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See detailROBUSTNESS OF BUILDING STRUCTURES - Recent developments and adopted strategy
Demonceau, Jean-François ULg; Coméliau, Ludivine ULg; Jaspart, Jean-Pierre ULg

in Eurosteel 2011 - 6th European Conference on Steel and Composite Structures - Proceedings (2011, September)

Recent events such as natural catastrophes or terrorism attacks have highlighted the necessity to ensure the structural integrity of buildings under an exceptional event. According to the Eurocodes and ... [more ▼]

Recent events such as natural catastrophes or terrorism attacks have highlighted the necessity to ensure the structural integrity of buildings under an exceptional event. According to the Eurocodes and some different other national design codes, the structural integrity of civil engineering structures should be ensured through appropriate measures but, in most cases, no precise practical guidelines on how to achieve this goal are provided. At the University of Liège, the robustness of building frames is investigated following the so-called “alternative load path method”, with the final objective to propose design requirements to mitigate the risk of progressive collapse considering the conventional scenario “loss of a column” further to an unspecified event. In particular, a complete analytical procedure has been developed for the verification of the robustness of steel or composite plane frames. For sake of simplicity, these first works have been based on the assumption that the dynamic effects linked to the column loss were limited and could therefore be neglected. More recently, complementary works have been carried out with the objective to address the dynamic effects. Besides, the extension of the static procedure to actual 3D frames is under investigation in Liège. The present paper gives a global overview of the ongoing researches in the field of robustness at the University of Liège and, in particular, the global strategy aiming at deriving design requirements is detailed. [less ▲]

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See detailRobustness of building frames further to a column loss - Substructure approach with account of dynamic effects
Coméliau, Ludivine ULg; Demonceau, Jean-François ULg; Jaspart, Jean-Pierre ULg

in EUROSTEEL 2011 - 6th European Conference on Steel and Composite Structures - Proceedings (2011, September)

Nowadays, it is a concern to mitigate the risk of progressive collapse of a whole structure further to exceptional events such as explosions, impacts, fire... Different general approaches are proposed in ... [more ▼]

Nowadays, it is a concern to mitigate the risk of progressive collapse of a whole structure further to exceptional events such as explosions, impacts, fire... Different general approaches are proposed in the Eurocodes and some other national design codes to ensure the robustness of structures, although very few practical guidelines are provided. In the present study, the so-called “alternative load path method” is followed and the conventional scenario “loss of a column” is considered. Investigations were conducted at the University of Liège in the last few years regarding the static behaviour of two-dimensional building frames suffering the loss of a column further to an unspecified accidental event. They resulted in the development of simplified analytical methods for the prediction of the structural response assuming a static behaviour. In particular, it was shown that a substructure composed of the double-beam overhanging directly the lost column and its beam-to-column joints is able to reproduce the response of a 2D frame when membrane forces develop in the beams after the formation of the global beam plastic mechanism induced by the column loss. The dynamic behaviour of such a substructure was more recently investigated. As a result, a simplified approach was developed for the prediction of the maximal displacement of the system and subsequently the internal forces developing in the substructure, permitting the definition of ductility and resistance requirements for robustness. In the present paper, the whole analytical procedure is applied to a particular substructure. First, the static response is determined. Then the proposed model is used to predict the dynamic behaviour of the substructure as a function of the load initially supported by the failing column and the duration of its removal. In this paper, analytical approaches developed at the University of Liège are applied to predict the response of the considered substructure and the results are compared to numerical simulations; but the development of these methods and the observed phenomena are not detailed. [less ▲]

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See detailNon-dissipative joints in seismic resistant building frames - Bolted beam-to-column joints
Coméliau, Ludivine ULg; Demonceau, Jean-François ULg; Jaspart, Jean-Pierre ULg

in EUROSTEEL 2011 - 6th European Conference on Steel and Composite Structures - Proceedings (2011, September)

According to Eurocode 8, earthquake resistant steel building frames shall be designed following either the “low dissipative structural behaviour concept” or the “dissipative structural behaviour concept” ... [more ▼]

