References of "Huybrechts, Benjamin"
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See detailReport on REScoop Business Models
Rijpens, Julie ULg; Riutort, Sebastia; Huybrechts, Benjamin ULg

Report (2013)

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See detailSocial Enterprise, Social Innovation and Alternative Economies: Insights from Fair Trade and Renewable Energy
Huybrechts, Benjamin ULg

in Zademach, Hans-Martin; Hillebrand, Sebastian (Eds.) Alternative Economies and Spaces. New Perspectives for a Sustainable Economy (2013)

The transition towards a more sustainable economic system is increasingly seen as an urgency to respond to the social, environmental and economic challenges of our times. Mirroring this increased ... [more ▼]

The transition towards a more sustainable economic system is increasingly seen as an urgency to respond to the social, environmental and economic challenges of our times. Mirroring this increased attention, the scholarly literature on transition and transition management, “degrowth” and sustainable development (e.g., Loorbach, 2007, Boulanger, 2008) has considerably developed across a set of disciplines (sociology, geography, economics, engineering, etc.). The solutions put forth by the different literature streams vary to a large extent and rely on distinct if not opposed ideological foundations, from the radical, anti-consumerist vision of “degrowth” to the much softer and vaguer, reformist trend of “sustainable development”. Common to the different literature streams, however, is to mainly focus on two levels of analysis. First, the systemic level receives most attention when it comes to diagnoses of limitations in the extant system and exploration of what alternative – non-growth, post-transition or at least sustainable – systems or economies would look like. This focus on systems is logical given the scope of the expected (r)evolutions to undertake. It is also coherent with the main disciplines involved in this “macro-level” research effort: economics, sociology, political science, philosophy, etc. A second and subsequent level of analysis that has been considered lies at the other extreme of the continuum: the individual. Indeed, as the failures of the extant economic system have been linked to the unrealistic and ideologically oriented vision of the individual as an ever-calculating, utility-maximizing “homo oeconomicus” (Stiglitz, 2009), questions have arisen about the human behavior required to generate or at least participate in the alternative systems conceived at the macro level. Put another way, to what extent and in what sense do we need to change our individual behaviors, in terms of purchasing, working, voting, investing, moving, and acting in general, in order to liberate ourselves from the homo oeconomicus patterns and consider alternative behaviours that, put together, may contribute to alternative systems? This “micro-level” perspective has relied on work in psychology and anthropology in order to (re)discover new avenues for increased reflexivity and conscious action. Between the macro and micro perspectives lie a diversity of “meso” actors consisting of more or less formalized groups of individuals, organizations and institutions such as: public authorities (from local to global), businesses, civil society, educational institutions, etc. Much work has been undertaken on the role of these different types of “meso-actor” in the transition towards alternative economies, but in view of the author of this chapter this has been developed either in a superficial way, mentioning the different actors to engage in these processes, or using “black boxes” that suppose homogeneous sets of actors such as “companies” or “civil society actors”. In other words, although several case studies enter into the complexity of one or several of these black boxes, there is lack of clarity and depth in the study of how different types of actors, especially economic actors, may engage in and inspire societal change. In particular, little work makes the connection between how economic organizations function internally, and how they (may) act towards society (e.g., Moore et al., 2009). This chapter does not aim, of course, to fill this knowledge gap on its own. It intends to bring a modest contribution to understanding the role of meso actors and in particular economic organizations by focusing on one specific, under-researched but important actor that is social enterprise. As will be described further, social enterprises are still weakly defined and heterogeneous (Dart, 2004, Defourny and Nyssens, 2010, Huybrechts and Nicholls, 2012). Yet, they share two features that seem of particular interest in the debate mentioned here. First, they do not correspond to a neatly defined organizational category as they precisely lie at the intersection of two spheres that are commonly clearly separated and often opposed to each other: the market and the civil society. Such a “hybrid” nature offers the potential for a specific and original contribution to the debate on alternative economies and systems, insofar as hybridity is synonym for innovation and unconventional thinking, as this chapter aims to show. A second feature of social enterprises is their supposed coherence, at least theoretically, between internal functioning and external contribution. In other words, the new societal solutions that social enterprises offer through their products and services are supposed to be coherent with the solutions experimented within their very organizational structures. Despite their diversity and their obvious limitations, it is thus suggested here that examining social enterprises may offer at least two contributions to the discussion on alternative economies. First, by understanding the potential of hybridity, i.e. combination of distinct institutional patterns, to the reconfiguration of economic systems. Second, by highlighting the link between intra-organizational functioning and societal behavior, in order to show how engaging actors in building alternative economies must involve in one way or another these two dimensions. [less ▲]

