References of "Jousten, Alain"
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See detailUn contrat social performant et fiable
Jousten, Alain ULg; Devolder, Pierre; Hindriks, Jean et al

Report (2014)

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See detailEight years of National Health Insurance in Ghana: Evaluation of the Health financign Sub-Functions
Jousten, Alain ULg; Nsiah-Boateng, Eric

in Roscoe, Coleen (Ed.) Ghana: Social Economic and Political Issues (2014)

In 2003, Ghana introduced National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) to provide financial access to healthcare for all residents. It was implemented in 2004 in 145 districts nationwide. This study aimed to ... [more ▼]

In 2003, Ghana introduced National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) to provide financial access to healthcare for all residents. It was implemented in 2004 in 145 districts nationwide. This study aimed to evaluate the NHIS in terms of health financing sub-functions of revenue collection, risks pooling, and purchasing of health care using the Ashiedu Keteke District NHIS Office as a case study. The review and participant observation methods were employed to analyze secondary data of the NHIS. Reviews were conducted on NHIS operational documents, annual reports, and published literature. A data compilation sheet was used to collect membership, revenue and expenditure data from the AshieduKeteke District NHIS Office. Out of 158,466 members who registered over the period under study (2005-2012), about 30% were active card-bearing members. The population coverage increased consistently from 6.4% to 29.9% over the study period. Children below eighteen years of age were the most registered members (42.2%). Membership is legally mandatory and household-based. The NHIS is largely tax-funded: prepaid contributions declined from 20% to 15.4% over the study period. There was multiple fund system between 2005 and 2009; however, in 2011, a single risk pool (single fund system) was implemented to maximize risk pooling and administrative efficiency. There is comprehensive one-for-all benefit package for ensuring equity and adequate financial protection. The provider payment mechanism changed from fee-for-service in 2005 to Diagnostic Related Groupings (DRG) in 2008; although, fee-for-service is still used to pay for medications. In 2011, capitation payment was implemented for out-patient services at primary health centers. The administrative expenditure is relatively high; however, it declined from 42.1% to 13.3% over the period, 2006- 2012. The population coverage of the Ashiedu Keteke District NHIS Office is increasing with a decreasing trend in administrative expenditure. Given that more than fifty percent of the membership groups are exempted from paying contributions and the extent of prepayment is declining, large scope of government subsidies would be needed to ensure long-term financial sustainability. [less ▲]

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See detailThe retirement of the migrant labor force: pension portability and beyond
Jousten, Alain ULg

in CESifo Economic Studies (2014)

The specificities of the workforce with a migrant background are often neglected in studies of retirement. Similarly, many studies of migration’s impact on pensions often focus on aggregate outcomes – ... [more ▼]

The specificities of the workforce with a migrant background are often neglected in studies of retirement. Similarly, many studies of migration’s impact on pensions often focus on aggregate outcomes – system sustainability or distributive characteristics. The present paper provides a fresh look at the nexus between these two literatures. It discusses the impact of the European social security coordination mechanisms on individual decision-making and on the functioning of social security systems – with a focus on retirement. The paper argues that such effects are non-negligible and are likely to have major policy consequences. [less ▲]

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See detailAlternative ways of pricing and financing social insurance
Jousten, Alain ULg; Gillingham, Robert

in Frölich, Markus; Kaplan, David; Pagés, Carmen (Eds.) et al Social Security, Informal Sector, and Employment in Middle Income Countries: How to Protect Workers While Creating Good Jobs (2014)

Social insurance systems vary widely in terms of coverage of workers and risks, financing sources and the structure and generosity of benefits. The predominant source of financing for social insurance ... [more ▼]

Social insurance systems vary widely in terms of coverage of workers and risks, financing sources and the structure and generosity of benefits. The predominant source of financing for social insurance comes from “deductions” from payrolls. These deductions are typically categorized as either “taxes” or “contributions,” but they share the characteristics of both. Any analysis of how best to finance social insurance must thus start from an analysis of social insurance pricing: a decomposition of the insurance component (the true contribution) from the pure tax component (the true tax). Only then can an informed discussion about reforming financing mechanisms proceed. After reviewing the structure of social insurance financing and taxes in Latin America, this paper (1) discusses the problems with payroll financing of social insurance, (2) presents options for addressing these problems, (3) ties these problems to the level of informality, and (4) describes the challenges faced by policymakers in deciding how best to finance social insurance. [less ▲]

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See detailHealth Status, Disability and Retirement Incentives in Belgium
Jousten, Alain ULg; Perelman, Sergio ULg; Lefebvre, Mathieu ULg

E-print/Working paper (2013)

Many Belgian retire well before the statutory retirement age. Numerous exit routes from the labor force can be identified: old‐age pensions, conventional early retirement, disability insurance, and ... [more ▼]

