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See detailA Semiochemical Slow-release Formulation in a Biological Control Approach to Attract Hoverflies
Heuskin, Stéphanie ULg; Lorge, Stéphanie ULg; Leroy, Pascal ULg et al

in Journal of Environment and Ecology (2012), 3(1), 72-85

E-β-Farnesene, the alarm pheromone of many aphid species, and E-β-caryophyllene are considered as two sesquiterpenes attractive for aphid predators, among which Syrphidae species. Both compounds were ... [more ▼]

E-β-Farnesene, the alarm pheromone of many aphid species, and E-β-caryophyllene are considered as two sesquiterpenes attractive for aphid predators, among which Syrphidae species. Both compounds were formulated in alginate gel beads as slow-release devices in a biological control approach against aphids. Semiochemical diffusion from beads was studied in the laboratory according to abiotic parameters. Efficiency of formulations as hoverfly attractant was demonstrated in field experiments from June to August 2009. The diffusion of semiochemicals from alginate bead formulations was principally limited by high values (>85%) of relative humidity in the air. Temperature also impacts the release of volatile compounds. In field experiments, these two abiotic factors were supposed to highly condition the trapping of hoverflies. These field trappings demonstrated the efficiency of both semiochemical formulations compared to control (formulation without semiochemical) to catch females of Syrphidae during three months. [less ▲]

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See detailUtilisation d'une composition comme attractant d'auxiliaires
Leroy, Pascal; Sabri, Ahmed; Heuskin, Stéphanie ULg et al

Patent (2012)

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See detailA new HPLC method to quantify alliin, the major sulfur compound in garlic
DETHIER, Bérénice ULg; Laloux, Morgan ULg; Hanon, Emilien et al

Poster (2012, February 10)

Garlic is recognized for centuries for its health benefits, mostly linked to its sulfur- components. Among the products extracted from the cloves, alliin retained our attention. Alliin was synthesized ... [more ▼]

Garlic is recognized for centuries for its health benefits, mostly linked to its sulfur- components. Among the products extracted from the cloves, alliin retained our attention. Alliin was synthesized. This process leads to two stereoisomers. Their HPLC separation was the aim of this work. The method described in the literature (amino column, detection at 210 nm) showed a resolution of 1,1 between the isomers. A second method was developed: the stationary phase was porous graphitic carbon and a water-ACN gradient was used for the elution. It provided a resolution of 3,2, was shorter and underwent the validation process. The method leads to satisfying results. The separation is excellent, and the validation criteria are fulfilled. This may be valuable for future research on garlic. [less ▲]

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See detailDéveloppements analytiques appliqués à une thématique d'écologie chimique
Heuskin, Stéphanie ULg

Scientific conference (2012, February)

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See detailMicroorganisms from aphid honeydew attract natural enemies and tending ants
Verheggen, François ULg; Leroy, Pascal; Fischer, Christophe ULg et al

Conference (2012, February)

Aphids are some of the most serious pests of cultivated crops worldwide, causing major yield and economic losses. Previous works have demonstrated ants and natural enemies (including ladybeetles and ... [more ▼]

Aphids are some of the most serious pests of cultivated crops worldwide, causing major yield and economic losses. Previous works have demonstrated ants and natural enemies (including ladybeetles and hoverflies) to be able to use aphid volatile chemicals to locate aphid colonies. Here, we report the first isolation of a bacterium from the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum honeydew, Staphylococcus sciuri, which produces kairomones used by the aphidophagous hoverfly Episyrphus balteatus and the Asian Ladybeetle Harmonia axyridis during their search for prey colonies. Some specific semiochemicals produced by S. sciuri were identified as attractants and ovipositional stimulants. Similarly, we have shown scouts of the aphid tending ant species, Lasius niger, to orientate their foraging behaviour toward an Aphis fabae infested plant and we have demonstrated that the odours released by this aphid honeydew were attractive for ant scouts. Again, bacteria were involved in the production of these honeydew semiochemicals. Interestingly, ant scouts were also able to discriminate honeydew odour from A. fabae (usually attended by L. niger) and A. pisum (unattendedby L. niger). Comparison of the volatile and bacteria composition of both aphid species honeydew were attended. [less ▲]

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See detailFast-GC quantifacation of harmonine, the major defense alkaloid of the multicolored Asian ladybird Harmonia axyridis (Pallas)
Fischer, Christophe ULg; Laurent, Pascal ULg; Heuskin, Stéphanie ULg et al

in American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (2012), 3

These last few years the multicolored Asian ladybird, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), previously introduced in Europe and North America as a biological control agent, has swiftly spread out on those ... [more ▼]