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See detailTrickle-Up in Politics
Pollet, Ignace; Huybrechts, Benjamin ULg

in Pollet, Ignace; Van Ongevalle, Jan (Eds.) The Drive to Global Citizenship. Motivating people - Mapping public support - Measuring effects of global education (2013)

For a domain such as development cooperation, public support and awareness raising become particularly relevant in view of converting ideas and opinions current in society into political support, and ... [more ▼]

For a domain such as development cooperation, public support and awareness raising become particularly relevant in view of converting ideas and opinions current in society into political support, and eventually into a congruent policy. In this chapter, we first describe what is meant by the term political support. This is followed by an account of our research on the issue in the Belgian political world. A key question here is to which extent political parties are concerned about development cooperation. At the end of this chapter, we briefly sum up the policy implications of the way politics are capturing public support for foreign aid. [less ▲]

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See detailConnecting producers and consumers through fair and sustainable value chains
Doherty, Bob; Huybrechts, Benjamin ULg

in Social Enterprise Journal (2013), 9(1), 4-20

Purpose – This paper seeks to pinpoint the role played by social enterprises in the growth and mainstreaming of fair trade. Design/methodology/approach – The review encompasses seminal papers on the ... [more ▼]

Purpose – This paper seeks to pinpoint the role played by social enterprises in the growth and mainstreaming of fair trade. Design/methodology/approach – The review encompasses seminal papers on the growth and mainstreaming of fair trade. Findings – A crucial role is played by social enterprises in establishing fair trade in the mainstream. However this mainstreaming is contested and is argued by some to also lead to potential mission drift. Research limitations/implications – This review primarily investigates the Northern aspects of fair trade, in particular the role of social enterprise in the market growth of fair trade and its mainstreaming. However more research is required to unpack the producer perspectives of mainstreaming fair trade. Practical implications – The article investigates one of the pioneering fields of social enterprise to see what lessons can be drawn for other social enterprise sectors that have mainstream ambitions. Originality/value – This contribution provides a novel review to demonstrate the role played by social enterprise in the growth of fair trade. It argues that the dual mission of fair trade is out of balance and is in danger of becoming reduced to a certification scheme based on minimum compliance. However a rebalancing of social and commercial objectives and acknowledging the innovative approach of fair trade social enterprises would strengthen this pioneering social movement. [less ▲]

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See detailOrganisation du commerce équitable
Huybrechts, Benjamin ULg

in Blanchet, Vivien; Carimentrand, Aurélie (Eds.) Dictionnaire du commerce équitable (2012)

Définition et discussion de la notion d'organisation du commerce équitable

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See detailL'économie sociale et solidaire
Huybrechts, Benjamin ULg

in Blanchet, Vivien; Carimentrand, Aurélie (Eds.) Dictionnaire du commerce équitable (2012)

Définit l'économie sociale et solidaire et positionne le commerce équitable par rapport à cette notion

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See detailFair Trade Organizations and Social Enterprise. Social Innovation through Hybrid Organization Models
Huybrechts, Benjamin ULg

Book published by Routledge (2012)