According to Eurocode 8, earthquake resistant steel building frames shall be designed following either the “low dissipative structural behaviour concept” or the “dissipative structural behaviour concept”. In the second concept, the capability of parts of the structure to resist earthquake actions through inelastic behaviour is taken into account: energy is dissipated in plastic mechanisms. In such a design, it has to be ensured that the dissipative zones form where they are intended to and that they yield before other zones leave the elastic range. In particular, moment resisting frames are designed in such a way that plastic hinges develop at the extremities of the beams. These dissipative zones can be located either in the beams or in the beam-to-column joints. In this paper, non-dissipative bolted beam-to-column connections are considered. They must be sufficiently resistant to remain in elastic range while cyclic yielding develops in the dissipative zones located in the beams. Besides, the possibility that the actual yield strength of the beam is higher than the nominal value has to be taken into account by a material overstrength factor. Such an approach generally leads to very strong and thus expensive joints. In the present paper, a design strategy leading to more economical solutions for full-strength beam-to-column joints is detailed. This study was conducted within the framework of an RFCS project called HSS-SERF (High Strength Steel in Seismic Resistant Building Frames). The considered moment-resisting joints are part of seismic resistant building frames made of high strength steel composite columns and mild carbon steel beams. The columns are either partially-encased wide-flange columns (H columns) or concrete-filled rectangular hollow-section columns (RHS columns). The proposed joint configuration uses hammer-heads extracted from the beam profile. To fulfil the resistance requirement taking account of the possible overstrength of the beam, the resistant moment of the joint is decomposed in the contributions of the different components involved. Then, no overstrength factor needs to be considered for the components related to the beam itself and to the hammer-heads. This approach is in full accordance with the basic principles of Eurocode 8 and can decrease much the required resistance of the joints provided some conditions are fulfilled, meaning lower costs. [less ▲]

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See detailRobustness of steel and composite building structures
Jaspart, Jean-Pierre ULg; Demonceau, Jean-François ULg; Coméliau, Ludivine ULg

in 7th National conference on steel structures proceedings (2011, September)

Recent events such as natural catastrophes or terrorism attacks have highlighted the necessity to ensure the structural integrity of buildings under an exceptional event. According to the Eurocodes and ... [more ▼]

Recent events such as natural catastrophes or terrorism attacks have highlighted the necessity to ensure the structural integrity of buildings under an exceptional event. According to the Eurocodes and some different other national design codes, the structural integrity of civil engineering structures should be ensured through appropriate measures but, in most cases, no precise practical guidelines on how to achieve this goal are provided. At Liège University, the robustness of building frames is investigated with the final objective to propose design requirements to mitigate the risk of progressive collapse considering the conventional scenario “loss of a column” further to an unspecified event. In particular, a complete analytical procedure has been developed for the verification of the robustness of steel or composite plane frames. For sake of simplicity, these first works have been based on the assumption that the dynamic effects linked to the column loss were limited and could therefore be neglected. More recently, complementary works have been carried out with the objective to address the dynamic effects. Besides, the extension of the static procedure to actual 3D frames is under investigation in Liège. The present paper gives a global overview of the ongoing researches in the field of robustness at Liège University and, in particular, the global strategy aiming at deriving design requirements is detailed. [less ▲]

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See detailExtension of the Direct strength method to hot-rolled profiles cross-sections
Li, Yongzhen ULg; Rossi, Barbara ULg; Jaspart, Jean-Pierre ULg

in 6th European Conference on Steel and Composite Structures : Eurosteel 2011, Budapest 30 October - 2 September 2011 (2011, September)

Current metallic structural design codes use the concept of section classification for determining the section capacity of hot-rolled profiles. In this system, there exists a discontinuity between the ... [more ▼]

