References of "Jauniaux, Thierry"
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See detailPerfluorinated chemicals infiltrate ocean waters: Link between exposure levels and stable isotope ratios in marine mammals
Van de Vijver, Kristin Inneke; Hoff, Philippe Tony; Das, Krishna ULg et al

in Environmental Science & Technology (2003), 37(24), 5545-5550

This is the first study to report on concentrations of perfluorinated organochemicals (FOCs) in marine mammals stranded along the southern North Sea coast in relation to stable nitrogen and carbon isotope ... [more ▼]

This is the first study to report on concentrations of perfluorinated organochemicals (FOCs) in marine mammals stranded along the southern North Sea coast in relation to stable nitrogen and carbon isotope ratios (delta(15)N and delta(13)C). The presence of FOCs in top predators such as marine mammals would indicate a potential biomagnification of these compounds and their widespread occurrence. Liver and kidney tissues of nine marine mammal species have been sampled. Among all the measured FOCs compounds, PFOS (perfluorooctane sulfonate) was predominant in terms of concentration. The highest PFOS concentrations were found in the liver of harbor seal compared to white-beaked dolphin, harbor porpoise, gray seal, sperm whale, white-sided dolphin, striped dolphin, fin whale, and hooded seal. PFOS concentrations differed significantly between sexes and age classes in harbor porpoises. Stable isotope measurements (delta(13)C and delta(15)N) were used in this study to describe the behavior of contaminants in food webs. We found a significant (p < 0.05) linear relationship between PFOS concentrations in livers of harbor porpoises and both Muscle delta(13)C and delta(15)N measurements. Harbor and gray seals and white-beaked dolphin, which displayed the highest trophic position, contained the highest PFOS levels, while offshore feeders such as sperm whales,fin whales, striped dolphin, and white-sided dolphin showed lower PFOS concentrations than inshore species. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification of specific biomarkers related to the effects of pollutants on the immune system of marine mammals
Brenez, Cécile; Gerkens, Pascal; Jauniaux, Thierry ULg et al

Poster (2003, December)

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See detailThe Tricolor incident: Pathology, age composition and sex ratio of stranded birds
Jauniaux, Thierry ULg; Masure, S.

in meeting report (2003)

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See detailDioxins, furans and dioxin-like PCBs in juvenile harbour porpoises (Phocoena Phocoena) from the North sea
Beans, Cristina; Debacker, Virginie ULg; Jauniaux, Thierry ULg et al

in Organohalogen Compounds (2003)

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See detailDioxins, furans and co-planar PCBs in juvenile harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) from the Belgian coasts
Beans, Cristina ULg; Das, Krishna ULg; Jauniaux, Thierry ULg et al

Poster (2003)

Dioxins, furans and PCBs are lipophilic anthropogenic contaminants that have found their way into marine food webs and accumulate in top predators such as marine mammals, adding a stress factor to an ... [more ▼]

Dioxins, furans and PCBs are lipophilic anthropogenic contaminants that have found their way into marine food webs and accumulate in top predators such as marine mammals, adding a stress factor to an already vulnerable population. In this study 7 congeners of dioxins (PCDDs), 10 congeners of furans (PCDFs) and 4 congeners of coplanar PCBs (cPCBs) were determined using high resolution gas chromatography and mass spectrometry in the blubber of 19 juvenile harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) stranded along the Belgian North Sea coastline between 1995 and 2001. These results were contrasted with nutritional status (emaciated or not), sex and trophic level (through stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis). Mean blubber concentrations of SPCDD/Fs were 12.8 pg/g lw (lipid weight) and mean related toxicity 1.84 pg TEQs/g lw (TEQs = TCDD toxic equivalents). Mean cPCB concentrations were 223,5 pg/g lw and mean related toxicity 4,47 pg TEQs/g lw. The levels detected in these individuals were of the same order as those found in a previous study in the Wadden Sea (Bruhn, 1999). Both sexes show rather similar levels. No significant relationship was observed between stable carbon or nitrogen isotope values and pollutant levels. Concentrations and toxicity show a tendency to be higher in emaciated ndividuals than in nonemaciated ones. This could indicate a possible relationship between the nutritional status of the animals and dioxinlike pollutants (which could participate in weakening the animal). This situation should be further studied on adult individuals in order to obtain a more global view of the possible effects on the population. [less ▲]