For several decades, Fair Trade Social Enterprises (FTSEs) have set up partnerships with producer groups in the South and distributed the latter’s products through different types of channels in the North ... [more ▼]

For several decades, Fair Trade Social Enterprises (FTSEs) have set up partnerships with producer groups in the South and distributed the latter’s products through different types of channels in the North. However, while pioneers in the early years were relatively homogeneous (nonprofit organizations relying on voluntary work and selling through “worldshops”), organizational diversity has tremendously increased in recent times, including other types of legal forms, architectures, and governance models (volunteer-based, manager-based, multi-stakeholder, etc.). As a result, different categories of FTSEs now coexist in the sector with diverse missions and strategies. Since Fair Trade (FT) is a hybrid concept, entailing economic, social and political dimensions, the diversity of organizational models might reflect or enable different ways of articulating these dimensions. In other words, different organizational models might be suited for different ways of conceiving and practicing FT. Such an articulation through specific forms has been suggested by previous concepts that can be related to FT, such as cooperatives, the social economy, the solidarity economy, and, more recently, social enterprise. The latter is particularly useful as an umbrella concept that embraces the diverse types of FTSEs and accounts for their use of market mechanisms to pursue social innovation. This research first aims to explore and to structure FTSEs’ organizational diversity. For that purpose, the managers of 57 FTSEs were interviewed in four European regions: Belgium, France (Rhône-Alpes), the United Kingdom (England) and Italy (Rome). Based on the combinations of different elements of the organizational form, five categories emerge: individual FTSEs; entrepreneurial, business-form FTSEs; volunteer-based FTSEs; multi-stakeholder cooperative FTSEs; and group structures. Although certain FTSEs share features corresponding to several models, these categories seem adequate in the sense are relatively homogeneous and distinct from each other. The second question examines the factors or forces that lead FTSEs to adopt particular and diverse organizational forms. Using sociological and economic “new institutional” approaches, this book explores the influence of a number of factors on the organizational form: age, size, region, goals, activities, resources, and leaders’ profiles. From an economic standpoint, organizational diversity may be explained by the fact that FTSEs do not all produce the same types of goods when practicing FT. Thus, FTSEs will adopt the organizational form that minimizes their transaction costs in the production of particular goods. From a sociological standpoint, the analysis suggests that weak and sometimes conflicting institutional pressures explain organizational diversity. Indeed, uniformity is limited (within certain generations of FTSEs or in particular regions), although there is a dominant trend toward a stronger business orientation in the models. The third question examines how organizational actors within FTSEs experience and foster hybridity at the field level, thereby contributing to organizational diversification. Looking at six cases of FTSEs covering the different types of models, the strategic role of FTSEs is examined, as “institutional entrepreneurs” capable of influencing the environment in a way that legitimizes their own organizational model and secures their access to crucial resources. This strategic analysis allows for a more dynamic view of organizational models as “institutional bricolage”. Finally, the book ends with a number of recommendations for FT entrepreneurs on the strengths and the weaknesses of each organizational model. [less ▲]

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See detailLes entreprises sociales d'insertion : des parties prenantes multiples pour des objectifs multiples ?
Campi, Sara; Grégoire, Olivier; Defourny, Jacques ULg et al

in Gardin, Laurent; Laville, Jean-Louis; Nyssens, Marthe (Eds.) L’insertion par l’économique au prisme de l'entreprise sociale : un bilan international (2012)

Suivant les analyses théoriques proposées au sein du réseau EMES (Borzaga et Defourny 2001), la multiplicité des parties prenantes et la multiplicité des objectifs sont considérées comme des aspects ... [more ▼]

