References of "Kaux, Jean-François"
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See detailVascular Endothelial Growth Factor-111 (VEGF-111) and tendon healing: preliminary results in a rat model of tendon injury
Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Janssen, Lauriane ULg; Drion, Pierre ULg et al

in Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal (2014), 4(1), 25-28

Tendon lesions are among the most frequent musculoskeletal pathologies. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is known to regulate angiogenesis. VEGF-111, a biologically active and proteolysis ... [more ▼]

Tendon lesions are among the most frequent musculoskeletal pathologies. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is known to regulate angiogenesis. VEGF-111, a biologically active and proteolysis-resistant splice variant of this family, was recently identified. This study aimed at evaluating whether VEGF-111 could have a therapeutic interest in tendon pathologies. Surgical section of one Achilles tendon of rats was performed before a local injection of either saline or VEGF-111. After 5, 15 and 30 days, the Achilles tendons of 10 rats of both groups were sampled and submitted to a biomechanical tensile test. The force necessary to induce tendon rupture was greater for tendons of the VEGF-111 group (p<0.05) while the section areas of the tendons were similar. The mechanical stress was similar at 5 and 15 days in the both groups but was improved for the VEGF-111 group at day 30 (p <0.001). No difference was observed in the mRNA expression of collagen III, tenomodulin and MMP-9. In conclusion, we observed that a local injection of VEGF-111 improves the early phases of the healing process of rat tendons after a surgical section. Further confirmatory experimentations are needed to consolidate our results. [less ▲]

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See detailDescription of a standardized rehabilitation program based on sub-maximal eccentric following a platelet-rich plasma infiltration for jumper’s knee.
Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Forthomme, Bénédicte ULg; NAMUROIS, Marie-Hélène ULg et al

in Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal (2014), 4(1), 85-89

Introduction: Different series emphasized the necessity of rehabilitation program after infiltration of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in case of tendinopathy. However, most of them describe only briefly the ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Different series emphasized the necessity of rehabilitation program after infiltration of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in case of tendinopathy. However, most of them describe only briefly the reeducation protocol and these programs vary. Our aim was to extensively describe a specific standardized rehabilitation program. Methods: After a review of literature of post-PRP infiltration protocols, we had developed a standardized rehabilitation protocol. This protocol was evaluated by 30 subjects with chronic jumper’s knee who. A a standardised progressive sub-maximal eccentric program supervised by a physical therapist for 6 weeks was started 1 week post-infiltration. The patient benefited also from electromyostimulation, isometric strengthening and stretching of the quadriceps, cycloergometer and cryotherapy. After the supervised program, the patient had to make an auto-reeducation added to the reathletisation protocol for 6 more weeks which was followed by maintenance exercises up to 1 year. The assessments were made using a VAS, IKDC and VISA-P scores. Results: The VAS , IKDC and VISA-P scores decreased very significantly with time. The compliance to auto-reeducation was good. Conclusion: We proposed a simple and efficient protocol based on sub-maximal eccentric reeducation to add to PRP infiltrations in case of patellar tendinopathy. [less ▲]

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See detailIsocinétisme : aspects spécifiques chez le sportif
Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg; Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Crielaard, Jean-Michel ULg et al

in Kinésithérapie Scientifique (2014), 550

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See detailChevilles douloureuses et instables
Kaux, Jean-François ULg

Learning material (2014)

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See detailFractures de fatigue
Kaux, Jean-François ULg

Learning material (2014)

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See detailCe cavernome cérébral est-il la cause d'un syndrome parkinsonien ?
Benmouna, Karim; DIVE, Dominique ULg; WANG, François-Charles ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2013), 68(12), 613-616

We report the case of a patient presenting with an akineto-rigid syndrome of the left hemibody whose etiological exploration by magnetic resonance imaging showed the presence of a cavernoma located in the ... [more ▼]

We report the case of a patient presenting with an akineto-rigid syndrome of the left hemibody whose etiological exploration by magnetic resonance imaging showed the presence of a cavernoma located in the right lenticular region. The interest of this situation lies in establishing whether pathophysiological link may exist between such symptoms and the lesion. [less ▲]

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See detailTraitement médical des tendinopathies du genou
Kaux, Jean-François ULg

Conference (2013, November 23)