These last few years the multicolored Asian ladybird, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), previously introduced in Europe and North America as a biological control agent, has swiftly spread out on those territories and turns out to be a pest in several ways. In order to improve understanding of several key points of the biology of this ladybird, a novel fast-GC method of quantification of harmonine, the main defense alkaloid of H. axyridis, has been designed and validated using the accuracy profile concept for concentrations ranging from 13 to 264 µg/individual. This method allows quantifying harmonine in a single insect with a maximal error risk of 20%. For ladybirds collected in spring, mean harmonine concentration observed was 106.6 µg/individual with a very high standard deviation of 80.2 µg/individual, which can easily be explained by the strong asymmetry of the results distribution. Males and females seem equally chemically protected as the harmonine concentration did not significantly differ between sexes. This method is currently used to improve our comprehension of several key points of H. axyridis biology including aggregation behavior and aposematism. [less ▲]

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See detailTesting semiochemicals from aphid, plant and conspecific: attraction of Harmonia axyridis
Leroy, Pascal ULg; Schillings, Thomas ULg; Farmakidis, Julien ULg et al

in Insect Science (2012), 19

Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is an invasive specie affecting the dynamics and composition of several guilds. Nowadays, no biological control method is available to reduce the ... [more ▼]

Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is an invasive specie affecting the dynamics and composition of several guilds. Nowadays, no biological control method is available to reduce the populations of this harmful coccinellid. Attractants and semiochemicals seem to be the best alternative but only few studies have tested the impact of semiochemicals on this Asian lady beetle. In this work, through wind-tunnel experiments, semiochemicals from aphids [Z,E-nepetalactone, (E)-β-farnesene, α-pinene and β-pinene], from coccinellids [(-)-β-caryophyllene] and from the nettle Urtica dioica L. were envisaged as potential attractants. The nettle volatile compounds [(Z)-3-hexenol and (E)-2-hexenal] were extracted using a Clevenger Apparatus® and identified by headspace-GC-MS. The main components of the aphid alarm pheromone as well as a component of the aphid sexual pheromone strongly attracted both sexes of the Asian lady beetle while (-)-β-caryophyllene only attracted few individuals and had no impact on the males. The nettle extract as well as the (Z)-3-hexenol oriented both males and females to the odour source. The (E)-2-hexenal was showed to have no effect on females even if this green leaf volatile attracted males. This study highlighted that some semiochemicals from aphids and from nettle extracts orientated the harlequin ladybird H. axyridis. These volatile compounds could certainly help for an efficient biological control approach against this invasive specie. [less ▲]

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See detailAcaricidal activities of Santolina africana and Hertia cheirifolia essential oils against the two-spotted spidermite (Tetranychus urticae)
Attia, Sabrine; Grissa, K.L.; Mailleux, A-C et al

in Pest Management Science (2012)

BACKGROUND: Many plant essential oils show a broad spectrum of activity against pests. This study investigated the effects of two essential oils on Tetranychus urticae, one of the most serious pests in ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Many plant essential oils show a broad spectrum of activity against pests. This study investigated the effects of two essential oils on Tetranychus urticae, one of the most serious pests in the world. RESULTS: The chemical composition of the two oils was characterised by GC-MS. The most abundant component in the Santolina africana (Jord. & Fourr) oil was terpinen-4-ol (54.96%), while thymol (61%) was prevalent in the Hertia cheirifolia (L.) oil. Mortality and fecundity were measured upon treatment with oil concentrations ranging from 0.07 to 6.75 mg L-1 with a Potter spray tower.Mite mortality increased with oil concentration, with LC50 values of 2.35 mg L-1 for S. africana and 3.43mg L-1 for H. cheirifolia respectively. For both oils, a reduction in fecundity was observed at concentrations of 0.07, 0.09 and 0.29mg L-1. Artificial blends of constituents of oils were also prepared and tested with individual constituents missing from the mixture. The results showed that the presence of all constituents was necessary to equal the toxicity of the two natural oils. CONCLUSION: S. africana and H. cheirifolia oils can provide valuable acaricide activitywith significantly lower LC50 values. Thus, these oils cause important mortality and reduce the number of eggs laid by females. [less ▲]