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See detailTrace metals in the harbour porpoise from the North Sea and adjacent areas: relationship with stable isotope measurements, the nutritional status, lesions of the respiratory system and parasitism.
Das, Krishna ULg; Siebert, Ursula; Fontaine, Michaël et al

Conference (2003)

Growing concern has been raised about the status and the long-term viability of the harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) in the North Sea and adjacent areas. Sources of trace metal variations were ... [more ▼]

Growing concern has been raised about the status and the long-term viability of the harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) in the North Sea and adjacent areas. Sources of trace metal variations were investigated using a multidisciplinary approach. Porpoises from the Belgian coasts were compared to individuals from the German North Sea and Baltic coasts, Denmark, Norway and Iceland. Toxicological results (Hg, Zn, Cu, Cd and Se) were confronted to most common pathological findings, namely emaciation, lesions of the respiratory system or parasitism. Influence of diet through stable carbon and nitrogen analysis (d13C and d15N), age and sex have also been considered. As expected, the nutritional status of stranded harbour porpoise from the Southern North Sea is poor compared to by-caught individuals from Norway and Iceland, as reflected by their blubber thickness, weight to length ratio and hepatic to total body mass ratio. The porpoises collected along the Southern North Sea coast display higher Zn and Hg concentrations compared to individuals collected in more preserved areas from the North Atlantic. Moreover, significant Zn, Hg and Se levels were observed with increasing emaciation severity. Porpoises displaying severe bronchopneumonia also have higher Zn concentrations probably due to the association previously described of emaciation and bronchopneumonia. Hg is clearly linked to parasitism. These increasing concentrations are not related to a shrinking of liver mass as it remains unchanged during the emaciation. As a result, hepatic trace metal load increases also. These observations tend to indicate a general redistribution of heavy metals within the organs (muscles to livers), which results from protein catabolism. Such a re-distribution could well be an additional stress for porpoises already experiencing stressful conditions (organochlorines, etc…). In contrast, Cu and Cd were never associated to emaciation. Other parameters such as age class or diet are more likely to be involved. [less ▲]

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See detailErysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infection in stranded harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) and harbour seal (Phoca vitulina)
Boseret, Géraldine ULg; Jauniaux, Thierry ULg; Mainil, Jacques ULg

in anton, erken (Ed.) Proceedings of the 4th scientific meeting of the European Association of Zoo and Wildlife Veterinarians and 5th meeting of the European Wildlife Disease Assocation : Heidelberg, Germany 2002 / editor Anton ERKEN. (2002, May 08)

An adult female harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena ) and a juvenile male harbour seal have been found dead on a Belgian beach in autumn 2001. The two bodies were in good condition (CC = 2). Pure and ... [more ▼]

An adult female harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena ) and a juvenile male harbour seal have been found dead on a Belgian beach in autumn 2001. The two bodies were in good condition (CC = 2). Pure and abundant growth of a small rod-shaped, Gram-labile bacterium was obtained aerobically and anaerobically on Columbia bloodagar from the heart blood, the mouth, the pharynx, the lungs, the intestine and the anus of the porpoise, and from the intestine, the pharynx, the mouth, the nose and the anus of the seal. The colonies were surrounded by a narrow zone of a-hemolysis. The catalase- and peroxydase-tests gave negative results. Rapid ID 32 Strepto (Biomérieux, France) sugar tests applied on porpoise’s heart blood, lungs and intestine, and on seal’s intestine and pharynx identified this isolate to Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is not reported as a common cause of infection and death in wild cetaceans and wild pinnipeds in opposite to respectively captive dolphins and sea lions. Nevertheless, E. rhusiopathiae can be considered as the cause of death of the stranded harbour porpoise as it was present in heart blood and internal organs, and the seal was carrying the bacterium with lesions of enteritis which could be associated with E. rhusiopathiae infectio [less ▲]