Current metallic structural design codes use the concept of section classification for determining the section capacity of hot-rolled profiles. In this system, there exists a discontinuity between the classes 2 and 3, while for the class 4, the effective width method (EWM) must be used to account for local buckling phenomenon. In order to overcome the complicate and time consuming EWM for evaluating the strength, the alternative Direct Strength Method (DSM) approach, developed only for cold-formed thin-walled members, has gained importance over the last few years. The DSM is premised on the assumption that the strength can be predicted from the yield strength to the elastic critical load ratio in conjunction with a strength curve. The DSM has been advanced for calculating the strength of compression members over the past decades and in this paper, the extension of DSM to hot-rolled profiles cross-sections is investigated. Firstly, the methods for calculating the cross-section resistance such as EWM, DSM, and the recent Continuous Strength Method (CSM) are reviewed; a short comparison is made and their domains of applicability are commented. Secondly, a numerical model carried out in the frame of this research is described. The model was built in ABAQUS and verified against test results of the “Semi-comp: Plastic member capacity of semi-compact steel sections - a more economic design” project, which was carried out earlier with the objective of improving the utilization of plasticity in rolled and welded sections with medium cross-section slenderness. On the basis of these premises, the final goal of the project is detailed: to derive a new formulation that would cover the whole field of section slenderness (present class 1 to class 4), which can be seen as an extension of the so-called DSM approach. [less ▲]

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See detailCONNECTIONS WITH FOUR BOLTS PER HORIZONTAL ROW - Application of Eurocode 3
Demonceau, Jean-François ULg; Jaspart, Jean-Pierre ULg; Weynand, Klaus et al

in Eurosteel 2011 - 6th European Conference on Steel and Composite Structures - Proceedings (2011, September)

Eurocode 3 Part 1-8 provides detailed application rules for the design of bolted end-plate connections. Although these rules apply to connections with any number of vertical bolt rows, most of them are ... [more ▼]

Eurocode 3 Part 1-8 provides detailed application rules for the design of bolted end-plate connections. Although these rules apply to connections with any number of vertical bolt rows, most of them are limited to configurations with two bolts only in each horizontal row, i.e. one bolt on each side of the beam or column web. However, it is sometimes more economic to place four bolts in one row, for instance when wide flange H-sections are used. This configuration is commonly met in different countries in Europe and, in particular, in Germany where this configuration is even standardized. The theoretical model on which the Eurocode 3 application rules are founded is general and can be potentially applied to connections with four bolts per horizontal row. However, specific design rules are not given in Eurocode 3 and need to be developed. Within the present article, easy-to-apply analytical design rules aimed at predicting the mechanical properties of connections with four bolts per row, being in full agreement with the Eurocode 3 approach, are presented. In particular, comparisons to less recent analytical procedures are given. [less ▲]

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See detailRobustness of building structures - recent developments and adopted strategy
Demonceau, Jean-François ULg; Coméliau, Ludivine ULg; Jaspart, Jean-Pierre ULg

in Steel Construction (2011), 4/2011

Recent events such as natural catastrophes or terrorism attacks have highlighted the necessity to ensure the structural integrity of buildings under an exceptional event. According to the Eurocodes and ... [more ▼]

Recent events such as natural catastrophes or terrorism attacks have highlighted the necessity to ensure the structural integrity of buildings under an exceptional event. According to the Eurocodes and some different other national design codes, the structural integrity of civil engineering structures should be ensured through appropriate measures but, in most cases, no precise practical guidelines on how to achieve this goal are provided. At the University of Liège, the robustness of building frames is investigated following the so-called “alternative load path method”, with the final objective to propose design requirements to mitigate the risk of progressive collapse considering the conventional scenario “loss of a column” further to an unspecified event. In particular, a complete analytical procedure has been developed for the verification of the robustness of steel or composite plane frames. For sake of simplicity, these first works have been based on the assumption that the dynamic effects linked to the column loss were limited and could therefore be neglected. More recently, complementary works have been carried out with the objective to address the dynamic effects. Besides, the extension of the static procedure to actual 3D frames is under investigation in Liège. The present paper gives a global overview of the ongoing researches in the field of robustness at the University of Liège and, in particular, the global strategy aiming at deriving design requirements is detailed. [less ▲]

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See detailRobustness of steel structures - Exercise: Application of different robustness approaches to a frame building structure
Coméliau, Ludivine ULg; Demonceau, Jean-François ULg; Jaspart, Jean-Pierre ULg

Learning material (2011)

The aim of this exercise is to investigate different ways of ensuring the robustness of a frame building structure considering a vehicle impact on a column of the ground floor. The building is located at ... [more ▼]

