References of "Hornick, Jean-Luc"
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See detailSelenium in the environment, metabolism and involvement in the body functions
Mehdi, Youcef; Hornick, Jean-Luc ULg; Istasse, Louis ULg et al

in Molecules (2013), 13

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See detailInfluence de facteurs environnementaux influençant la teneur en urée dans le lait de vache en Wallonie et estimation des rejets azotés
Dufrasne, Isabelle ULg; Knapp, Emilie ULg; Istasse, Louis ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2013), 17

En Wallonie, les teneurs en urée du lait de tank sont déterminées dans toutes les fermes lors de chaque livraison à la laiterie par le Comité du lait. Un total de 8 295 337 données récoltées pendant ... [more ▼]

En Wallonie, les teneurs en urée du lait de tank sont déterminées dans toutes les fermes lors de chaque livraison à la laiterie par le Comité du lait. Un total de 8 295 337 données récoltées pendant l’année 2000 et la période 2002-2011 ont été analysées à l’aide d’un modèle linéaire. Les effets fixes de la région agricole ou de l’appartenance à la zone vulnérable, du mois, de l’année, des interactions entre ces paramètres ont été inclus dans le modèle. Les teneurs en matières grasse et protéique ont été utilisées comme covariables. La moyenne des teneurs en urée dans le lait a été de 255 mg.l-1. Les modèles ont permis d’expliquer 38 % et 35 % des variations des teneurs en urée pour la région agricole et pour la zone vulnérable respectivement. À l’intérieur de ces modèles, le mois, la région, l’année et l’interaction mois – année ont été les composantes les plus explicatives. Les teneurs en urée ont été plus élevées pendant la période d’avril à octobre et les plus faibles pendant la période de novembre à mars (287 vs 210 mg.l-1). Cette observation peut être expliquée par le changement de ration. Pendant la période estivale, l’herbe constitue une part variable dans la ration et peut apporter une quantité d’azote excédentaire par rapport aux besoins des animaux. Quatre pour cent des observations ont été supérieures à 350 mg.l-1 pendant la période de novembre à mars et 14 % à 400 mg.l-1 pendant la période d’avril à octobre. Dans les régions agricoles limoneuse et sablo-limoneuse, les teneurs en urée ont été plus faibles qu’en Haute Ardenne et en Ardenne (223 et 220 mg vs 278 et 284 mg.l-1 respectivement). Dans la zone vulnérable, les teneurs en urée ont été plus basses que dans la zone non vulnérable (236 vs 273 mg.l-1). Les rejets annuels azotés calculés à partir de différentes équations ont varié de 82 à 119 kg N par vache selon la région agricole. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence de facteurs environnementaux influençant la teneur en urée dans le lait de vache en Wallonie et estimation des rejets azotés
Dufrasne, Isabelle ULg; Knapp, Emilie ULg; Istasse, Louis ULg et al

in Vandenberghe, Christophe; Colinet, Gilles; Destain, Jean-Pierre (Eds.) et al 2ème Atelier Nitrate-Eau, évaluation du programme de gestion durable de l'azote (2013)

En Wallonie, les teneurs en urée du lait de tank sont déterminées dans toutes les fermes lors de chaque livraison à la laiterie par le comité du lait. Un total de 8295337 données récoltées pendant l'année ... [more ▼]

En Wallonie, les teneurs en urée du lait de tank sont déterminées dans toutes les fermes lors de chaque livraison à la laiterie par le comité du lait. Un total de 8295337 données récoltées pendant l'année 2000 et la période 2002-201 ont été analysées à l'aide d'un modèle linéaire. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of Azawak colostrum administration on plasma protein profile in red kid
Abdoul, H; Marichatou, H; Beckers, Jean-François ULg et al

in Proceedings of the 2nd Scientific Meeting of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (2012, October 19)

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See detailEffect of bovine Azawak colostrum administration on plasma protein profile in red kid.
Abdou, Harouna ULg; Marichatou, Hamani; Beckers, Jean-François ULg et al

Poster (2012, October 11)

This study evaluated the impact of heterologous Azawak colostrum administration on plasma protein profile in red kids from Niger. Forty (40) newborn kids were affected to one of two treatments: control ... [more ▼]

