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See detailStructure, function, and fate of the BlaR signal transducer involved in induction of β-lactamase in Bacillus licheniformis
Zhu, Yingfang; Englebert, Serge; Joris, Bernard ULg et al

in Journal of Bacteriology (1992), 174(19), 6171-6178

The membrane-spanning protein BlaR is essential for the induction of beta-lactamase in Bacillus licheniformis. Its nature and location were confirmed by the use of an antiserum specific for its carboxy ... [more ▼]

The membrane-spanning protein BlaR is essential for the induction of beta-lactamase in Bacillus licheniformis. Its nature and location were confirmed by the use of an antiserum specific for its carboxy-terminal penicillin sensor, its function was studied by genetic dissection, and the structure of the penicillin sensor was derived from hydrophobic cluster analysis of the amino acid sequence by using, as a reference, the class A beta-lactamases with known three-dimensional structures. During the first 2 h after the addition of the beta-lactam inducer, full-size BlaR, bound to the plasma membrane, is produced, and then beta-lactamase is produced. By 2 h after induction, BlaR is present in various (membrane-bound and cytosolic) forms, and there is a gradual decrease in beta-lactamase production. The penicillin sensors of BlaR and the class D beta-lactamases show strong similarities in primary structures. They appear to have the same basic spatial disposition of secondary structures as that of the class A beta-lactamases, except that they lack several alpha helices and, therefore, have a partially uncovered five-stranded beta sheet and a more readily accessible active site. Alterations of BlaR affecting conserved secondary structures of the penicillin sensor and specific sites of the transducer annihilate beta-lactamase inducibility. [less ▲]

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See detailInduction of a Streptomyces Cacaoi Beta-Lactamase Gene Cloned in S. Lividans
Lenzini, V. M.; Magdalena, J.; Fraipont, Claudine ULg et al

in Molecular & General Genetics [=MGG] (1992), 235(1), 41-8

The previously cloned class A beta-lactamase gene (bla) of Streptomyces cacaoi was shown to be inducible by beta-lactam compounds in the host organism S. lividans. A regulatory region of 2.75 kb was ... [more ▼]

The previously cloned class A beta-lactamase gene (bla) of Streptomyces cacaoi was shown to be inducible by beta-lactam compounds in the host organism S. lividans. A regulatory region of 2.75 kb was identified and the nucleotide sequence determined. It contained four open reading frames (ORFs) of which only two were complete and required for induction. ORF1-ORF2 exerted a positive regulatory effect on the expression of bla. Inactivation of ORF1 or of ORF2 resulted not only in the loss of induction, but also in a 30- to 60-fold decrease in the basal (non-induced) level of beta-lactamase production. ORF1 codes for a DNA-binding protein related to the AmpR repressor/activator, which controls the expression of ampC (class C beta-lactamase) genes in several Enterobacteria. [less ▲]

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See detailSite-Directed Mutagenesis of the Streptomyces R61 Dd-Peptidase. Catalytic Function of the Conserved Residues around the Active Site and a Comparison with Class-a and Class-C Beta-Lactamases
Hadonou, Ayaovi Medard; Wilkin, Jean-Marc; Varetto, Louis ULg et al

in European Journal of Biochemistry (1992), 207(1), 97-102

The importance of various residues in the Streptomyces R61 penicillin-sensitive DD-peptidase has been assessed by site-directed mutagenesis. The replacement of the active Ser62 by a Cys residue yielded an ... [more ▼]

The importance of various residues in the Streptomyces R61 penicillin-sensitive DD-peptidase has been assessed by site-directed mutagenesis. The replacement of the active Ser62 by a Cys residue yielded an inactive protein which was also unable to recognize penicillin. The activity of the Lys65 → Arg mutant with the peptide and thiol ester substrates was decreased 100-200-fold and the rate of penicillin inactivation was decreased 20 000-fold or more. The mutant thus behaved as a poor, but penicillin-resistant, DD-peptidase. The other studied mutations, the mutations Phe358 → Leu, Tyr90 → Asn, Thr101 → Asn, Phe164 → Ala, Asp225 → Glu and Asp225 → Asn had little influence on the catalytic and penicillin-binding properties. The Asp225 mutants did not exhibit an increased sensitivity to cefotaxime. The Phe164 → Ala mutant was significantly more unstable than the wild-type enzyme. [less ▲]

