-specific data (Ecoinvent) for the agricultural steps. Nevertheless, in some impact categories, the differences between the two databases remain high. The presentation will underline where these differences are coming from. This leads to also analyze the differences between background data such as energy generation or fertilizer production. Moreover, special attention has been put on the influence of long-term emissions, in the Ecoinvent database. As these emissions have a large influence in some impact categories, we have to clarify if we should include them or not in view of comparison with GaBi database. Moreover, the Ecoinvent model and the GaBi models have been realized in two different software (Simapro and GaBi, respectively), therefore, some checks have been performed to see if some differences can be induced by the software. In conclusion, this presentation will underline which is the sensibility of the results to parameters not controlled by the LCA practitioner, such as the datasets hypotheses, the software differences, etc. 1. Walloon Agricultural Research Centre (CRA-W), ALT4CER project. 2014. [less ▲]

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See detailLife Cycle Assessment of freight transport in Belgium
Merchan Arribas, Angel ULg; Belboom, Sandra ULg; Léonard, Angélique ULg

in Cools, Mario; Limbourg, Sabine (Eds.) Proceedings of the BIVEC-GIBET Transport Research Days 2017 (2017, May)

BRAIN-TRAINS is a project supported by the Belgian Federal Government that deals with the possible development of rail freight intermodality in Belgium, analysing the current situation of the intermodal ... [more ▼]

BRAIN-TRAINS is a project supported by the Belgian Federal Government that deals with the possible development of rail freight intermodality in Belgium, analysing the current situation of the intermodal freight transport from an interdisciplinary perspective. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology has been chosen to analyse the environmental impact of freight transport in Belgium. In a first stage we have carried out the LCA of rail freight transport, inland waterways transport and road freight transport independently. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the first results obtained from the study of the environmental impacts of inland freight transport using the LCA methodology. [less ▲]

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See detailDrying recycled fiber rejects in a bench-scale cyclone: Influence of device geometry and operational parameters on drying mechanisms
Grimm, Alejandro; Elustondo, Diego; Mäkelä, Mikko et al

in Fuel Processing Technology (2017), 167

Abstract Significant amounts of waste sludge and rejects are generated by pulp and paper mills, and stricter environmental regulations have made waste handling a global challenge. Thermochemical ... [more ▼]

Abstract Significant amounts of waste sludge and rejects are generated by pulp and paper mills, and stricter environmental regulations have made waste handling a global challenge. Thermochemical conversion of mechanically dewatered by-products is expensive and inefficient due to their high moisture content; therefore drying is a vital unit operation in waste management. This paper reports results from drying of light coarse fiber reject in a bench-scale cyclone that allows changes in geometry. For the sake of comparison, convective fixed-bed drying tests were also performed. The results showed that the drying rate in the cyclone was hundreds of times higher than in the fixed-bed. For cyclone drying, the inlet air velocity was the most important factor in both determining the drying rate and residence time of the material. This led to the hypothesis that grinding of the reject particles due to particle-wall and particle-particle collisions play a crucial role in enhancing the efficiency of heat and mass transfer. In addition to inlet air velocity, cyclone geometry was the main factor that determined particle residence time, as drying air temperature mainly determined drying rate. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of sawdust addition on drying of wastewater sludges: Comparison of structural characteristics
Li, Jie; Plougonven, Erwan ULg; Fraikin, Laurent ULg et al

in Drying Technology (2017), 35(8), 925-932

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See detailEffects of the soil pore network architecture on the soil’s physical functionnalities
Smet, Sarah ULg; Beckers, Eléonore ULg; Léonard, Angélique ULg et al

in Geophysical Research Abstracts (2017), 19

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See detailBRAIN-TRAINS: Integrating the LCA methodology in and interdisciplinary project
Merchan Arribas, Angel ULg; Belboom, Sandra ULg; Léonard, Angélique ULg

in Proceedings of the 5th international conference on Life Cycle approaches (2016, November 09)

BRAIN-TRAINS is a project supported by the Belgian Federal Government that deals with the possible development of rail freight intermodality in Belgium, approaching this transport issue from an ... [more ▼]

BRAIN-TRAINS is a project supported by the Belgian Federal Government that deals with the possible development of rail freight intermodality in Belgium, approaching this transport issue from an interdisciplinary perspective. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology is used to analyse the sustainability impact of rail freight intermodality. The rail freight system has been divided in three sub-systems: rail transport operation, rail infrastructure and rail transport equipment (locomotives and wagons). First, a SWOT analysis of the intermodal rail freight transport has been performed to identify internal characteristics and possible external trends of the intermodal rail freight transport. The most important elements identified in the SWOT analysis have been selected through a Delphi-technique with the collaboration of a panel of expert. Thirdly, the selected elements have been translated into clear and measurable parameters, defining for every parameter an input value to quantify the scenarios. The parameters are measured in “tonne-kilometre”. Finally, three divergent Belgian scenarios with a time horizon set in 2030 have been built for further analysis. These scenarios are directly linked to the third strategic goal of the European Commission’s White Paper on transport (2011), which aims to shift the 30% of road freight over 300 km to other modes such as rail transport by 2030. As a result, a best, worst and medium case scenarios have been developed, depending on whether the 30% shift has been successfully accomplished, the status quo has been maintained or the goal has not been completely reached by 2030, respectively. The direct transport emissions and energy consumption during the rail transport activity have been determined using the LCA methodology. These LCA results have been used to improve the accuracy of existing commercial databases as Ecoinvent for the Belgian situation. [less ▲]

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