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See detailLa qualité de force relative : paramètre sous-exploité ?
Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg; Delvaux, François ULg; Cordonnier, Caroline ULg et al

in Livret des interventions - XVèmes Rencontres Médimex - "Isocinétisme - Actualités et Controverses" (2013, November)

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See detailRééducation des plasties du LCA : quels pièges ?
Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg; BAUVIR, Philippe ULg; NAMUROIS, Marie-Hélène ULg et al

in Abstract Book du Symposium d'Axxon - Actualité en Kinésithérapie (2013, November)

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See detailLe mode excentrique appliqué aux rotateurs d'épaule
Forthomme, Bénédicte ULg; Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Crielaard, Jean-Michel ULg et al

in Livret des interventions - XVèmes Rencontres Médimex - "Isocinétisme - Actualités et Controverses" (2013, November)

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See detailActualités thérapeutiques dans la prise en charge des tendinopathies
Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg; Forthomme, Bénédicte ULg et al

in Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (2013, October), 56(Sup 1), 050-003

“Conventional” treatments of tendinopathies are generally employed empirically to fight pain and inflammation but they do not modify the histological structure of the tendon. However, these treatments are ... [more ▼]

“Conventional” treatments of tendinopathies are generally employed empirically to fight pain and inflammation but they do not modify the histological structure of the tendon. However, these treatments are not completely satisfactory and the recurrence of symptoms is common. In contrast to the passive pattern of many therapies dedicated to tendon disorders, some authors have promoted an eccentric training mode. Such active eccentric training programs are aimed at thwarting an aetiopathogenic theory proposing insufficient tensile strength of the tendon exposed to external loads which could progressively damage it. Though the literature remains incomplete on tendon architecture remodelling and real histological adaptations following an adapted eccentric training, clinical results following such therapy appear promising. Due to its noninvasiveness, low complication rate and high applicability combined with good results, extracorporeal shock wave therapy has become a well known option within the therapeutic spectrum for many tendinopathies. More specifically, it has been successfully applied in chronic tendinopathy resistant to a conservative training program including eccentric exercises. Platelets release different cytokines and growth factors that could promote angiogenesis, tissue remodelling (bone, skin etc.), and wound healing. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is obtained by centrifuging autologous blood to have a high concentration of platelets depending on the isolation method. For this reason, different PRP preparation techniques cannot provide a consistently identical final product, but there is currently no international consensus on this issue. Despite the proven efficacy of PRP tissue regeneration in labs, there is currently little tangible clinical evidence for chronic tendon disorders. The few studies that have been performed appear unlikely to be comparable. Up to now, randomised controlled studies with appropriate placebo groups are needed to determine the real effectiveness of PRP for treating chronic tendon conditions. However, this therapeutic option remains very popular in sports, and many top athletes are using it in case of musculoskeletal conditions. What is more, it has been removed from the doping lost of the World AntiDoping Agency. Other new therapeutic options (infiltrations of polidocanol, hyaluronic acid, botulinum toxin, patches of derivatives Nitro...) for treating tendinopathies are also discussed in this review. [less ▲]

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See detailRéaction inflammatoire exubérante comme effet secondaire d’une infiltration de PRP
Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg; LEONARD, Philippe ULg et al

in Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (2013, October), 56(Sup 1), 068

Introduction : Infiltrations of plasma rich platelets (PRP) represent a new treatment of tendinopathies. Currently, no side effects were reported in this indication. Case report: We report the case of a ... [more ▼]