The aim of this exercise is to investigate different ways of ensuring the robustness of a frame building structure considering a vehicle impact on a column of the ground floor. The building is located at a corner of two roadways and thus the perimeter columns adjacent to these roads are likely to be impacted by a car or a lorry. Besides, the ground floor is a parking area (accessible to cars only) so that any internal column could also be damaged. The different approaches proposed in the Eurocodes will be applied and discussed. These methods consist for example in increasing the column resistance in such a way they can resist the impact or designing the structure so that it remains globally stable despite the loss of the damaged column. However, in such a case, a static removal of the column will be assumed (for sake of simplicity, no dynamic effect due to the failure of the column will be taken into account in this exercise). [less ▲]

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See detailRobustness of steel structures - Exercise SOLUTION: Application of different robustness approaches to a frame building structure
Coméliau, Ludivine ULg; Demonceau, Jean-François ULg; Jaspart, Jean-Pierre ULg

Learning material (2011)

The aim of this exercise is to investigate different ways of ensuring the robustness of a frame building structure considering a vehicle impact on a column of the ground floor. The building is located at ... [more ▼]

The aim of this exercise is to investigate different ways of ensuring the robustness of a frame building structure considering a vehicle impact on a column of the ground floor. The building is located at a corner of two roadways and thus the perimeter columns adjacent to these roads are likely to be impacted by a car or a lorry. Besides, the ground floor is a parking area (accessible to cars only) so that any internal column could also be damaged. The different approaches proposed in the Eurocodes will be applied and discussed. These methods consist for example in increasing the column resistance in such a way they can resist the impact or designing the structure so that it remains globally stable despite the loss of the damaged column. However, in such a case, a static removal of the column will be assumed (for sake of simplicity, no dynamic effect due to the failure of the column will be taken into account in this exercise). [less ▲]

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See detailRobustness of steel structures - Homework: Application of different robustness approaches to a frame building structure
Coméliau, Ludivine ULg; Demonceau, Jean-François ULg; Jaspart, Jean-Pierre ULg

Learning material (2011)

The aim of this exercise is to investigate different ways of ensuring the robustness of a frame building structure considering a vehicle impact on a column of the ground floor. The building is located at ... [more ▼]

The aim of this exercise is to investigate different ways of ensuring the robustness of a frame building structure considering a vehicle impact on a column of the ground floor. The building is located at a corner of two roadways and thus the perimeter columns adjacent to these roads are likely to be impacted by a car or a lorry. Besides, the ground floor is a parking area (accessible to cars only) so that any internal column could also be damaged. The different approaches proposed in the Eurocodes will be applied and discussed. These methods consist for example in increasing the column resistance in such a way they can resist the impact or designing the structure so that it remains globally stable despite the loss of the damaged column. However, in such a case, a static removal of the column will be assumed (for sake of simplicity, no dynamic effect due to the failure of the column will be taken into account in this exercise). [less ▲]

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See detailRobustness of steel and composite building structures
Jaspart, Jean-Pierre ULg; Demonceau, Jean-François ULg; Coméliau, Ludivine ULg

in 7th National conference on steel structures (2011)

Recent events such as natural catastrophes or terrorism attacks have highlighted the necessity to ensure the structural integrity of buildings under an exceptional event. According to the Eurocodes and ... [more ▼]

Recent events such as natural catastrophes or terrorism attacks have highlighted the necessity to ensure the structural integrity of buildings under an exceptional event. According to the Eurocodes and some different other national design codes, the structural integrity of civil engineering structures should be ensured through appropriate measures but, in most cases, no precise practical guidelines on how to achieve this goal are provided. At Liège University, the robustness of building frames is investigated with the final objective to propose design requirements to mitigate the risk of progressive collapse considering the conventional scenario “loss of a column” further to an unspecified event. In particular, a complete analytical procedure has been developed for the verification of the robustness of steel or composite plane frames. For sake of simplicity, these first works have been based on the assumption that the dynamic effects linked to the column loss were limited and could therefore be neglected. More recently, complementary works have been carried out with the objective to address the dynamic effects. Besides, the extension of the static procedure to actual 3D frames is under investigation in Liège. The present paper gives a global overview of the ongoing researches in the field of robustness at Liège University and, in particular, the global strategy aiming at deriving design requirements is detailed. [less ▲]

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See detailM-N interaction in beam-to-column joints - Development of a design model
Demonceau, Jean-François ULg; Jaspart, Jean-Pierre ULg

in Zingoni, Alphose (Ed.) Proceedings of the SEMC 2010 International Conference (2010, September 06)