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See detailPoint Mutations of Two Arginine Residues in the Streptomyces R61 Dd-Peptidase
Bourguignon-Bellefroid, Catherine; Joris, Bernard ULg; Van Beeumen, Jacques et al

in Biochemical Journal (1992), 283(1), 123-128

Incubation of the exocellular DD-carboxypeptidase/transpeptidase of Streptomyces R61 with phenylglyoxal resulted in a time-dependent decrease in the enzyme activity. This inactivation was demonstrated to ... [more ▼]

Incubation of the exocellular DD-carboxypeptidase/transpeptidase of Streptomyces R61 with phenylglyoxal resulted in a time-dependent decrease in the enzyme activity. This inactivation was demonstrated to be due to modification of the Arg-99 side chain. In consequence, the role of that residue was investigated by site-directed mutagenesis. Mutation of Arg-99 into leucine appeared to be highly detrimental to enzyme stability, reflecting a determining structural role for this residue. The conserved Arg-103 residue was also substituted by using site-directed mutagenesis. The modification to a serine residue yielded a stable enzyme, the catalytic properties of which were similar to those of the wild-type enzyme. Thus Arg-103, although strictly conserved or replaced by a lysine residue in most of the active-site penicillin-recognizing proteins, did not appear to fulfil any essential role in either the enzyme activity or structure. [less ▲]

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See detailModular Design of the Enterococcus Hirae Muramidase-2 and Streptococcus Faecalis Autolysin
Joris, Bernard ULg; Englebert, Serge; Chu, Chien-Peng et al

in FEMS Microbiology Letters (1992), 91(3), 257-264

The mature forms of the extracellular muramidase-2 of Enterococcus hirae and Streptococcus faecalis autolysin have very similar primary structures. Each consists of an active-site-containing N-terminal ... [more ▼]

The mature forms of the extracellular muramidase-2 of Enterococcus hirae and Streptococcus faecalis autolysin have very similar primary structures. Each consists of an active-site-containing N-terminal domain fused to a multiple-repeat C-terminal domain. Polypeptide segments occurring at equivalent places in these two bacterial wall lytic enzymes have homologues in two phage lysozymes and in three functionally unrelated proteins, illustrating the principle that protein molecules frequently are constructed from modules that are linked in a single polypeptide chain. [less ▲]

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See detailCloning and nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding the γ-D-glutamyl-L-diamino acid endopeptidase II of Bacillus sphaericus
Hourdou, Marie-Laure; Duez, Colette ULg; Joris, Bernard ULg et al

in FEMS Microbiology Letters (1992), 91(2), 165-170

The gene encoding the Bacillus sphaericus gamma-D-glutamyl-L-diamino acid endopeptidase II, a cytoplasmic enzyme involved in cell sporulation [1], contains the information for a 271-amino acid protein ... [more ▼]

The gene encoding the Bacillus sphaericus gamma-D-glutamyl-L-diamino acid endopeptidase II, a cytoplasmic enzyme involved in cell sporulation [1], contains the information for a 271-amino acid protein devoid of a signal peptide. The endopeptidase lacks sequence relatedness with other proteins of known primary structure except that its C-terminal region has significant similarity with the C-terminal region of the 54-kDa P54 protein of Enterococcus faecium, of unknown function [2]. [less ▲]

