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See detailInterfollicular fibrosis and organohalogens in the thyroid of the harbour porpoise (phocoena phocoena) of the British and Belgian coasts
Schnitzler, Joseph ULg; Das, Krishna ULg; Beineke, Andreas et al

Conference (2005, October 27)

Previous studies have described high levels of polychlorobiphenyls (PCB), p,p`-dichlordiphenyl-dichlorethen (DDT), p,p`-dichlordiphenyl-trichlorethan (DDE) and polybrominated diphenylether (PBDE) in the ... [more ▼]

Previous studies have described high levels of polychlorobiphenyls (PCB), p,p`-dichlordiphenyl-dichlorethen (DDT), p,p`-dichlordiphenyl-trichlorethan (DDE) and polybrominated diphenylether (PBDE) in the blubber of the harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) from the North Sea raising the question of a potential endocrine disruption in this species. In the present study, the thyroids of 36 harbour porpoises from the British and the Belgian coast have been collected for histological and immunohistological investigations. The number and mean diameter of follicles and the relative distribution of follicular, connective and vascular tissues (%) were quantified in the thyroid of each individual. Then, the relationship between the thyroid morphometry data and previously described organic compounds (namely PCB, DDT, DDE and PBDE) was investigated using factor analysis and multiple regressions. The results of this work were compared to the previous study of harbour porpoises from the German (North and Baltic Seas), Norwegian and Icelandic coasts. Thyroid morphology was similar between the harbour porpoises from the British and Belgian coast. Compared to the previous study, the thyroids differed strongly between sampling sites. Porpoises from the German (North and Baltic Seas) and Norwegian coasts displayed a high percentage of connective tissues between 30 and 38% revealing severe inter-follicular fibrosis. The thyroids of Icelandic coasts displayed only a light inter-follicular fibrosis (percentage of connective tissue of 3%). The thyroids of the porpoises from the British and Belgian coasts occupied an intermediary place with a moderate fibrosis (percentage of connective tissue of 10%). A relation between mean diameter of follicles and the body size and mass suggesting a downward trend of activity of the thyroid with increasing body size and mass and thus, the age of the porpoises. A correlation-based principal component analysis (PCA) revealed one principal components explaining 69% of the total variance. The variables PCB, PBDE, DDT, and DDE compounds loaded highest on PC1. Our results pointed out a relationship between PCBs, PBDE, DDE and DDT (PC1) compounds and interfollicular fibrosis in the thyroids of harbour porpoises from the German coast of the Baltic Sea. The present report supports the hypothesis of a contaminant-induced thyroid fibrosis in harbour porpoises raising the question of the long term-viability in highly polluted areas [less ▲]

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See detailBelgium stranding network
Jauniaux, Thierry ULg; Das, Krishna ULg; Brenez, C. et al

in annual proceeding (2005)

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See detailPlongée et barotraumatisme chez les cétacés
Jauniaux, Thierry ULg

in annual proceeding (2005)

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See detailPhylogeography of Harbour Porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) in the Eastern North Atlantic and in the Black Sea Explored by the Analyses of Nuclear and Mitochondrial DNA
Fontaine, Michaël; Baird, C.; Stuart, J. E. et al

Poster (2005)

Study of the genetic population structure and the demographic history of the harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) has been nearly comprehensive throughout its distribution in North Atlantic, most studies ... [more ▼]

Study of the genetic population structure and the demographic history of the harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) has been nearly comprehensive throughout its distribution in North Atlantic, most studies using the mitochondrial control region as a genetic marker. Although these studies have shown population structure in some parts of the North Atlantic, mitochondrial DNA is a single, maternally inherited locus and therefore insufficient to fully characterize population structure and history. Polymorphism at 11 microsatellite loci was analyzed in harbour porpoises collected throughout the range of the species in the Central and Eastern North Atlantic from the Iberian peninsula northward to Arctic waters (Portugal, Spain, bay of Biscay, Irish waters, English Channel, the southern bay of the North Sea, Norway, Faroe Islands, and Iceland) and also along the coasts of the Black Sea (Turkey, Ukraine, Bulgaria and Georgia). Multilocus tests for allele frequency differences and population structure estimates indicate complete genetic isolation between Atlantic and Black Sea porpoises. No fine population structure was observed within the Black Sea, and this population displayed a low genetic diversity compared to those of Atlantic. These results can be interpreted in the light of the demographic history of this relict population and the strong founder effect and bottleneck it may have undergone in its past evolution. In Eastern North Atlantic waters, microsatellite data revealed fine scale partitioning of the genetic variation. These results will be compared to the pattern previously reported based on the analysis of the mtDNA control region, and seem to correlate with variation in oceanographic features. [less ▲]