This study evaluated the impact of heterologous Azawak colostrum administration on plasma protein profile in red kids from Niger. Forty (40) newborn kids were affected to one of two treatments: control group (access to water and the mother) and colostrum group (access to the mother, water and additional 50 ml of colostrum Azawak/animal the day of birth, then 25ml/animal/day from the 2nd to 15th day). Blood samples (10ml/animal) were obtained at the age of 10 and 30 days by jugular puncture into EDTA vacutainer tubes. The quantification of total protein was performed by the Biuret method. The agarose gel electrophoresis was used to determine serum levels of albumin, ɑ-globulin, β1-globulin, β2-globulin, γ-globulin and finally the albumin/globulin ratio. In general, the average concentrations of these proteins obtained at both ages reached higher values in colostrum than in control group. At day 10, the colostrum group tended to show (P <0.07) higher levels for ɑ-globulin and showed higher values (P <0.04) for β1-globulin. At day 30, total protein and β2-globulins were higher in colostrum group. The administration of heterologous colostrum in kid seems to have positive effects on some plasma parameters. It would be worth to discriminate the plasma proteins derived from bovine and maternal colostra. [less ▲]

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See detailPrincipes toxiques, toxicité et technologie de détoxification de la graine de Jatropha curcas L. (synthèse bibliographique)
Nesseim, Thierry Daniel Tamsir; Fillet, Marianne ULg; Mergeai, Guy ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2012), 16(4), 531-540

The use of meal from the crushing of Jatropha curcas seed for livestock feed is limited owing to the variable amounts of seed available. This availability depends on the level and variety of toxic and ... [more ▼]

The use of meal from the crushing of Jatropha curcas seed for livestock feed is limited owing to the variable amounts of seed available. This availability depends on the level and variety of toxic and antinutritional compounds contained in the seed at a given time; the most important of these compounds are phorbol esters and curcin. The phorbol esters present in J. curcas seed are euphorbiaceae diterpenes, known for their inflammatory action resulting in irritation and toxicity to insects, fish and mammals. These compounds are sometimes completely degraded in soil and they may be reduced by physical, chemical or biological processes, with a reduction ratio of between 50 and 95%. Curcin is an irritating toxalbumin with lectin activity; it is inactivated by heat treatment at 121 °C for 30 min. Other antinutritional compounds are also present in J. curcas seed, such as saponins and an inhibitor of trypsin activity. This trypsin-inhibiting compound interferes with the digestion process and its reduction is achieved through thermal, chemical or biological treatments. The elimination of, or at least a reduction in the levels of, these molecules represents a rerequisite for using J. curcas meal in the livestock feed sector. [less ▲]

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See detailReproduction et production laitière de bovins sélectionnés ou de races locales au Burundi
Chapaux, Philippe; Knapp, Emilie ULg; Ngiyimbere, S et al

Poster (2012)

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See detailPratiques d’élevage extensif et performances de bovins de race locale et croisés des races laitières exotiques à Beni, RD Congo
Kibwana, Denise Katungu; Makumyaviri, A.M.; Hornick, Jean-Luc ULg

in Revue d'Elévage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux (2012), 65

In order to analyze the relationship between farming practices and animal performance of mixed breed cows, in Beni area, North Kivu Province, DR Congo, a study was conducted from July 2003 to November ... [more ▼]

In order to analyze the relationship between farming practices and animal performance of mixed breed cows, in Beni area, North Kivu Province, DR Congo, a study was conducted from July 2003 to November 2006, on 8676 cattle stemming from 65 farms composed of 4945 cows from local breed and animals crossed with exogenous breeds considered ameliorative. Demographic observations, milk production measurements, investigations and follow-up relating to reproductive parameters have been performed. Data were analyzed by the chi-squared test and by generalized linear models, according to genotype, forage quality and characteristics of the supplement. Results showed, to some extent, an involvement of the farmers in their speculation, but a low turnover rate of the herds. The breeding practices influenced milk production, age at first calving and calving interval. In crossed type , milk production was more than twice that observed in local breed. The complementation as forage and concentrate increased milk production mildly but significantly, when compared to the situation without complement. First calving age and calving interval were highly influenced by genotype, and calving interval also by the complementation and the improved forage. These results highlight the effects of livestock management on milk and reproductive performance of cows actually raised in the region [less ▲]