Suivant les analyses théoriques proposées au sein du réseau EMES (Borzaga et Defourny 2001), la multiplicité des parties prenantes et la multiplicité des objectifs sont considérées comme des aspects importants des entreprises sociales. Cependant, bien que ces caractéristiques aient été soulignées par divers auteurs sur le plan théorique, leur validation empirique reste relativement limitée. Le présent chapitre entend combler ce vide en menant une analyse approfondie de la multiplicité des parties prenantes et des objectifs au sein des entreprises sociales d'insertion en Europe. Nous nous penchons dans la première section sur la multiplicité des objectifs, en fournissant quelques éléments théoriques utiles pour interpréter ses origines et son apport analytique. Les théories sont ensuite confrontées aux données collectées dans le cadre de la recherche PERSE La deuxième section propose un bref aperçu de la littérature économique et organisationnelle relative à la gouvernance et à l’implication des parties prenantes, avant d’analyser dans quelle mesure les ESI européennes impliquent une multiplicité de parties prenantes. La troisième section examine les raisons permettant d'expliquer l'implication de diverses catégories de parties prenantes dans la structure de propriété et dans le processus de prise de décision de ces organisations. [less ▲]

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See detailSocial Entrepreneurship: Definitions, Drivers and Challenges
Huybrechts, Benjamin ULg; Nicholls, Alex

in Volkmann, Christine K.; Tokarski, Kim Oliver; Ernst, Kati (Eds.) Social Entrepreneurship and Social Business: An Introduction and Discussion With Case Studies (2012)

Despite widespread acknowledgement that social entrepreneurship and social enterprise remain highly contextual –and, therefore, contestable– notions which can be interpreted in various ways depending on ... [more ▼]

Despite widespread acknowledgement that social entrepreneurship and social enterprise remain highly contextual –and, therefore, contestable– notions which can be interpreted in various ways depending on the ideology and the goals of the institutions championing them (Dart 2004; Dey & Steyaert 2010; Nicholls 2010c), there are common features upon which most scholars and commentators can agree. This chapter aims to capture the essence of what social entrepreneurship is and also of what it is not. The chapter is structured as follows. The following section examines the concept of social entrepreneurship and reviews a number of definitions in order to highlight common features. Then, social entrepreneurship is compared with, and differentiated from, related –but distinctive– concepts. After this, the fourth section looks at the origins and drivers of social entrepreneurship in an historical perspective. Finally, this chapter concludes by suggesting a number of challenges for practice, policy and research in this field. [less ▲]

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See detailEntrepreneuriat social : définitions, ressorts et défis
Huybrechts, Benjamin ULg; Nicholls, Alex; Mouchamps, Hugues ULg

in Bayle, Emmanuel; Dupuis, Jean-Claude (Eds.) Management des entreprises de l'économie sociale et solidaire (2012)

L'entrepreneuriat social est un concept en vogue depuis une dizaine d’années. Souvent illustré par des « success stories » provenant des quatre coins du monde dans divers secteurs (santé, éducation ... [more ▼]