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See detailFast-GC quantification of harmonine, the major defense alkaloid of the multicolored asian ladybird Harmonia axyridis (Pallas)
Fischer, Christophe ULg; Laurent, P; Heuskin, Stéphanie ULg et al

in American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (2012), 3

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See detailE-b-farnesene synergizes the influence of an insecticide to improve control of cabbage aphids in China
Cui, L.L; Dong, J.; Francis, Frédéric ULg et al

in Crop Protection (2012)

Extensive use of pesticides to control insect pests can have negative effects on the environment, natural enemies and food safety. The aphid alarm pheromone, E-b-farnesene (Ebf), appears to hold strong ... [more ▼]

Extensive use of pesticides to control insect pests can have negative effects on the environment, natural enemies and food safety. The aphid alarm pheromone, E-b-farnesene (Ebf), appears to hold strong potential for controlling a wide variety of aphid pests. To understand the control potential of Ebf, we used field experiments in a factorial design to test its influence and that of the insecticide imidacloprid on populations of aphids Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) on Chinese cabbage, Brassica rapa pekinensis (Brassicales: Brassicaceae). Our results showed imidacloprid treatment alone can significantly decrease aphid populations, and that combining insecticide with Ebf further reduced numbers of apterous aphids at distances of 5 m from pheromone emitters in two years of our experiments. Our results demonstrate that imidacloprid can be effective in reducing the abundance of aphids in Chinese cabbage fields, but the degree of control can be even stronger in the presence of Ebf. [less ▲]

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See detailThe functional significance of E-b-Farnesene: Does it influence the populations of aphid natural enemies in the fields?
Cui, L-L; Francis, Frédéric ULg; Heuskin, Stéphanie ULg et al

in Biological Control (2012)

Aphids cause much damage to Chinese cabbage in northern China. Over reliance on pesticides have large environmental and human health costs that compel researchers to seek alternative management tactics ... [more ▼]

Aphids cause much damage to Chinese cabbage in northern China. Over reliance on pesticides have large environmental and human health costs that compel researchers to seek alternative management tactics for aphid control. The component of aphid alarm pheromone, E-b-Farnesene (EbF), extracted from Matricaria chamomilla L., which attracts natural enemies in the laboratory, may have significant implications for the design of cabbage aphid control strategies. The purpose of this paper is to understand the effects of EbF on natural enemies to cabbage aphid control in Chinese cabbage fields. Ladybeetles on Chinese cabbage leaves in EbF released plots and Aphidiidae in EbF released yellow traps were significantly higher than those of in controls. No significant differences were detected in the interactions of different treatments and the two years for all natural enemies. More important, lower aphid densities were found in EbF released plots. Our results suggested that the EbF extracted from M. chamomilla L. could attract natural enemies to reduce cabbage aphids in the Chinese cabbage fields. [less ▲]

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See detailLes larves de taupins sont attirées par différentes sources de volatils racinaires
Barsics, Fanny ULg; Latine, Rémi ULg; Haubruge, Eric ULg et al

Poster (2011, October 13)

Grâce à des tests olfactométriques, nous voulons mettre en évidence la capacité de certains COVs d’origine racinaire à attirer ou repousser les larves de taupins. Nous montrons ici les premiers résultats ... [more ▼]

Grâce à des tests olfactométriques, nous voulons mettre en évidence la capacité de certains COVs d’origine racinaire à attirer ou repousser les larves de taupins. Nous montrons ici les premiers résultats obtenus grâce à des olfactomètres tubulaires, soit l’attraction par des COVs issus de racines hachées et l’attraction par le 2-pentylfuran, volatil contenu dans les racines d’orge. [less ▲]

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See detailChemical composition and acaricidal properties of Devera scoparia essential oil (Araliales: Apiaceae) and blends of its major constituents against Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae)
Attia, Sabrine; Grissa, K. L.; Lognay, Georges ULg et al

in Journal of Economic Entomology (2011), 104(4), 1220-1228

The essential oil of Deverra scoparia Coss. & Durieu was investigated for its acaricidal activity against the worldwide pest twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae). The ... [more ▼]

The essential oil of Deverra scoparia Coss. & Durieu was investigated for its acaricidal activity against the worldwide pest twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae). The essential oil was analyzed by fast gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry. The activities of its individual and blended constituents were determined. Our study showed that female mortality increased with increasing D. scoparia oil concentrations, with LD50 and LD90 values at 1.79 and 3.2 mg liter 1, respectively. A reduction in fecundity had already been observed for concentrations of 0.064, 0.08, and 0.26 mg liter 1 D. scoparia essential oil. Ten major components, comprising 98.52% of the total weight, were identiÞed; -pinene was the most abundant constituent (31.95%) followed by sabinene (17.24%) and 3-carene (16.85%). The 10 major constituents of D. scoparia oil were individually tested against T. urticae females. The most potent toxicity was found with -pinene, 3-carene, and terpinen-4-ol. The presence of all constituents together in the artiÞcial mixture caused a signiÞcant decrease in the number of eggs laid by females, at 0.26mgliter 1 (11 eggs), compared with the control (50 eggs). The toxicity of blends of selected constituents indicated that the presence of all constituents was necessary to reproduce the toxicity level of the natural oil. [less ▲]