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See detailÉtude de la cyclicité en relation avec le poids vif et l’état corporel chez les agnelles Ouled Djellal nées en automne dans la région Est de l’Algérie
Lamrani, F; Benyounes, A; Sulon, J et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2012), 156

The objective of the present work was to describe the cyclicity of Ouled Djellal ewes born one year before regarding their live weight and body condition score, during the autumn season. The study has ... [more ▼]

The objective of the present work was to describe the cyclicity of Ouled Djellal ewes born one year before regarding their live weight and body condition score, during the autumn season. The study has been driven in the region of Guelma, East of Algeria, on 104 ewes belonging to two farms. At the beginning of the study, ewes from farms A and B had similar ages but differed in live weight and body condition scores. The concentration of progesterone wasdetermined by radioimmunoassay. The level of spontaneous cyclicity, as well as the plasmatic level of the progesterone, were influenced significantly by both live weight and body condition score (P<0.0001). If the first was in favor of ewes with high body weight and body condition score, the second seemed to be higher in slim cyclic ewes. The body fatness appears to influence positively the age of puberty. [less ▲]

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See detailPhysiologie de la production et composition chimique du colostrum des grands mammifères domestiques: généralités
Abdou, Harouna; Marichatou, H; Beckers, Jean-François ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2012), 156

In most mammals, the ingestion of colostrum is essential to the survival of the newborn. The main objective of this work is to synthesize data from studies on colostrum, especially on the physiology of ... [more ▼]

In most mammals, the ingestion of colostrum is essential to the survival of the newborn. The main objective of this work is to synthesize data from studies on colostrum, especially on the physiology of its production and its chemical composition. The sequence of events leading to the production of colostrum is identical in all species. However, the duration of these phases varies. Colostrum is rich in immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, IgM, IgE and IgD), nutrients (proteins, lipids, lactose, minerals), hormones and growth factors (prolactin, insulin, estrogens, IgF), immune cells (leukocytes cells, epithelial cells), vitamins (carotene, vitamin E) and finally in enzymes such as lactoperoxidase and alkaline phosphatase. Its composition is dependent on many factors that can be divided into intrinsic ones, related to the animal, and extrinsic or environmental ones. Colostrum contains all the elements necessary to not only protection against attacks of pathogens but also to rapid growth of young animals. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of environmental factors on yield and milking number in dairy cows milked by an automatic system located in pasture
Dufrasne, Isabelle ULg; Robaye, Vincent ULg; Knapp, Emilie ULg et al

in Grassland Science (2012), 17

A herd of 45 Holstein dairy cows was milked with an automatic milking system (AMS) located on a permanent pasture. The cows grazed from 22.06.2010 until 20.10.2010 on a rotational system. They were ... [more ▼]

A herd of 45 Holstein dairy cows was milked with an automatic milking system (AMS) located on a permanent pasture. The cows grazed from 22.06.2010 until 20.10.2010 on a rotational system. They were fetched twice a day to the AMS but they could also reach it freely. The sward height was measured at the entry and exit of each paddock. Data about daily milk yield and milking number were analysed according to a GLM including the effect of animal, days in paddock, distance between AMS and paddock, rotation cycle number and complementation. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of dietary selenium enrichment on performance and chemical composition of meat in Belgian Blue Bulls
Mehdi, Youcef ULg; Istasse, Louis ULg; Hornick, Jean-Luc ULg et al

in Proceedings of the 2nd Scientific Meeting of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (Liège – Belgium) (2012)

Selenium (Se) is a major structural component of various selenoproteins which contain a selenocysteine and a Se atom in their active site (except selenoprotein-P). They play an important role in many ... [more ▼]

Selenium (Se) is a major structural component of various selenoproteins which contain a selenocysteine and a Se atom in their active site (except selenoprotein-P). They play an important role in many functions, such as antioxidant defense and the formation of thyroid hormones. [less ▲]