L'entrepreneuriat social est un concept en vogue depuis une dizaine d’années. Souvent illustré par des « success stories » provenant des quatre coins du monde dans divers secteurs (santé, éducation, finance, culture, etc.), le concept s'impose progressivement dans le monde de l'entreprise, ainsi que dans les sphères académiques et politiques (Boschee 2006; Light 2008; Nicholls 2006b; Nyssens 2006). En plus de transformer les marchés existants, l'entrepreneuriat social a aussi contribué à créer de nouveaux marchés et de nouvelles niches, dans des domaines tels que le commerce équitable (Huybrechts 2012; Nicholls 2010a) ou la micro-finance (Armendáriz de Aghion & Morduch 2005; Battilana & Dorado 2010). Cette dernière est souvent présentée comme le porte-drapeau de l'entrepreneuriat social, notamment depuis que la Grameen Bank et son fondateur Mohammed Yunus se sont vu décerner le Prix Nobel de la Paix. Pratiquement absents des recherches universitaires avant la fin des années 90, l'entrepreneuriat social et les entreprises sociales sont devenus des thèmes de recherche importants depuis lors (Dacin et al. 2010; Defourny & Nyssens 2008b; Fayolle & Matlay 2010; Short et al. 2009), comme en témoigne le nombre croissant d'articles et de livres qui y sont consacrés . Des numéros spéciaux de différents journaux ont mis l'accent sur l'entrepreneuriat social et au moins deux nouveaux journaux ont vu le jour pour traiter spécifiquement de cette thématique et de sujets proches . Bien qu'il soit généralement bien admis que l'entrepreneuriat social et les entreprises sociales restent des notions fort contextuelles – donc contestables – qui peuvent être interprétées de différentes manières suivant l'idéologie et les objectifs des institutions qui les utilisent (Dart 2004; Dey & Steyaert 2010; Nicholls 2010c), certains traits communs commencent néanmoins à faire consensus au sein de la communauté scientifique. Le but de la première section est de présenter et de définir la notion d'entrepreneuriat social. Ensuite, l’entrepreneuriat social est comparé à d’autres notions proches mais néanmoins distinctes. La troisième section se penche sur les origines et les motivations de l'entrepreneuriat social dans une perspective historique. Dans la quatrième section, nous proposons quelques pistes pour mesurer l’ampleur du phénomène. Finalement, les conclusions de ce chapitre évoquent un certain nombre de défis à relever pour les acteurs de terrain, le monde politique et les chercheurs. [less ▲]

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See detailManaging Hybridity: (Inter-)Organizational Strategies in the Fair Trade Field
Huybrechts, Benjamin ULg

Conference (2011, July 07)

This paper aims to examine the concrete strategies through which organizations may reach compromises between conflicting logics. To reach this goal, this paper tries to capture some of the interactions ... [more ▼]

This paper aims to examine the concrete strategies through which organizations may reach compromises between conflicting logics. To reach this goal, this paper tries to capture some of the interactions between the organizational, inter-organizational and field levels in terms of management and diffusion of plural logics, using the case of social enterprises in the Fair Trade field. [less ▲]

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See detailRenewable Energy Source Cooperatives (REScoops): Assets, Obstacles and Diffusion Strategies
Huybrechts, Benjamin ULg; Mertens de Wilmars, Sybille ULg

Conference (2011, July)

While the ability of social enterprises to generate innovative solutions to social and environmental needs is increasingly documented (eg., Defourny 2001; Harrisson & Vézina 2006; Nicholls 2006), little ... [more ▼]

While the ability of social enterprises to generate innovative solutions to social and environmental needs is increasingly documented (eg., Defourny 2001; Harrisson & Vézina 2006; Nicholls 2006), little is known about the processes through with social enterprises diffuse and institutionalize their innovations. These processes are important not only to understand institutionalized fields of practice (eg. Bouchard 2006), but also –and even more– to inform the creation of new fields through the diffusion (or „scaling up‟) of social innovations (Maguire et al. 2004; Mulgan et al. 2007). Institutionalization dynamics are at the core of „institutional theory‟, more particularly its recent agency-based developments, commonly grouped under the banner of „institutional entrepreneurship‟ (Battilana et al. 2009) or „institutional work‟ (Lawrence & Suddaby 2006). This approach seems particularly adequate to understand the emergence of new fields through the development of interorganizational collaborations, which enable the diffusion and replication of structures and practices across the field (Lawrence et al. 2002; Phillips et al. 2000). Fields centered on social innovations offer good examples of these dynamics (Mair & Marti 2006), with collaborations observed both among social enterprises pioneering the innovation (Davies 2009) and between social enterprises, governments (eg. Young 2000) and businesses (eg. Di Domenico et al. 2009; Le Ber & Branzei 2010). This paper examines the role of social enterprises in creating and diffusing innovative institutional arrangements in the field of renewable energy sources (RES). While social (ecological) movements have been instrumental in shifting the public attention towards the need for alternative energies (Sine & Lee 2009), the sector has in most countries become dominated by corporate actors experienced in building large-scale RES projects. In an attempt to counter the corporate hegemony and to protect available lands, a range of citizen initiatives have emerged under the term of REScoops (Coen 2010). Although not very numerous, these initiatives seem particularly efficient in terms of greenhouse gas emissions and may reach a large scale at the local level. Moreover, they seem particularly innovative in terms of organizational models, conceived as multi-stakeholder and cooperative schemes involving citizens, municipalities and local economic players. In the contest around new field boundaries and dominance (Santos & Eisenhardt 2009), including recognition by the government, we examine the legitimating strategies of social enterprises in having their organizational arrangements (= social innovations) recognized as a superior avenue to the management of RES (= technological innovation), especially in terms of democracy and participation. [less ▲]