Introduction : Infiltrations of plasma rich platelets (PRP) represent a new treatment of tendinopathies. Currently, no side effects were reported in this indication. Case report: We report the case of a 35-year-old type 1 diabetic patient with right upper patellar tendinopathy that had persisted for more than 6 months. The patient benefited from an intratendinous infiltration of 6 mL of PRP (8.105 platelets/mm3, almost no red or white blood cells) after a carefully disinfection but without local anesthesia. Typically, a standardized program of sub-maximal eccentric rehabilitation should be started 1 week after infiltration. However, the patient experienced local swelling with erythema, increased heating and pain, which appeared just underneath the patella, without biological inflammatory syndrome. In absence of septic general symptoms, no blood or wound culture were made. At 2 weeks post-infiltration, a greatly increased Doppler signal in a thicker tendon was observed by ultrasounds compared to that before infiltration, but there was no sign of infection demonstrated by either MRI or CT. However, the local inflammation did not decrease after a 3-week treatment of local cryotherapy, local and oral NSAID, and adjunct use of colchicine 1 mg. Thus, an insidious infection was suspected, even though there was no evidence of biological inflammatory syndrome or sign of infectious lesion on imagery examination. Antibiotic therapy (rifampicine 600 mg + minocycline 100 mg), was initiated for three months. Due to a lack of improvement via imaging and clinical examination, a 3-phase bone scintigraphy was performed. The results suggested the presence of a complex regional pain syndrome type 1. The patient benefited from classical physical therapy and concomitant pain killers. The evolution was favorable after 6 months of treatment. Discussion : Even though PRP infiltration represents a new and promising treatment for tendinopathy, more studies are needed both to verify its clinical efficacy. Moreover, implementing this innovative treatment requires caution because of potential adverse events. Thus, the balance between benefits and risks must be carefully evaluated before using this treatment, especially in patients with type 1 diabetes. [less ▲]

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See detailUne infiltration de plasma riche en plaquettes (PRP) pour traiter les tendinopathies rotuliennes supérieures chroniques
Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg; Bruyère, Olivier ULg et al

in Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (2013, October), 56(Sup 1),

Objective: Jumper’s knee is a frequent chronic overuse syndrome of the upper part of the patellar tendon. Platelets contain lots of growth factors which could enhance the healing process of tendons ... [more ▼]

Objective: Jumper’s knee is a frequent chronic overuse syndrome of the upper part of the patellar tendon. Platelets contain lots of growth factors which could enhance the healing process of tendons. Infiltration of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) could be a new therapy for such chronic tendinopathies. Materiel and methods: Twenty patients with chronic upper patellar tendinopathy were enrolled. Assessments were made before infiltration of PRP, and 6 weeks and 3 months after the infiltration, using a 10-point Visual Analogic Scale, clinical examinations with a pressure algometer, algofunctional scores (IKDC and VISA-P), functional assessments (isokinetic and optojump evaluations) and imagery (ultrasounds and MRI). The PRP was obtained with an apheresis system (COM.TEC, Fresenius). Six millilitres of PRP were injected without local anaesthetic. One week after infiltration, patients started a standardised sub-maximal eccentric reeducation. Results: Pain during daily activities significantly decreased with time (especially after 6 weeks and continued to a lesser extend up to 3 months). During functional evaluation, it decreased as well, but without significant functional improvement. No improvements in the imagery measurements were observed. Younger patients seemed to be more susceptible to have an improvement of pain by the PRP infiltration. Discussion: This study demonstrates that a local infiltration of PRP associated with a submaximal eccentric protocol is efficient to improve symptoms of chronic jumper’s knee in patients non-responsive to classical conservative treatments. [less ▲]

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See detailShoulder and handball
Gleizes Cervera, S.; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg; Kaux, Jean-François ULg et al

in European Journal of Sports Medicine (2013, September), 1(1),

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See detailFatty acids and associated cardiovascular risk
LE GOFF, Caroline ULg; Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Leroy, Ludovic et al

in Food and Nutrition Sciences (2013), 4(9A), 188-194

Background: A fatty acid (FA) is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated. Recently, the role of FA and particularly omega-3 and -6 has emerged as ... [more ▼]

Background: A fatty acid (FA) is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated. Recently, the role of FA and particularly omega-3 and -6 has emerged as cardiovascular risk factor in the literature. The aim of our study was to establish reference values for these FA and to compare them with data obtained in a population of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients. Materials and methods: Hundred thirty five healthy subjects (59.38 ± 27.12 yo, 75 men) were selected as reference population. We also evaluated FA in thirty three patients (55 ± 9 yo, 23 men) admitted in the Emergency Department of our Institution for AMI. The fasting whole blood was drawn in vacutainer containing EDTA. Before analysis, samples were washed and transmethylated. We performed the quantification of different FA by gas chromatography associated with flame ionisation detector (GCFID). Results: We obtained results in control healthy patients to be used as reference values. In the AMI group, levels of omega-6 were significantly higher (p<0.05) for C18:2n6 and C18:3n6 than the reference population and omega-3 values were significantly lower (p<0.01) compared to reference value for C22:6n3. The omega-3 index was lower and the ratio omega-6/omega-3 was higher in AMI group compared to reference values. Conclusions: We have established reference value for FA and have compared these values with the results obtained in AMI population. FA determination is a new tool we are able to use and to process in our laboratory which can help the clinician to screen patients with the highest cardiovascular risks because of the implication of FA in the etiopathogeny of atherosclerosis. [less ▲]