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See detailImportance of the Two Tryptophan Residues in the Streptomyces R61 Exocellular Dd-Peptidase
Bourguignon-Bellefroid, Catherine; Wilkin, Jean-Marc; Joris, Bernard ULg et al

in Biochemical Journal (1992), 282(Pt 2), 361-367

Modification of the Streptomyces R61 DD-peptidase by N-bromosuccinimide resulted in a rapid loss of enzyme activity. In consequence, the role of the enzyme's two tryptophan residues was investigated by ... [more ▼]

Modification of the Streptomyces R61 DD-peptidase by N-bromosuccinimide resulted in a rapid loss of enzyme activity. In consequence, the role of the enzyme's two tryptophan residues was investigated by site-directed mutagenesis. Trp271 was replaced by Leu. The modification yielded a stable enzyme whose structural and catalytic properties were similar to those of the wild-type protein. Thus the Trp271 residue, though almost invariant among the beta-lactamases of classes A and C and the low-Mr penicillin-binding proteins, did not appear to be essential for enzyme activity. Mutations of the Trp233 into Leu and Ser strongly decreased the enzymic activity, the affinity for beta-lactams and the protein stability. Surprisingly, the benzylpenicilloyl-(W233L)enzyme deacylated at least 300-fold more quickly than the corresponding acyl-enzyme formed with the wild-type protein and gave rise to benzylpenicilloate instead of phenylacetylglycine. This mutant DD-peptidase thus behaved as a weak beta-lactamase. [less ▲]

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See detailImportance of the His-298 Residue in the Catalytic Mechanism of the Streptomyces R61 Extracellular Dd-Peptidase
Hadonou, Ayaovi M.; Jamin, Marc; Adam, Maggy et al

in Biochemical Journal (1992), 282(Pt 2), 495-500

Among the active-site-serine penicillin-recognizing proteins, the Streptomyces R61 extracellular DD-peptidase is the only one to have a His-Thr-Gly sequence [instead of Lys-Thr(Ser)-Gly] in 'box' VII. The ... [more ▼]

Among the active-site-serine penicillin-recognizing proteins, the Streptomyces R61 extracellular DD-peptidase is the only one to have a His-Thr-Gly sequence [instead of Lys-Thr(Ser)-Gly] in 'box' VII. The His residue was replaced by Gln or Lys. Both mutations induced a marked decrease in the rates of both tripeptide substrate hydrolysis and acylation by benzylpenicillin and cephalosporin C. The rate of hydrolysis of the thioester hippuryl thioglycollate was less affected. The most striking result was the disproportionate loss of transpeptidation properties by both mutants, indicating an important role of His-298 in this reaction. We believe that this result represents the first modification of a DD-peptidase leading to a specific decrease of the transpeptidation-to-hydrolysis ratio. [less ▲]

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See detailAnomalous Behaviour of a Protein During Sds/Page Corrected by Chemical Modification of Carboxylic Groups
Matagne, André ULg; Joris, Bernard ULg; Frère, Jean-Marie ULg

in Biochemical Journal (1991), 280((Pt 2)), 553-6

The 29,000-Mr Actinomadura R39 beta-lactamase exhibited a remarkably low electrophoretic mobility on SDS/PAGE, yielding an Mr value almost twice that computed from the corresponding gene sequence. We ... [more ▼]

The 29,000-Mr Actinomadura R39 beta-lactamase exhibited a remarkably low electrophoretic mobility on SDS/PAGE, yielding an Mr value almost twice that computed from the corresponding gene sequence. We showed that chemical modification of the carboxylic groups of glutamic acid and aspartic acid residues restored a normal electrophoretic mobility and that the anomalous behaviour of that protein on SDS/PAGE was due to its very large negative charge at neutral pH. We also compared the behaviour of the same enzyme on gel filtration in the presence of SDS with those of other class A beta-lactamases (Mr approx. 30,000). These experiments suggested that the very low electrophoretic mobility of the Actinomadura R39 beta-lactamase upon SDS/PAGE was more probably due to a low degree of SDS binding rather than to an unusual shape of the SDS-protein complex. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of the Sequences of Class a β-lactamase and of the Secondary Structure Elements of Penicillin-Recognizing Proteins
Joris, Bernard ULg; Ledent, P.; Dideberg, O. et al

in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (1991), 35(11), 2294-2301

The sequences of class A beta-lactamases were compared. Four main groups of enzymes were distinguished: those from the gram-negative organisms and bacilli and two distinct groups of Streptomyces spp. The ... [more ▼]