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See detailExplorando a diversidade do comércio justo na economia social
Huybrechts, Benjamin ULg; Defourny, Jacques ULg

in Ciências Sociais Unisinos (2011), 47(1), 44-55

Organizações de comércio justo (CJ) têm sido tomadas como exemplo de empresas sociais (ES) há bastante tempo e têm contribuído para a formação do conceito de ES. O objetivo deste artigo é examinar mais ... [more ▼]

Organizações de comércio justo (CJ) têm sido tomadas como exemplo de empresas sociais (ES) há bastante tempo e têm contribuído para a formação do conceito de ES. O objetivo deste artigo é examinar mais profundamente, tanto no nível conceitual quanto empírico, até que ponto as organizações de CJ podem ser consideradas empresas sociais. Primeiramente, introduzimos diferentes perspectivas teóricas de ES e examinamos o CJ no contexto de cada uma destas perspectivas. Em um segundo momento, apresentamos um estudo empírico sobre empresas sociais de comércio justo (ESCJ) de quatro países europeus para ilustrar e aprofundar as ligações entre CJ e ES, tendo como foco os objetivos e as estruturas de governança destas ESCJs. Parece que todas estas ESCJs combinam, de alguma maneira, objetivos econômicos, sociais e, algumas vezes, também políticos. As ESCJs alinham-se, portanto, com a natureza de “objetivo híbrido” das ESs. A governança das ESCJs é também bem específica e frequentemente inovadora em termos de arquitetura organizacional e envolvimento dos parceiros (stakeholders). Algumas ESCJs estão mais próximas da abordagem europeia – participatória – da empresa social, enquanto outras estão mais próximas das abordagens americanas – individual. Por fim, as estruturas de governança das ESCJs parecem refletir muito bem o seu mix de objetivos. [less ▲]

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See detailCaught on the Boundary: The Micro-Processes of Social Movement-Corporate Relationships
Huybrechts, Benjamin ULg; Nicholls, Alex

Conference (2010, September 13)

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See detailIntroduction: Fair Trade in Different National Contexts
Huybrechts, Benjamin ULg; Reed, Darryl

in Journal of Business Ethics (2010), 92(2), 147-150

Introduction to the special issue in the Journal of Business Ethics

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See detailFair Trade Organizations in Belgium: Unity in Diversity?
Huybrechts, Benjamin ULg

in Journal of Business Ethics (2010), 92(2), 217-240

This article analyzes the dual process occurring in the field of Fair Trade organizations (FTOs) in Belgium. On the one hand, there has been a gradual diversification of the organizational landscape over ... [more ▼]

This article analyzes the dual process occurring in the field of Fair Trade organizations (FTOs) in Belgium. On the one hand, there has been a gradual diversification of the organizational landscape over time from pioneering volunteer-based non-profit organizations to a broader array including cooperatives, group structures, businesses and individual entrepreneurs exclusively devoted to FT. On the other hand, a process of networking is currently taking place among the various types of FTOs in the context of the creation of a Belgian Fair Trade Federation (BFTF). Drawing on neo-institutional theory, including institutional entrepreneurship, this article examines how and why these two processes have taken place. A qualitative field study in the Belgian FT sector, including interviews with 15 FTOs, offers rich empirical material which illustrates the diverse patterns of these organizations. Based on the observed combinations of different variables among Belgian FTOs, a taxonomy reflecting diverse means of conceiving and organizing FT activity is suggested. The different categories of FTOs and the evolution of these categories over time seem linked to the broader institutional evolutions of FT at the international as well as at the Belgian level. Finally, several factors are reviewed to explain why the diversity among Belgian FTOs has not been an obstacle to their collaboration. [less ▲]