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See detailProduction laitière et nombre de traites de vaches laitières en prairie avec un robot: effets des facteurs environnementaux.
Dufrasne, Isabelle ULg; Robaye, Vincent ULg; Knapp, Emilie ULg et al

Poster (2012)

En Belgique, comme dans d'autres pays européens, le recours à la traite robotisée est en augmentation. La majorité des troupeaux traits avec un robot ne pratique pas le pâturage car les exploitants ... [more ▼]

En Belgique, comme dans d'autres pays européens, le recours à la traite robotisée est en augmentation. La majorité des troupeaux traits avec un robot ne pratique pas le pâturage car les exploitants considèrent que cette méthode n'est pas conciliable avec le pâturage. La fragmentation des parcelles est aussi un frein au pâturage. La mise en place d'un robot dans une structure mobile permet d'utiliser le même robot à l'étable en hiver et dans les prairies distantes de l'exploitation en été. L'objectif de cette étude est de tester l'effet de facteurs environnementaux, l'animal, la complémentation, la distance entre le robot et la parcelle, les numéros du jour dans la parcelle et de cycle de rotation sur la production laitière (PL) et le nombre de traites (NT). [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of water availability on milking frequency and yield of dairy cows milked in pastures by an automatic milking system.
Dufrasne, Isabelle ULg; Robaye, Vincent ULg; Knapp, Emilie ULg et al

Poster (2012)

Nowadays farmers have to manage larger herds but at the same time, want to benefit from a normal social life. The automatic milking system (AMS) can be a solution. Its use can reduce physical labour and ... [more ▼]

Nowadays farmers have to manage larger herds but at the same time, want to benefit from a normal social life. The automatic milking system (AMS) can be a solution. Its use can reduce physical labour and allow flexibility. This technology can result in a reduction in grazing even though grazing is considered as a natural practice of the cows which is appreciated by the consumers. However, the milking frequency is decreased when outdoor grazing rather than an indoor feed systems is combined with automatic milking system (AMS) are combined compared to an indoor system. On pasture, cows tend to visit the AMS by group and enter in close succession. Improved cow traffic would allow increased milking frequency and avoid long waiting before milking. In this aim, effect of water availability in the grazing paddocks on the frequencies of cow visits to was tested. [less ▲]

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See detaileffets de la substitution totale du tourteau d’arachide par la fève de coton glandless sur les performances zootechniques de poulets de chair au sénégal
Diaw, Mamadou; Dieng, Abdoulaye; Mergeai, Guy ULg et al

in Revue d'Elévage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux (2012), 65(1-2), 17-23

The performances of broilers fed a diet in which the groundnut cake was totally replaced by glandless cottonseed kernels (FCG) were compared to those of animals fed an experimental control diet (Tém_E), a ... [more ▼]

The performances of broilers fed a diet in which the groundnut cake was totally replaced by glandless cottonseed kernels (FCG) were compared to those of animals fed an experimental control diet (Tém_E), a commercial diet (Tém_C), and a very simple diet containing only corn, FCG and a mineral and vitamin concentrate. From the start, the Tém_C and FCG animals showed the highest growths. After 43 days of breeding, there were major differences in body weights between the groups, essentially caused by differences in feed intake, so that the best growth rates were not necessarily linked to better feed conversion ratios. Low body weights, low intakes and high mortality levels were observed with the simple diet. [less ▲]

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See detailProfil des vendeurs de viande de chasse et évaluation de la biomasse commercialisée dans les marchés municipaux de Brazzaville, Congo.
Mbete, Roger Albert; Banga-Mboko, Henri; Ngokaka, Christophe et al

in Tropical Conservation Science (2011), 4(2), 203-217

The consumption of wildlife meat is an important source of animal protein for rural and urban population in Congo. A survey on bushmeat trade was undertaken in 21 municipal markets during four weeks, in ... [more ▼]