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See detailEcological and pathological factors related to trace metal concentrations in harbour seal Phoca vitulina in the North Sea
Drouguet, Olivier; Siebert, Ursula; Jauniaux, Thierry ULg et al

Poster (2005)

During the last decade, recurrent epizootics have affected harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) populations in the North Sea. Recent data on their trophic habits and pollutant levels are of primary importance ... [more ▼]

During the last decade, recurrent epizootics have affected harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) populations in the North Sea. Recent data on their trophic habits and pollutant levels are of primary importance for their conservation. As isotopic composition of an animal is related to that of its prey, δ13C and δ15N were measured by mass spectrometry in the muscles of 66 harbour seals beached along the coasts of France (n = 10), Belgium (n = 30) and Netherlands (n = 26) between 1994 and 2004. Trace metals concentrations (Zn, Cu, Fe, Cd, Hg and Se) were also determined in liver, kidney and muscles by Inducted Plasma Spectrometry. δ13C and δ15N values remained similar between harbour seals from France (-15.7 0/00; 18.7 0/00, respectively), Belgium (-15.7 0/00; 19.0 0/00, respectively) and Netherlands (-14.7 0/00; 18.7 0/00, respectively). These data are in good agreement with their coastal and piscivorous life style. Isotopic value remained similar between males and females and between body conditions. Hg levels were significantly higher in seals from the southern North Sea when compared to previously published data from seals collected in Norway, probably due some geographical differential exposure. Hepatic Hg was positively correlated to hepatic Se, both increasing with the length of the seals. Such a relationship reflected an age accumulation process coupled to a detoxication mechanism involving antagonism between Hg and Se in the liver. No relationship between stable isotopes and Hg and Cd levels was observed. Increasing Zn and Hg hepatic levels were observed with degrading body condition of the harbour seals, which is reflected by decreasing blubber thickness and high hepatic to total body mass ratio. These observations tend to indicate a global redistribution of trace metals from muscle and blubber to liver, as a result of protein and lipid catabolism linked to disease and starvation. [less ▲]

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See detailA strategy to identify specific biomarkers related to the effects of a PCDD/F mixture on the immune system of marine mammals
Brenez, C.; Gerkens, P.; Mazzucchelli, Gabriel ULg et al

in Talanta (2004), 63(5), 1225-1230

The cell lines chosen have demonstrated a positive response in terms of cell proliferation and associated modifications in proteins content, evaluated through DNA and proteins synthesis, at ... [more ▼]

The cell lines chosen have demonstrated a positive response in terms of cell proliferation and associated modifications in proteins content, evaluated through DNA and proteins synthesis, at environmentally relevant dose of dioxins, brought by a typical environmental PCDD/F mixture. The response is time and species dependent. After completion of the identification of proteins affected by the intoxication, we will identify a set of specific proteins whose expression is correlated to the dioxin dose and submit the cell culture to the treatment with a single chemical as well as with mixtures. We hope that this will allow us to construct and validate a set of protein biomarkers of exposure to pollutants that will show a predictive aspect for unknown chemicals. The quantitative analysis of the set of biomarkers can then be a more specific bioassay and an alternative to physico-chemical or other already established bioanalytical methods for screening purposes. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailSevere fungal pneumonia in harbour porpoises stranded on belgian and french coastline in 2003
Jauniaux, Thierry ULg; Mignon, Bernard ULg; Coignoul, Freddy ULg

in Annual proceedings of the 18th annual conference of the European Cetacean Society (2004)

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See detailIdentification of specific biomarkers related to the effects of pollutants on the immune system of marine mammals
Brenez, Cécile; Gerkens, Pascal; Jauniaux, Thierry ULg et al

Poster (2004)

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See detailEcological and pathological factors related to trace metal concentrations in harbour porpoises Phocoena phocoena from the North Sea and adjacent areas
Das, Krishna ULg; Siebert, Ursula; Fontaine, Michaël ULg et al

in Marine Ecology. Progress Series (2004), 281

There is growing concern about the health status of the harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena in the North Sea and adjacent areas. The interaction between toxicological results (Zn, Cd, Cu, Fe, Se, Hg ... [more ▼]