The sequences of class A beta-lactamases were compared. Four main groups of enzymes were distinguished: those from the gram-negative organisms and bacilli and two distinct groups of Streptomyces spp. The Staphylococcus aureus PC1 enzyme, although somewhat closer to the enzyme from the Bacillus group, did not belong to any of the groups of beta-lactamases. The similarities between the secondary structure elements of these enzymes and those of the class C beta-lactamases and of the Streptomyces sp. strain R61 DD-peptidase were also analyzed and tentatively extended to the class D beta-lactamases. A unified nomenclature of secondary structure elements is proposed for all the penicillin-recognizing enzymes. [less ▲]

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See detailActive-Site Serine Mutants of the Streptomyces Albus G Beta-Lactamase
Jacob, Françoise; Joris, Bernard ULg; Frère, Jean-Marie ULg

in Biochemical Journal (1991), 277((Pt 3)), 647-52

By using site-directed mutagenesis, the active-site serine residue of the Streptomyces albus G beta-lactamase was substituted by alanine and cysteine. Both mutant enzymes were produced in Streptomyces ... [more ▼]

By using site-directed mutagenesis, the active-site serine residue of the Streptomyces albus G beta-lactamase was substituted by alanine and cysteine. Both mutant enzymes were produced in Streptomyces lividans and purified to homogeneity. The cysteine beta-lactamase exhibited a substrate-specificity profile distinct from that of the wild-type enzyme, and its kcat./Km values at pH 7 were never higher than 0.1% of that of the serine enzyme. Unlike the wild-type enzyme, the activity of the mutant increased at acidic pH values. Surprisingly, the alanine mutant exhibited a weak but specific activity for benzylpenicillin and ampicillin. In addition, a very small production of wild-type enzyme, probably due to mistranslation, was detected, but that activity could be selectively eliminated. Both mutant enzymes were nearly as thermostable as the wild-type. [less ▲]

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See detailA standard numbering scheme for the class A beta-lactamases
Ambler, R. P.; Coulson, A. F. W.; Frère, Jean-Marie ULg et al

in Biochemical Journal (1991), 276(Pt 1), 269-270

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See detailRagged N-Termini and Other Variants of Class a Beta-Lactamases Analysed by Chromatofocusing
Matagne, André ULg; Joris, Bernard ULg; Van Beeumen, J. et al

in Biochemical Journal (1991), 273(273), 503-10

Four beta-lactamases excreted by Gram-positive bacteria exhibited microheterogeneity when analysed by chromatofocusing or ion-exchange chromatography. Ragged N-termini were in part responsible for the ... [more ▼]

Four beta-lactamases excreted by Gram-positive bacteria exhibited microheterogeneity when analysed by chromatofocusing or ion-exchange chromatography. Ragged N-termini were in part responsible for the charge variants, but deamidation of an asparagine residue was also involved, at least for the Bacillus licheniformis enzyme. The activity of a contaminating proteinase could also be demonstrated in the case of Actinomadura R39 beta-lactamase. With that enzyme, proteolysis resulted in partial inactivation, but the inactivated fragments were easily separated from the active forms. With these, as with the other enzymes, the kinetic parameters of the major variants were identical with those of the mixture within the limits of experimental error, so that the catalytic properties of these enzymes can be determined with the 'heterogeneous' preparations. [less ▲]