The consumption of wildlife meat is an important source of animal protein for rural and urban population in Congo. A survey on bushmeat trade was undertaken in 21 municipal markets during four weeks, in Brazzaville. The objective of this study was to define the traders’ profile and to evaluate the quantities of games and meat merchandised on the municipal markets. The study methodology combined two approaches: a quantitative one using a questionnaire as principal tool for collecting data, and a qualitative one associating informal survey methods via individual or group interviews. The results showed that women were the most involved in this trade (52%). Markets trader’s monthly income was estimated at 210,428 (US$420) ± 49,128 (US$98,256) FCFA. On average, the bushmeat traders’ were 39 ± 10 years old and 69% of them attended the two levels of secondary education. During four weeks, 3,711 animal carcasses were recorded on the 21 surveyed markets, representing almost 35,790 kg of biomass. Overall, 35 animal species were identified, including 9 the hunting of which was prohibited. The mammals constituted 93.8% of total number of hunted animals, with three dominant orders as the artiodactyls (49.2%), the rodents (22.6%) and the primates (17.7%), of which the Cephalophus, the Potamochoerus, the Atherurus and the Cercopithecus were the most represented. It was also noticed that trapping, an activity which leads to great losses, becomes very important, followed by be helpful alternatives to meet Congolese demand for bushmeat. For a sustainable management of the Congo’s faunic resources, this study suggests the introduction gun-hunting. The Congo-Ocean Railway and the National Road n°2 were used regularly in the transportation of game, to a 72% level. The district of Niari, Lekoumou, Sangha and Pool were the main sources of supply. At the present time, the meat quantities offered in Brazzaville markets don’t seem to be reduced because hunting areas extend always further, often to the detriment of protected areas. Despite the fact that such business squarely growths and shows evidence of overexploitation, activities promoting game farming and breeding of domestic species, in Brazzaville suburbs, are needed to mitigate the impact of bushmeat trade. [less ▲]

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See detailLes co-produits de la graine de coton en alimentation du poulet de chair
Diaw, Mahamadou Tandiang; Dieng, Abdoulaye; Mergeai, Guy ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2011), 155

Cottonseed by-products arevery high in nutrients and theirchemical composition varieshighly according to the varietiesof cotton and the various treatmentsaiming at extracting oil.Their use in animal ... [more ▼]

Cottonseed by-products arevery high in nutrients and theirchemical composition varieshighly according to the varietiesof cotton and the various treatmentsaiming at extracting oil.Their use in animal nutrition, andparticularly in broilers, is especiallylimited by the free gossypolwhich can damage varioustissues and also decreases theperformances of growth and dietefficiency. The incorporation ofcottonseed meal in broilers dietmay be increased following chemicalbinding of free gossypol,but these methods have drawbacks.Ferrous sulfate denaturesfeed and the use of lysine to bindgossypol is limited by the expensivenessof this product while thebiological fermentation is verycomplex and inapplicable, as tonow, on a large way. Glandlessvarieties could be incorporatedat a very high level in diets andtherefore could contribute todecrease the protein feed requirements.Unfortunately, agronomicconstraints associated to thesecrops have limited the research inthis way. The production of varietiesin which gossypol secretionwould be inhibited before theseed germination should alleviatethe limitations associated to cottonby-products. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of environmental factors on yield and milking number in dairy cows milked by an automatic system located in pasture
Dufrasne, Isabelle ULg; Robaye, Vincent ULg; Knapp, Emilie ULg et al

Poster (2011)

Nowadays, farmers have to manage larger herds but want, at the same time, benefit from a normal social life. The milking robot can bring solutions. Its use can reduce physical labour and allow flexibility ... [more ▼]

Nowadays, farmers have to manage larger herds but want, at the same time, benefit from a normal social life. The milking robot can bring solutions. Its use can reduce physical labour and allow flexibility. This technology results in a reduction in grazing even through grazing appears as a natural practice which is appreciated by the consumers. This project aims to develop strategies to use milking robots in pasture in order to benefit from advantages regarding feeding costs as well as animal welfare and health. It aims to study the effects of grass height, animal, days in milk, rotation cycle number and distance from grazed paddocks on daily milk yield and milking number of grazed cows. [less ▲]