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See detailExplaining Organizational Diversity in Fair Trade Social Enterprises
Huybrechts, Benjamin ULg

Conference (2010, March 13)

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See detailExplaining Organisational Diversity in Fair Trade Social Enterprises
Huybrechts, Benjamin ULg

Doctoral thesis (2010)

This research aims to explain and understand the organisational diversity observed in the field of Fair Trade Social Enterprises or Fair Trade Organisations (FTOs). The transversal hypothesis is that such ... [more ▼]

This research aims to explain and understand the organisational diversity observed in the field of Fair Trade Social Enterprises or Fair Trade Organisations (FTOs). The transversal hypothesis is that such a diversity in organisational forms may be linked to the multidimensional (economic, social and/or political) nature of Fair Trade. First, since there are virtually no typologies focused on FTOs, it is necessary to look at how organisational diversity in FT can be categorised. A typology with five categories of organisational forms is suggested. Secondly, this work explores the reasons behind organisational diversity, using both an external, explanatory perspective, and an internal, interactionist perspective. A third key issue is to explore whether FTOs experience tensions between the different dimensions of FT, and how these tensions are managed in the different types of FTOs. These issues are examined under the light of different theoretical approaches linked to “new institutionalism” (economic, sociological and entrepreneurial) and resource dependence theory. The empirical material is provided by interviews with the leaders of 57 FTOs in four European regions: Belgium, France (Rhône-Alpes), the United Kingdom (England) and Italy (Rome). Eight of these FTOs, reflecting the different categories of organisational forms, are analysed more in depth. [less ▲]

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See detailExploring the Diversity of Fair Trade Social Enterprises
Huybrechts, Benjamin ULg; Defourny, Jacques ULg

E-print/Working paper (2010)

Fair trade (FT) organisations have been quite early taken as examples of social enterprises (SE) and have contributed to the shaping of the SE concept. The goal of this article is to examine more deeply ... [more ▼]

Fair trade (FT) organisations have been quite early taken as examples of social enterprises (SE) and have contributed to the shaping of the SE concept. The goal of this article is to examine more deeply, both at a conceptual and at an empirical level, to what extent FT organisations can be considered as social enterprises. First, we introduce different theoretical frameworks of SE and examine FT in the context of each of these frameworks. In a second step, we use an empirical study on fair trade social enterprises (FTSEs) across four European countries to illustrate and deepen the links between FT and SE, focusing on the goals and the governance structures of FTSEs. It appears that all FTSEs combine in some way economic, social and sometimes also political goals. FTSEs are thus in line with the "hybrid-goal" nature of SEs. FTSEs' governance is also quite specific and often innovative in terms of organisational architecture and stakeholders' involvement. Some FTSEs are closer to the European – participatory – approach of social enterprise, while others are closer to US – individual – approaches. Finally, the governance structures of FTSEs seem to reflect quite well their goal mix. This article provides a more solid basis for the often implicit link between FT and SE. Future researches could use our work to explore specific topics of the SE literature (e.g. stakeholders' involvement) in the context of FT. The FT example could also be used to examine further the shifting boundaries of the SE reality. The originality of this article is to apply the SE concept to a specific field and to show how, within this field, there is at the same time (1) a diversity of organisations, reflecting the diversity of SE approaches and (2) a range of specific features (especially in terms of goal mix and governance) distinguishing SEs from other types of organisations operating in the same field. [less ▲]

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