Many Belgian retire well before the statutory retirement age. Numerous exit routes from the labor force can be identified: old‐age pensions, conventional early retirement, disability insurance, and unemployment insurance are the most prominent ones. We analyze the retirement decision of Belgian workers adopting an option value framework, and pay special attention to the role of health status. We estimate probit models of retirement using data from SHARE. The results show that health and incentives matter in the decision to exit from the labor market. Based on these results, we simulate the effect of potential reforms on retirement. [less ▲]

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See detailRetirement incentives in Belgium: estimations and simulations using SHARE data
Jousten, Alain ULg; Lefebvre, Mathieu ULg

in De Economist (2013), 161

The paper studies retirement behavior of wage‐earners in Belgium – for the first time using a rich survey dataset to analyze retirement incentives as faced by individuals. Specifically, we use SHARE data ... [more ▼]

The paper studies retirement behavior of wage‐earners in Belgium – for the first time using a rich survey dataset to analyze retirement incentives as faced by individuals. Specifically, we use SHARE data to estimate a model à la Stock and Wise (1990). Exploring the data on individual life‐histories from SHARELIFE, we construct a measure of financial incentive to retire. Our analysis explicitly takes into account the different take‐up rates of the various early retirement exit paths across time and ages. The results show that financial incentives play a strong role. Health and education also matter, as do regional differences. Against the general background of the 2020 strategy, we perform a set of policy simulations and illustrate the scope but also the limits associated with selective parametric reforms. [less ▲]

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See detailConceptualizing, Measuring and Financing the Legacy Costs in an NDC Reform
Jousten, Alain ULg; Holzmann, Robert

in Journal of Pension Economics & Finance (2012), 11(4), 606-630

The paper provides a framework for the conceptualization, definition and measurement of the legacy costs that needs to be addressed in a reform that transforms an unfunded (or non‐financial) defined ... [more ▼]

The paper provides a framework for the conceptualization, definition and measurement of the legacy costs that needs to be addressed in a reform that transforms an unfunded (or non‐financial) defined benefit (NDB) scheme into an equally unfunded notional (or non‐financial) defined contribution (NDC) scheme. During a transition from NDB to NDC a financing gap typically arises due to accrued to date liabilities from the old system in excess of the NDC scheme’s sustainable flow of benefits. This gap ‐ or legacy cost ‐ needs to be estimated and financed. We illustrate different techniques to gauge the scope of the cost. The paper applies the proposed approach to a hypothetical NDC reform in China. [less ▲]

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See detailAccrued Pension Rights in Belgium: Micro-Simulations of Reforms
Jousten, Alain ULg; Perelman, Sergio ULg; Sigismondi, Fabio et al

Conference (2012, June 20)

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See detailAccrued Pension Rights in Belgium: Microsimulation of Reforms
Jousten, Alain ULg; Perelman, Sergio ULg; Tarantchenko, Ekaterina ULg et al

E-print/Working paper (2012)

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See detailThe Retirement of the Migrant Labor Force: Pension Portability and Beyond
Jousten, Alain ULg

E-print/Working paper (2012)

The specificities of the workforce with a migrant background are often neglected in studies of retirement. Similarly, many studies of migration’s impact on pensions often focus on aggregate outcomes – ... [more ▼]

The specificities of the workforce with a migrant background are often neglected in studies of retirement. Similarly, many studies of migration’s impact on pensions often focus on aggregate outcomes – system sustainability or distributive characteristics. The present paper provides a fresh look at the nexus between these two literatures. It discusses the impact of the European social security coordination mechanisms on individual decision‐making and on the functioning of social security systems – with a focus on retirement. The paper argues that such effects are non‐negligible and are likely to have major policy consequences. [less ▲]

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See detailAccrued Pension Rights in Belgium: Micro-Simulation of Reforms
Jousten, Alain ULg; Perelman, Sergio ULg; Sigismondi, Fabio ULg et al

in International Journal of Microsimulation (2012), 5(2), 22-39

We simulate different reform scenarios of the Belgian pension system using a micro-simulation approach. Using a rich administrative dataset with extensive information on individual earnings histories, we ... [more ▼]

We simulate different reform scenarios of the Belgian pension system using a micro-simulation approach. Using a rich administrative dataset with extensive information on individual earnings histories, we evaluate the impact of the scenarios for the individuals as well as the system as a whole. Our main metric for these analysis is the notion of accrued to date pension rights, i.e. the pensions rights that would be due if the system were shut down today and all accrued rights under current legislation were honoured. Our analysis illustrates that partial reforms have limited effects, both in distributional and in fiscal terms. To achieve more substantial effects, a more comprehensive approach is needed. Regional differences within the country are mostly due to differences in regional GDP rather than the pension system itself. [less ▲]