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See detailGrowth performances, carcass and organs characteristics and economics results of growing indigenous senegal chickens fed diets containing various levels of leuceana leucocephala (Lam.) leaves meal (2011)
Ayssiwede, Simplice; Chrysostome, C.A.A.M.; Zanmenou, J.C. et al

in International Journal of Poultry Sciences (2011), 10(9), 1132-1145

The aim of this study carried out from September to December 2010 was to evaluate the effects of Leuceana leucocephala leaves meal inclusion in the diets on growth performances, carcass and organs ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study carried out from September to December 2010 was to evaluate the effects of Leuceana leucocephala leaves meal inclusion in the diets on growth performances, carcass and organs characteristics and economics results of growing indigenous Senegal chickens. One hundred and four (104) indigenous Senegal chicks of 4 weeks old were randomly allocated into four groups of 26 chicks each with similar body weight. Each group subdivided in two repetitions of 13 birds, corresponded to each of the four (4) dietary treatments LL0, LL7, LL14 and LL21 containing respectively 0, 7, 14 and 21% of Leuceana leaves meal in substitution of groundnut cake meal. During the experiment (5-17th week old), zootechnical parameters of birds and economical data were recorded and analyzed per dietary treatment. At the end of the 13 weeks trial, the final Live Body Weights (LBW) were 864 g, 1166.48 g, 905 g and 887.16 g/bird, the Average Daily Weight Gain (ADWG) were 7.77 g, 10.88 g, 8.15 g and 8.10 g/day, the Daily Feed Intake (DFI) of 39.86 g, 51 g, 40.39 g and 44.75 g/bird and the Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) of 7.04, 5.54, 6.27 and 6.80 respectively for birds fed LL0, LL7, LL14 and LL21 diets. The Leuceana leaves meal inclusion in the diets up to 21% had not caused any adverse effect on LBW, ADWG, DFI, FCR, mortality, carcass and organs characteristics in birds compared to their controls. Apart from the dark yellowing of abdominal fat of carcasses from birds fed LL21 diet, significantly better growth performances, feed costs and economic margins were recorded in birds fed LL7 and LL14 diets. Thus, these two dietary treatments were the only most economically profitable (respectively 214 and 48 FCFA/kg carcass of additional profit) compared to the control. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of Moringa oleifera (Lam.) leaves meal incorporation in diets on growth performances, carcass characteristics and economics results of growing indigenous senegal chicken
Ayssiwede, Simplice; Dieng, Abdoulaye; Bello, H et al

in Pakistan Journal of Nutrition (2011), 10(12), 1132-1145

The purpose of this study carried out from July to October 2010 was to assess the effects of Moringa oleifera leaves meal inclusion in diets on growth performances, carcass and organs characteristics and ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this study carried out from July to October 2010 was to assess the effects of Moringa oleifera leaves meal inclusion in diets on growth performances, carcass and organs characteristics and economics results of growing indigenous Senegal chickens. Ninety six (96) indigenous Senegal chicks of 5 weeks old were randomly allocated into four groups of 24 chicks each with similar body weight. Each group subdivided in two repetitions of 12 birds, corresponded to each of the four (4) dietary treatments MO0, MO8, MO16 and MO24 containing respectively 0, 8, 16 and 24% of Moringa leaves meal in substitution of groundnut cake meal. During the experiment (6-17th week old), zootechnical parameters of birds and economical data were recorded and analyzed per dietary treatment. At the end of the 12 weeks trial, the final Live Body Weights (LBW) were 721.60 g, 911.70 g, 812.85 g and 720.05 g/bird, the average daily weight gain (ADWG) were 6.49 g, 8.77 g, 7.61 g and 6.50 g/day, the Daily Feed Intake (DFI) of 39.10 g, 39.76 g, 36.28 g and 34.24 g/bird and the Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) of 7.58, 5.75, 6.11 et 7.24 respectively for birds fed MO0, MO8, MO16 and MO24 diets. The Moringa leaves meal inclusion in the diets up to 24% had not caused any adverse impact on LBW, ADWG, FCR, mortality, carcass and organs characteristics in birds compared to their controls. Except the significantly decrease of DFI obtained in birds of MO16 and MO24 treatments, significantly better growth performances, feed costs and economic margins were recorded in birds fed MO8 and MO16 diets. Thus these two dietary treatments were the only most economically profitable (respectively 357 and 206 FCFA/kg carcass of additional profit) compared to the control. [less ▲]

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