The component method is a nowadays widely recognized procedure for the evaluation of the design properties of structural joints. It is used as a reference method in the Eurocodes and the proposed rules in ... [more ▼]

The component method is a nowadays widely recognized procedure for the evaluation of the design properties of structural joints. It is used as a reference method in the Eurocodes and the proposed rules in these codes are mainly devoted to the characterization of joints subjected to bending moments and shear forces. However, in some situations, these joints can be subjected to combined axial loads and bending mo-ments, for instance in frames subjected to an exceptional event leading to the loss of a column, situation where significant tying forces can developed in the structural beams above the lost column. In this paper, a design model, founded on the component method, aiming at predicting the behaviour of joints subjected to com-bined axial loads and bending moments is presented. In particular, it is illustrated how this model was vali-dated through comparisons to recent experimental tests performed on steel-concrete composite beam-to-column joints. [less ▲]

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See detailRobustness of steel and composite buildings under impact loading
Coméliau, Ludivine ULg; Demonceau, Jean-François ULg; Jaspart, Jean-Pierre ULg

in Batista, E.; Vellasco, P.; de Lima, L. (Eds.) Proceedings of the SDSS'Rio 2010 conference (2010, September)

In case of a vehicle impact against a building frame, one or more columns may be damaged or even fully destroyed. In such an exceptional event, the risk of progressive collapse of the whole structure has ... [more ▼]

In case of a vehicle impact against a building frame, one or more columns may be damaged or even fully destroyed. In such an exceptional event, the risk of progressive collapse of the whole structure has to be mitigated. Several approaches potentially exist to face this problem. In the present study, the so-called alternative load path method is followed. In two recent PhD studies at Liège University, a complete analytical procedure was developed permitting the prediction of the structural response of steel or composite plane frames further to the loss of a column. For sake of simplicity, these first works were based on the assumption of static behaviour. More recently, complementary research was carried out with the objective to address the dynamic effects. As a result, an original procedure for the appraisal of the structural robustness of plane building frames was proposed. The present paper presents this work. [less ▲]

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See detailExperimental test simulating a column loss in a composite frame
Demonceau, Jean-François ULg; Jaspart, Jean-Pierre ULg

in Advanced Steel Construction (2010), 6(Number 3), 891-913

Recent events such as natural catastrophes or terrorism attacks have highlighted the necessity to ensure the structural integrity of buildings under exceptional events. According to Eurocodes and some ... [more ▼]

Recent events such as natural catastrophes or terrorism attacks have highlighted the necessity to ensure the structural integrity of buildings under exceptional events. According to Eurocodes and some different other national design codes, the structural integrity of civil engineering structures should be ensured through appropriate measures. Design requirements are proposed in some codes but are nowadays seen generally as not satisfactory. In particular, it is not demonstrated that, even if these requirements are respected, the risk of a progressive collapse of the structure subjected to an exceptional event will really be mitigated. A European RFCS project entitled “Robust structures by joint ductility” has been set up in 2004, for three years, with the aim to provide requirements and practical guidelines allowing to ensure the structural integrity of steel and composite structures under exceptional events through an appropriate robustness. In particular, one substructure test simulating the loss of a column in a composite building was performed at Liège University. The present paper describes in details this substructure test. In particular, the development of membrane forces is illustrated and their effects on the behaviour of the beam-to-column joints are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailApplication of Eurocode 3 to steel connections with four bolts per horizontal row
Demonceau, Jean-François ULg; Weynand, Klaus; Jaspart, Jean-Pierre ULg et al

in Batista, E.; Vellasco, P.; de Lima, L. (Eds.) Proceedings of the SDSS'Rio 2010 conference (2010, September)

Eurocode 3 Part 1-8 provides detailed application rules for the design of bolted end-plate connections. Although these rules apply to connections with any number of bolt rows, they are limited to ... [more ▼]