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See detailRunning races: study of the stress and cardiac biomarkers
LE GOFF, Caroline ULg; Kaux, Jean-François ULg; MELON, Pierre ULg et al

in European Journal of Sports Medicine (2013, September), 1(Supplement 1), 212

Background: Cardiac troponins (cTn) are considered as the best biomarkers for detection of myocardial cell injury and NT-proBNP as the best for the cardiac insufficiency. In this study, cTnT was measured ... [more ▼]

Background: Cardiac troponins (cTn) are considered as the best biomarkers for detection of myocardial cell injury and NT-proBNP as the best for the cardiac insufficiency. In this study, cTnT was measured by new commercially available high-sensitive methods in subjects undergoing a marathon and an ultra-trail. Our aim was to compare cTnT and NT-proBNP levels before and after the stress tests, in sportive subjects. Materials and Methods: Twenty eight subjects (26 men, 42.5 ± 11 yo) ran the Maasmarathon (42.195 kilometers) between Visé (Belgium) and Maastricht (The Netherlands) and 33 subjects (33 men, 45.7±9.3yo) ran the Ultratour of Liège (Belgium ; 67 km). We took blood sample before (T0), just after (T1) and 3 hours after the race (T3). In all the patients, cTnT concentrations were measured by high sensitive methods (hsTnT, Roche Diagnostics) on heparin plasma. The NT-proBNP was also determined with the kit Roche on heparin plasma. The protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of the University of Liège (Belgium). All subjects gave their informed consent. All statistical analyses were performed using Medcalc version 8.1 for Windows. p-value <0.01 was regarded as statistically significant. Results and discussion: A significant difference between hsTnT concentrations at T0 and T1 (p<0.0001), and between T0 and T3 (p<0.001) for NT-proBNP have been observed, but not between T1 and T3. This observation appeared only after a strenuous exercise. However, up to now this type of exercise is not reproducible easily in a laboratory. Moreover, nobody knows if these observations would have cardiac consequences at long terms. Conclusions: Measurement of cardiac troponins by high sensitive methods allows detecting significant release of biomarkers from the heart during exercise. The value of NT-proBNP are also significant but less than TnThs. We think that the TnThs could be an interesting tool in the future to help sport medicine to detect risk of developing a cardiac problem in the future or a sudden death. [less ▲]

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See detailRéaction inflammatoire exubérante suite à une infiltration de PRP
Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg; LEONARD, Philippe ULg et al

in European Journal of Sports Medicine (2013, September), 1(Supplement 1), 278-279

Background: PRP, obtained from centrifuged autologous blood, contains a large quantity of growth factors, which may enhance the tissue healing processes. Local infiltration of PRP represents a relatively ... [more ▼]

Background: PRP, obtained from centrifuged autologous blood, contains a large quantity of growth factors, which may enhance the tissue healing processes. Local infiltration of PRP represents a relatively new treatment for tendinopathies. To date, no side effects have been reported after infiltration of PRP to treat tendinopathy. Case report: A 35-year-old patient had a right upper patellar tendinopathy which was resistant to all conservative treatments for more than 6 months. The patient was a type 1 diabetic (well controlled). He had an intratendinous infiltration of 6 mL of PRP (8.105 platelets/mm3, almost no red or white blood cells) after disinfection but without local anaesthetic. Immediately following the infiltration, local cryotherapy was performed for 15 minutes. NSAIDs were avoided, but class-1 or -2 pain-killers were authorised if necessary. A standardised sub-maximal eccentric rehabilitation should have been started 1 week after. However, the patient experienced local swelling with erythema, increased heating and pain which appeared just underneath the patella, but without biological inflammatory syndrome. A great Doppler signal in a thicker patellar tendon was observed by US, but there was no sign of local infectious disease demonstrated by either CT or MRI. However, the local inflammation did not decrease after a progressive 3-week treatment of local cryotherapy, local and oral NSAIDs and colchicine 1 mg. Thus, an insidious infection was suspected, even though there was neither evidence of biological inflammatory syndrome nor sign of infectious lesion on imagery examination. An antibiotic therapy (rifampicine 600 mg + minocycline 100 mg) was initiated for 3 months. Finally, a 3-phase bone scintigraphy suggested the presence of a complex regional pain syndrome type 1 treated by a classical physical therapy and concomitant class-2 pain killers. The evolution was favourable after 6 months of symptomatic treatment, and the pain decreased to a level similar to that before the infiltration of PRP. Discussion/Conclusions: This case report draws attention to potential side effects that are linked to this new therapy by infiltration of platelet rich plasma in case of tendinopathy, in particular when used in patients with type 1 diabetes. Thus, the balance between benefits and risks must be carefully evaluated before using this treatment in patients with type 1 diabetes. [less ▲]