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See detailEchouage de mammifères marins : guide d'intervention et procédures d'autopsie
Jauniaux, Thierry ULg; Garcia-Hartmann, M.; Haelters, J. et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2002), 146(5, OCT-NOV), 261-276

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See detailHow to get the most information out of your necropsy
Jauniaux, Thierry ULg; Coignoul, Freddy ULg

in COST Meeting proceedings (2002)

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See detailPost-mortem findings and causes of death of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) stranded from 1990 to 2000 along the coastlines of Belgium and northern France
Jauniaux, Thierry ULg; Petitjean, D.; Brenez, C. et al

in Journal of Comparative Pathology (2002), 126(4), 243-253

Between the,ears 1990 and 2000, an attempt was made to determine the causes of death of 55 harbour porpoises stranded along the Belgian and northern French coasts. From 1990 to 1996, only five carcasses ... [more ▼]

Between the,ears 1990 and 2000, an attempt was made to determine the causes of death of 55 harbour porpoises stranded along the Belgian and northern French coasts. From 1990 to 1996, only five carcasses were collected as against seven in 1997, eight in 1998, 27 in 1999 and eight in 2000. The sex ratio was normal and most of the animals were juvenile. The most common findings were emaciation, severe parasitosis and pneumonia. A few cases of fishing net entanglement were observed. The main microscopical lesions were acute pneumonia, massive lung oedema, enteritis, hepatitis and gastritis. Encephalitis was observed in six cases. No evidence of morbillivirus infection was detected. Pneumonia was associated with bacteria or parasites, or both. The causes of death and the lesions were similar to those previously reported in other countries bordering the North Sea. The cause of the increased numbers of carcasses in 1999 was unclear but did not include viral epizootics or net entanglement. A temporary increase in the porpoise populatiou in the southern North Sea may have been responsible. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailA role for the Clostridium perfringens beta 2 toxin in bovine enterotoxaemia?
Manteca, Christophe; Daube, Georges ULg; Jauniaux, Thierry ULg et al

in Veterinary Microbiology (2002), 86(3), 191-202

Non-enterotoxigenic type A Clostridium perfringens are associated with bovine enterotoxaemia, but the alpha toxin is not regarded as responsible for the production of typical lesions of necrotic and ... [more ▼]

Non-enterotoxigenic type A Clostridium perfringens are associated with bovine enterotoxaemia, but the alpha toxin is not regarded as responsible for the production of typical lesions of necrotic and haemorrhagic enteritis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the putative role of the more recently described beta2 toxin. Seven hundred and fourteen non-enterotoxigenic type A C. perfringens isolated from 133 calves with lesions of enterotoxaemia and high clostridial cell counts (study population) and 386 isolated from a control population of 87 calves were tested by a colony hybridisation assay for the beta2 toxin. Two hundred and eighteen (31%) C perfringens isolated from 83 calves (62%) of the study population and 113 (29%) C. perfringens isolated from 51 calves (59%) of the control population tested positive with the beta2 probe. Pure and mixed cultures of four C perfringens (one alpha+beta2+, one alpha+enterotoxin-1 and two alpha+) were tested in the ligated loop assay in one calf. Macroscopic haemorrhages of the intestinal wall, necrosis and haemorrhages of the intestinal content, and microscopic lesions of necrosis and polymorphonuclear and mononuclear cell infiltration of the intestinal villi were more pronounced in loops inoculated with the a and beta2-toxigenic C. perfringens isolate. These results suggest in vivo synergistic role of the alpha and beta2 toxins in the production of necrotic and haemorrhagic lesions of the small intestine in cases of bovine enterotoxaemia. However, isolation of beta2-toxigenic C. perfringens does not confirm the clinical diagnosis of bovine enterotoxaemia and a clostridial cell counts must still be performed. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of Age, Sex and Body Condition on Zinc, Copper, Cadmium and Metallothioneins in Common Guillemots (Uria aalge) Stranded at the Belgian Coast.
Debacker, Virginie ULg; Schiettecatte, Laure-Sophie; Jauniaux, Thierry ULg et al

in Marine Environmental Research (2001), 52(5), 427-444

The common guillemots, Uria aalge, found stranded at the Belgian coast, display high levels of Cu in both liver and kidneys. The condition index of the animals, defined as the ratio of liver to kidneys ... [more ▼]