Eurocode 3 Part 1-8 provides detailed application rules for the design of bolted end-plate connections. Although these rules apply to connections with any number of bolt rows, they are limited to configurations with two bolts in each row. However, it is sometimes more economical to place four bolts in one row. This configuration is commonly met in different countries in Europe and, in particular, in Germany. The theoretical model on which the Eurocode 3 application rules are founded is general and can be potentially applied to connections with four bolts per row. However, specific design rules need to be developed. In the present paper, easy-to-apply analytical design rules aimed at predicting the mechanical properties of connections with four bolts per row and in full agreement with the Eurocode 3 approach are detailed. Validations through comparisons to experimental test results recently performed in the framework of a German national project are also presented. [less ▲]

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See detailAnforderungen an Stahl- und Verbundknoten bei Stützenausfall in einem Rahmentragwerk
Kuhlmann, Ulrike; Rölle, Lars; Jaspart, Jean-Pierre ULg et al

in Stahlbau (2010), 8(August 2010), 565-579

Local failure in a structure (e.g. sudden column loss due to impact or explosion) could lead to progressive collapse propagation of the global structural system resulting in a total collapse. To avoid ... [more ▼]

Local failure in a structure (e.g. sudden column loss due to impact or explosion) could lead to progressive collapse propagation of the global structural system resulting in a total collapse. To avoid progressive collapse initiated by local damage a redistribution of force from the damaged part of the structure has to be enabled by alternate load path. Activation of alternate load paths by change of the bearing mechanism from pure bending state to more or less pure membrane state is a measure but only possible by allowing large global deformations resulting in high de-formation requirements for the joints. In the frame of a European RFCS research project ductile joint solution have been developed to improve the robustness as characteristic of the structure. Main focus for the joint design was given to obtain the required deformation capacity for acci-dental design situations mainly from the joints and cause at the same time only less additional material and fabrication costs for the joints. As a result deformable and partial-strength joint solution has been chosen. Objective within the project was to determine requirements of the joints concerning deformation capacity as well as M-N-resistance to enable the activation of catenary action for the load case notional column removal. [less ▲]

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See detailNew simplified analytical method for the Prediction of global stability of steel and composite sway frames
Demonceau, Jean-François ULg; Ly, Dong Phuong Lam ULg; Coméliau, Ludivine ULg et al

in Proceedings of the annaual stability conference, 2010 (2010, May)

Eurocode 4 is the European design code for composite construction; in its so-called EN 1994-1-1 version, the design of “non-sway buildings” is mainly covered. As a result, EC4 focuses on the check of ... [more ▼]

Eurocode 4 is the European design code for composite construction; in its so-called EN 1994-1-1 version, the design of “non-sway buildings” is mainly covered. As a result, EC4 focuses on the check of structural elements like beams, columns, slabs and joints. However, in the last years, the construction of taller buildings and larger industrial halls without wind bracing systems tends to make global instability a relevant failure mode, which is not well covered by Eurocode 4. Recently, intensive experimental, numerical and theoretical investigations have been carried out at Liège University. The latter aimed at improving the knowledge in the field of sway composite building frames and at developing appropriate design rules. The rotational behavior of the beam-to-column composite joints is one of the key aspects of the problem to which a special attention has been paid. This paper reflects investigations carried out at Liege University on this topic. In particular, an innovative simplified analytical method to predict the ultimate loading factor and the associated collapse mode of both steel and composite frames subjected to static loadings is presented. [less ▲]

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See detailCombined distortional and overall flexural-torsional buckling of cold-formed stainless steel sections: Experimental investigations
Rossi, Barbara ULg; Jaspart, Jean-Pierre ULg; Rasmussen, Kim J.R.

in Journal of Structural Engineering (2010), 136(4), 354-360

This paper presents a series of 48 full-scale tests on press-braked stainless steel lipped channel section columns subjected to concentric compression. The tests were carried out between fixed ends in the ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a series of 48 full-scale tests on press-braked stainless steel lipped channel section columns subjected to concentric compression. The tests were carried out between fixed ends in the Structures Laboratory of the University of Liège and the test specimens were designed such that distortional buckling developed in the section prior to overall flexural-torsional buckling. The stainless steel alloy was 1.4003 chromium weldable steel, popularly known as 3Cr12. Three different geometries were tested using the same experimental set-up. A critical summary of the standards and methods for calculating the carrying capacity of cold-formed stainless steel compression members is presented in a companion paper by the same authors. [less ▲]

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