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See detailHazard factors of ACL rupture: Neuromuscular factors
Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Delvaux, François ULg; MASSART, Nicolas ULg et al

in European Journal of Sports Medicine (2013, September), 1(supplement 1), 50-51

Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of the knee are disabling, often associated with other intra-articular damages and increase the risk of early onset of osteoarthritis. It is very probable ... [more ▼]

Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of the knee are disabling, often associated with other intra-articular damages and increase the risk of early onset of osteoarthritis. It is very probable that multiple risk factors act in combination to influence injury risk. It is important to have a comprehensive understanding of these ACL risk factors, whose neuromuscular factors, even if investigations on neuromuscular factors reported to date do not provide a complete understanding of ACL injury risk. According to several recent studies, the neuromuscular control of joint biomechanics during a specific activity seems to represent a predicting factor of an ACL injury, by quantifying the intersegmental forces and moments generated about the tibio-femoral joint. Laboratory studies have shown that landing from a jump performs cutting and pivoting maneuvers with less knee and hip flexion, increases knee valgus and internal rotation of the hip coupled, with increased external rotation of the tibia and quadriceps muscle activation (especially in women). It has been hypothesized that these movement patterns increase the strain in the ACL during activity and that the large difference in knee injury incidence rates between males and females (1/4.5) may be attributed to neuromuscular differences and resultant mechanics. Although studies have shown that the position of the knee and the magnitude and sequence of muscle contraction can increase ACL strain values, it is hard to exactly correlate these movements to what occurs during activity and sport and at the time of ACL injury. Recently, a simpler assessment tool has been validated and is able to be administered in a clinic-based testing environment Consequently, the screening for ACL injury risk could be performed on a more widespread population. Athletes who went on to a primary ACL injury also demonstrated significant side to side differences in lower extremity biomechanics as well as reduced relative lower extremity flexor activation relative to an uninjured control population during the vertical drop jump. Similar mechanisms of injury risk have been identified in athletes medically cleared to return to sport after ACL reconstruction. These seminal findings indicate that these abnormal and asymmetrical biomechanical and neuromuscular control profiles are likely both residual to, and exacerbated by, the initial injury. A study revealed that a fatigue-induced protocol altered the latency as well as the magnitude of reflex responses of the hamstring muscles and the tibial translation only in women. The authors of various studies have suggested that the hamstring muscles play an important role in maintaining knee stability and that they protect the ACL during movements of the tibia relative to the femur. Therefore, decreased reflex responses of the hamstring muscles and in turn an increased the tibial translation might contribute to the pathomechanics of the ACL injuries. It is therefore conceivable that the fatigue-induced decrease of the hamstring neuromuscular function may increase the tibial translation and probably contributes to the higher incidence of ACL injuries, especially in women. A preventive approach to decrease ACL injuries could integrate muscle imbalances as a risk factor. If it has been scientifically validated than the muscle strength profile determined by an isokinetic testing offers a predictive value on the hamstring lesion occurrence, similar studies have not permitted such a conclusion about ACL injury. The isokinetic assessments after ACL reconstruction have allowed us to observe, on the healthy contralateral knee, a higher frequency of reduced hamstring/quadriceps ratios. A possible pre-existing weakness in the hamstring and the occurrence of an ACL injury is therefore possible but only a difficult prospective approach due to the multifactorial nature of ligament injuries could clarify that point. In conclusion, a functional analysis of the landing of a jump and an isokinetic muscle strength assessment have been suggested to represent predictive elements of an ACL rupture, but further studies are needed to have a stronger evidence of their predictive qualities of injury. [less ▲]

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