There is growing concern about the health status of the harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena in the North Sea and adjacent areas. The interaction between toxicological results (Zn, Cd, Cu, Fe, Se, Hg), stable isotope data (delta(13)C and delta(15)N) and the most common pathological findings, namely emaciation and lesions of the respiratory system, were investigated in 132 porpoises collected along the coasts of northern France, Belgium, Germany, Denmark, Iceland and Norway between 1994 and 2001. The body condition of harbour porpoises stranded on the French, Belgian and German coasts was poor compared to that of by-catch individuals from Iceland and Norway, as reflected by blubber thickness and hepatic to total body-mass ratio. High Zn and Hg concentrations were observed in some porpoises collected along the southern North Sea coast compared to by-catch individuals from Iceland, Norway and the Baltic Sea. Increasing Zn levels were observed with deteriorating health condition (emaciation and bronchopneumonia), while Hg increases were not significant. The increases were not related to shrinking liver mass which remained unchanged. These observations indicate a general redistribution of trace metals within the organs (muscles and blubber to liver), as a result of protein and lipid catabolism. Muscle delta(13)C and delta(15)N values remained unchanged with deteriorating body condition. Cd concentrations were associated only with age and low delta(15)N values, indicating that high Cd concentrations in Iceland and Norway porpoises may be partly diet-related, i.e. a result of Cd contaminated prey. [less ▲]

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See detailDouble-faced monster in the bottlenosed dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) found in the Mediterranean sea
Dabin, W.; Cesarini, C.; Clemenceau, I. et al

in Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association (2004), 154(10), 306-308

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See detailLes paramyxovirus des mammifères marins
Jauniaux, Thierry ULg

in proceeding of the conference (2004)

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See detailNorth Sea seabirds and marine mammals: pathology and ecotoxicology
Debacker, Virginie ULg; Coignoul, Freddy ULg; Das, Krishna ULg et al

Report (2004)

Les Bancs de Flandres accueillent, en hiver, une importante population d'oiseaux pélagiques. Dans le passé, ils étaient également largement fréquentés par les mammifères marins. De nos jours, on ne les ... [more ▼]

Les Bancs de Flandres accueillent, en hiver, une importante population d'oiseaux pélagiques. Dans le passé, ils étaient également largement fréquentés par les mammifères marins. De nos jours, on ne les observe que très rarement et, chaque année, quelques-uns d'entre eux et des centaines d'oiseaux sont trouvés échoués le long de la côte flamande. Ces espèces doivent être protégées, et le but de ce projet de recherche est d'étudier l'état de santé de leurs populations, son évolution temporelle, les pathologies observées et les contaminants associés, ainsi que les causes possibles de mortalités inhabituelles. La nuisance d'origine humaine la plus importante pour les oiseaux marins semble être la pollution par les hydrocarbures, mais les causes effectives des échouages des oiseaux qui ne sont pas mazoutés, et de la rareté des mammifères, restent inconnues (autres pollutions chimiques, diminution de la nourriture disponible, maladies... ?). [less ▲]

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See detailCytokine messenger RNA expression in the blood of harbour porpoises (phocoena phocoena).
Das, Krishna ULg; Fonfara, Sonja; Beineke, Andreas et al

Poster (2004)

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See detailTrace metal variations in tissues of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) stranded along Southern North Sea coasts
Drouguet, Olivier; Jauniaux, Thierry ULg; Holsbeek, Ludo et al

Poster (2004)

During the last decade, recurrent epizootics have affected harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) populations in the North Sea. The trace metal levels of the harbour seal in the Southern North Sea are poorly known ... [more ▼]

During the last decade, recurrent epizootics have affected harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) populations in the North Sea. The trace metal levels of the harbour seal in the Southern North Sea are poorly known. In this study, trace metal concentrations (Zn, Cu, Fe, Cd, Hg and Se) were measured in tissues (liver, kidney and muscle) of 72 harbour seals collected along the coasts of France, Belgium and Netherlands between 1994 and 2004. Hg levels were significantly higher in seals from the Southern North Sea than in seals from Norwegian waters (1) probably due to the amount of anthropogenic inputs in the North Sea. Hepatic Hg was positively correlated to hepatic Se, both increasing with the length of the seals. Such a relationship reflects an age accumulation process coupled to a detoxication mechanism involving antagonism between Hg and Se in the liver. Increasing Zn and Hg hepatic levels were observed with degrading body condition of the harbour seals, which is reflected by decreasing blubber thickness and high hepatic to total body mass ratio. Body condition was particularly poor in seals which died from infectious diseases. These observations tend to indicate a global redistribution of trace metals from muscle and blubber to liver, as a result of protein and lipid catabolism linked to disease and starvation. [less ▲]

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See detailPathologie, leeftijd en geslacht van de olievogels
Jauniaux, Thierry ULg; Masure, S.

(2004)

Detailed reference viewed: 6 (4 ULg)