The common guillemots, Uria aalge, found stranded at the Belgian coast, display high levels of Cu in both liver and kidneys. The condition index of the animals, defined as the ratio of liver to kidneys mass (Wenzel & Adelung, 1996), influences both the metal concentration and its binding to metallothioneins (MT): the lower the condition index, the more emaciated the animals, and the higher the total Cu concentration and the concentration of Cu bound to MT. In less robust individuals, our results suggest that Cu could displaces Zn from MT rendering the Zn ions available to induce a new MT synthesis. Sex related effects also emerged as significantly higher hepatic MT as well as Cu- and Zn-MT concentrations were found in emaciated male guillemots compared to females. In both organs, Cd concentrations remained low and typically demonstrated an age-dependent renal accumulation, with no noticeable effect of the condition index. As a whole, these results suggest that, for guillemots found stranded at the Belgian coast, Cu binding to hepatic and renal MT could function as a protective mechanism, rendering the metal ions unavailable to exert any cytotoxic activity. [less ▲]

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See detailIsolation of Clostridium perfringens from three neonatal calves with haemorrhagic abomasitis.
Manteca, C.; Jauniaux, Thierry ULg; Daube, Georges ULg et al

in Revue de Médecine Vétérinaire (2001), 152

Braxy-like disease with sudden death and acute haemorhagic abomasitis was diagnosed in three Belgian Blue calves : one two-day-old and one one month-old calves, in good condition with no clinical signs ... [more ▼]

Braxy-like disease with sudden death and acute haemorhagic abomasitis was diagnosed in three Belgian Blue calves : one two-day-old and one one month-old calves, in good condition with no clinical signs noted a few hours prior to death, and another two day-old calf, which had shown problems of abomasal dilatation and regurgitation prior to death. Histologically, the abomasal wall were oedematous and emphysematous. A pure and abundant growth of Clostridium perfringens was obtained in anaerobic conditions from the abomasal wall of the three Belgian Blue calves. No bacterial growth was obtained in aerobic conditions. The calf with digestive disorders was also positive for BVD virus by immunofluorescence in the abomasal wall and in the spleen. [less ▲]

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See detailMorbillivirus in common seals stranded on the coasts of Belgium and northern France during summer 1998
Jauniaux, Thierry ULg; Boseret, Géraldine ULg; Desmecht, M. et al

in Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association (2001), 148(19), 587-591

Sixteen common seals (Phoca vitulina) were stranded on the Belgian and northern French coasts during the summer of 1998. Eleven (10 pups and one adult) were sampled for histopathological ... [more ▼]

Sixteen common seals (Phoca vitulina) were stranded on the Belgian and northern French coasts during the summer of 1998. Eleven (10 pups and one adult) were sampled for histopathological, immunohistochemical, serological. bacteriological, parasitological and virological investigations. The main gross findings were severe emaciation, acute haemorrhagic enteritis, acute pneumonia, interstitial pulmonary emphysema and oedema, and chronic ulcerative stomatitis. Microscopical lung findings were acute to subacute pneumonia with interstitial oedema and emphysema. Severe lymphocytic depletion was observed in lymph nodes. Severe acute to subacute meningoencephalitis was observed in one animal. Specific staining with two monoclonal antibodies directed against canine distemper virus (CDV) and phocine distemper virus was observed in a few lymphocytes in the spleen and lymph nodes of three seals. Anti-CDV neutralising antibodies were detected in sera from six animals. Seven of the seals were positive by reverse transcriptase-PCR for the morbillivirus phosphoprotein gene. The lesions observed were consistent with those in animals infected by a morbillivirus, and demonstrated that distemper has recently recurred in North Sea seals. [less ▲]

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