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See detailLes nouvelles réformes fiscales en Belgique: réflexions critiques
Jousten, Alain ULg

Conference (2012)

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See detailDisability insurance and labor force exit in Belgium
Jousten, Alain ULg

Scientific conference (2012)

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See detailBringing Belgian public finances to a sustainable path
Jousten, Alain ULg; Hoj, Jens; Kozluk, Tomasz

E-print/Working paper (2012)

Economic growth is projected to be strengthening from mid-2011 onwards, but will be insufficient to restore the sustainability of public finances. The Belgian strategy to prefund ageing costs by ... [more ▼]

Economic growth is projected to be strengthening from mid-2011 onwards, but will be insufficient to restore the sustainability of public finances. The Belgian strategy to prefund ageing costs by generating fiscal surpluses to bring down public debt was derailed by the global crisis. Restoring the strategy is a priority, especially as spreads on Belgian debt have increased. This will require cuts in public spending, improving efficiency of policies, containing the growth of ageing-related costs and making the tax system more conducive to growth. While past experiences, such as in the 1990s, have shown that successful large consolidations are feasible, the task seems even more difficult this time as potential growth will be muted and interest rates are likely to increase. In this context, a credible fiscal consolidation plan requires the participation of all governments. Its effectiveness can be strengthened by improving the fiscal framework, in particular by introducing multi-year budgets, annual expenditure rules consistent with long-term targets and an enhanced role of an independent fiscal policy watchdog [less ▲]

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See detailAddressing the Legacy Costs in an NDC Reform: Conceptualization, Measurement, Financing
Jousten, Alain ULg; Holzmann, Robert

in Holzmann, Robert; Robalino, David; Palmer, Edward (Eds.) NDC Pension Schemes in a Changing Pension World, Volume 2: Gender, Politics, and Financial Stability (2012)

The paper provides a framework for the conceptualization, definition and estimation of legacy costs that need to be addressed in a reform that transforms an unfunded defined contribution (NDB) scheme into ... [more ▼]

The paper provides a framework for the conceptualization, definition and estimation of legacy costs that need to be addressed in a reform that transforms an unfunded defined contribution (NDB) scheme into a notional (or non-financial) defined contribution (NDC) scheme. As the new contribution rate is fixed and, perhaps, reduced, paying for the accrued to date liabilities leaves a financing gap that needs to be covered. The paper comes to the following key conclusions: (i) to render an NDC reform credible and fully effective in its desired results, it is crucial to determine the legacy costs of the reformed system – no matter how these costs will be financed; (ii) for a shift from an NDB scheme to a full NDC scheme with a fixed and long-term-sustainable contribution rate the legacy costs simply amounts to the actuarial deficit at the time of reform and is finite; (iii) different sources of the legacy deficit may be differentiated, in particular inherited legacy costs reflecting prior reforms and benefits above the steady-state under the old scheme; and reform-induced new legacy costs due to the shift toward a lower sustainable contribution rate; (iv) to estimate legacy costs, actuarially and macro-economically based projection models have advantages over pure actuarial studies, as they are less dependent on very technical parameter assumptions that may not be consistent with general equilibrium considerations; (v) distributive effects play both at the intergenerational and intra-generational level, as benefits and costs of the reform are borne unequally by different subgroups of the current and future population; (vi) in the developing world, one promising way to finance the legacy costs is the use of an increased coverage to strengthen the PAYG asset; (vii) for developed countries, theoretical models show that tax financing in particular via indirect taxes such as VAT is an interesting tool, but empirical limitations tend to dampen the real-world usefulness. [less ▲]

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See detailPréface
Jousten, Alain ULg

in Darte, Dominique; Honhon, Nicolas; Van Acker, Luc (Eds.) L'impôt des personnes physiques (2012)

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See detailDisability in Belgium: There is More than Meets the Eye
Jousten, Alain ULg; Lefebvre, Mathieu ULg; Perelman, Sergio ULg

in Wise, David (Ed.) Social Security and Retirement around the World: Historical Trends in Mortality and Health, Employment, and Disability Insurance Participation and Reforms (2012)

The paper provides a perspective on the development of the Belgian disability insurance system. Using both survey and administrative data, it sketches a picture of the (changing) factors leading towards ... [more ▼]

The paper provides a perspective on the development of the Belgian disability insurance system. Using both survey and administrative data, it sketches a picture of the (changing) factors leading towards disability, as well as the outcomes in terms of program participation. The paper shows the key role of integrating other forms of early retirement programs into the analysis. The main findings are an unspectacular trend in the number of DI beneficiaries over time combined with a strong expansion of (early-) retirement schemes. [less ▲]

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