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See detailMechanism of action of β-lactamases and DD-peptidases
Frère, Jean-Marie ULg; Joris, Bernard ULg; Jacob, Françoise et al

in Pandit, U.K.; Alderweireldt, F.C. (Eds.) Bioorganic Chemistry in Healthcare and Technology (1991)

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See detailSequence analysis of the ARG7 gene of Schizosaccharomyces pombe coding for argininosuccinate lyase. Expression of the gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Loppes, Roland ULg; Michels, R; Decroupette, I et al

in Current Genetics (1991), 19(4), 255-60

The complete nucleotide sequence of the ARG7 gene, coding for argininosuccinate lyase (EC 4.3.2.1), in the fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) has been determined. It consists of an open reading ... [more ▼]

The complete nucleotide sequence of the ARG7 gene, coding for argininosuccinate lyase (EC 4.3.2.1), in the fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) has been determined. It consists of an open reading frame of 461 codons. The deduced protein has a molecular weight of 51,200 Da. The gene is devoid of introns which is confirmed by the fact that it is expressed in Escherichia coli after spontaneous insertion of a bacterial sequence probably bearing a prokaryotic promoter. A perfect "TATA" box is found at -72 and the major transcription initiation site in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is located at -11 as shown by primer extension experiments. Comparison of the S. pombe lyase with related proteins from other organisms reveals an important degree of conservation except in the carboxyterminal part of the polypeptide. Additionally, a deletion removing 66 amino acids of the carboxy terminus yields an enzyme exhibiting some biological activity. A unique 1,500 b transcript was found in S. cerevisiae when the intact gene was present, but the deleted version of the gene gave rise to at least three transcripts of 1,800, 2,800 and 3,900 b. [less ▲]

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See detailCloning and nucleotide sequencing of the gene encoding the beta-lactamase from Citrobacter diversus
Perilli, Mariagrazia; Franceschini, Nicola; Segatore, Bernardetta et al

in FEMS Microbiology Letters (1991), 83

The gene coding for the class A beta-lactamase of Citrobacter diversus has been cloned and sequenced. It contains the information for a 294-amino-acid precursor protein, including a 27-residue N-terminal ... [more ▼]

The gene coding for the class A beta-lactamase of Citrobacter diversus has been cloned and sequenced. It contains the information for a 294-amino-acid precursor protein, including a 27-residue N-terminal signal peptide. The deduced sequence of the N-terminal portion of the mature protein is in excellent agreement with that determined by microsequencing of the protein and readily explains the pI differences observed between the naturally occurring forms I and II of the enzyme. The sequence of the mature protein exhibits a very high degree of similarity with that of the Klebsiella oxytoca class A beta-lactamase [less ▲]

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See detailTHE MUTATION LYS234HIS YIELDS A CLASS-A BETA-LACTAMASE WITH A NOVEL PH-DEPENDENCE
BRANNIGAN, J.; Matagne, André ULg; Jacob, Françoise et al

in Biochemical Journal (1991), 278(Part 3), 673-678

The lysine-234 residue is highly conserved in beta-lactamases and in nearly all active-site-serine penicillin-recognizing enzymes. Its replacement by a histidine residue in the Streptomyces albus G class ... [more ▼]

The lysine-234 residue is highly conserved in beta-lactamases and in nearly all active-site-serine penicillin-recognizing enzymes. Its replacement by a histidine residue in the Streptomyces albus G class A beta-lactamase yielded an enzyme the pH-dependence of which was characterized by the appearance of a novel pK, which could be attributed to the newly introduced residue. At low pH, the k(cat.) value for benzylpenicillin was as high as 50 % of that of the wild-type enzyme, demonstrating that an efficient active site was maintained. Both k(cat.) and k(cat.)/K(m) dramatically decreased above pH 6 but the decrease in k(cat.)/K(m) could not be attributed to larger K(m) values. Thus a positive charge on the side chain of residue 234 appears to be more essential for transition-state stabilization than for initial recognition of the substrate ground state. [less ▲]

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See detailDiversity of the Mechanisms of Resistance to Beta-Lactam Antibiotics
Frère, Jean-Marie ULg; Joris, Bernard ULg; Granier, B. et al

in Research in Microbiology (1991), 142(6, Jul-Aug), 705-10

The sensitivity of a bacterium to beta-lactam antibiotics depends upon the interplay between 3 independent factors: the sensitivity of the essential penicillin-binding enzyme(s), the quantity and ... [more ▼]

The sensitivity of a bacterium to beta-lactam antibiotics depends upon the interplay between 3 independent factors: the sensitivity of the essential penicillin-binding enzyme(s), the quantity and properties of the beta-lactamase(s) and the diffusion barrier that the outer-membrane of Gram-negative bacteria can represent. Those three factors can be modified by mutations or by the horizontal transfer of genes or portions of genes. [less ▲]

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See detailRole of the Conserved Amino Acids of the 'Sdn' Loop (Ser130, Asp131 and Asn132) in a Class a Beta-Lactamase Studied by Site-Directed Mutagenesis
Jacob, Françoise; Joris, Bernard ULg; Lepage, Sophie et al

in Biochemical Journal (1990), 271(2), 399-406

Ser130, Asp131 and Asn132 ('SDN') are highly conserved residues in class A beta-lactamases forming one wall of the active-site cavity. All three residues of the SDN loop in Streptomyces albus G beta ... [more ▼]

Ser130, Asp131 and Asn132 ('SDN') are highly conserved residues in class A beta-lactamases forming one wall of the active-site cavity. All three residues of the SDN loop in Streptomyces albus G beta-lactamase were modified by site-directed mutagenesis. The mutant proteins were expressed in Streptomyces lividans, purified from culture supernatants and their kinetic parameters were determined for several substrates. Ser130 was substituted by Asn, Ala and Gly. The first modification yielded an almost totally inactive protein, whereas the smaller-side-chain mutants (A and G) retained some activity, but were less stable than the wild-type enzyme. Ser130 might thus be involved in maintaining the structure of the active-site cavity. Mutations of Asp131 into Glu and Gly proved to be highly detrimental to enzyme stability, reflecting significant structural perturbations. Mutation of Asn132 into Ala resulted in a dramatically decreased enzymic activity (more than 100-fold) especially toward cephalosporin substrates, kcat. being the most affected parameter, which would indicate a role of Asn132 in transition-state stabilization rather than in ground-state binding. Comparison of the N132A and the previously described N132S mutant enzymes underline the importance of an H-bond-forming residue at position 132 for the catalytic process. [less ▲]

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See detailEngineering a Novel β-Lactamase by a Single Point Mutation
Jacob, F.; Joris, Bernard ULg; Dideberg, O. et al

in Protein Engineering (1990), 4(1), 79-86

beta-Lactamases are widespread and efficient bacterial enzymes which play a major role in bacterial resistance to penicillins and cephalosporins. In order to elucidate the role of the residues lying in a ... [more ▼]

beta-Lactamases are widespread and efficient bacterial enzymes which play a major role in bacterial resistance to penicillins and cephalosporins. In order to elucidate the role of the residues lying in a conserved loop of the enzymatic cavity of the active-site serine Streptomyces albus G beta-lactamase, modified proteins were produced by oligo-directed mutagenesis. Mutation of Asn116, which lies on one side of the active site cavity pointing to the substrate-binding site, into a serine residue resulted in spectacular modifications of the specificity profile of the enzyme. That replacement yielded an enzyme with a nearly unchanged activity towards good penicillin substrates. In sharp contrast its efficiency in hydrolysing cephalosporins was drastically reduced, the best substrates suffering the largest decrease in the second-order rate constant for serine acylation. In fact that single mutation generated a truly new enzyme behaving exclusively as a penicillinase, a situation which is never encountered to the same degree in any of the numerous naturally occurring variants of class A beta-lactamases. [less ▲]

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