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See detailThe use of semiochemical slow-release devices in integrated pest management strategies
Heuskin, Stéphanie ULg; Verheggen, François ULg; Haubruge, Eric ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2011), 15(3), 459-470

The development of integrated pest management (IPM) strategies is increasing since many problems appeared with the use of synthetic pesticides. Semiochemicals – informative molecules used in insect-insect ... [more ▼]

The development of integrated pest management (IPM) strategies is increasing since many problems appeared with the use of synthetic pesticides. Semiochemicals – informative molecules used in insect-insect or plant-insect interaction – are more and more considered within IPM strategies as alternative or complementary approach to insecticide treatments. Indeed, these species-specific compounds do not present any related adversely affectation of beneficial organisms and do not generate any risk of pest insect resistance as observed with insecticides. Because of their complex biological activity, their dispersion in the environment to be protected or monitored needs the elaboration of slow-release devices ensuring a controlled release of the biologically active volatile compounds. These sensitive molecules also need to be protected from degradation by UV light and oxygen. Many studies were conducted on estimation of release-rate from commercialized or experimental slow-release devices. The influence of climatic parameters and dispenser type were estimated by previous authors in order to provide indications about the on-field longevity of lures. The present review outlines a list of slow-release studies conducted by many authors followed by a critical analysis of these studies. [less ▲]

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See detailMicroorganisms from aphid honeydew attract natural enemies and tending ants
Verheggen, François ULg; Leroy, Pascal; Fischer, Christophe ULg et al

Conference (2011, August)

Aphids are some of the most serious pests of cultivated crops worldwide, causing major yield and economic losses. Previous works have demonstrated ants and natural enemies (including ladybeetles and ... [more ▼]

Aphids are some of the most serious pests of cultivated crops worldwide, causing major yield and economic losses. Previous works have demonstrated ants and natural enemies (including ladybeetles and hoverflies) to be able to use aphid volatile chemicals to locate aphid colonies. Here, we report the first isolation of a bacterium from the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum honeydew, Staphylococcus sciuri, which produces kairomones used by the aphidophagous hoverfly Episyrphus balteatus and the Asian Ladybeetle Harmonia axyridis during their search for prey colonies. Some specific semiochemicals produced by S. sciuri were identified as attractants and ovipositional stimulants. Similarly, we have shown scouts of the aphid tending ant species, Lasius niger, to orientate their foraging behaviour toward an Aphis fabae infested plant and we have demonstrated that the odours released by this aphid honeydew were attractive for ant scouts. Again, bacteria were involved in the production of these honeydew semiochemicals. Interestingly, ant scouts were also able to discriminate honeydew odour from A. fabae (usually attended by L. niger) and A. pisum (unattendedby L. niger). Comparison of the volatile and bacteria composition of both aphid species honeydew were attended. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimisation of a semiochemical slow-release alginate formulation attractive towards Aphidius ervi Haliday parasitoids
Heuskin, Stéphanie ULg; Lorge, Stéphanie; Godin, Bruno et al

in Pest Management Science (2011)

BACKGROUND: Optimisation of alginate formulations is described in order to develop semiochemical (E-β-farnesene and E-β-caryophyllene) slow-release devices in biological control approaches by attracting ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Optimisation of alginate formulations is described in order to develop semiochemical (E-β-farnesene and E-β-caryophyllene) slow-release devices in biological control approaches by attracting predators and parasitoids of aphids. Various formulation criteria were optimised with respect to semiochemical encapsulation capacity. Moreover, the optimised formulation was characterised by texturometry and confocal microscopy. The slow-release rates of semiochemicals were calculated in laboratory controlled conditions. The attractiveness of semiochemical formulations towards Aphidius ervi was demonstrated by olfactometry. RESULTS: Two major parameters were highlighted in encapsulation optimisation: the type of alginate (Sigma L) and the type of crosslinker ion (Ca2+). Other formulation parameters were optimised: ionic strength (0.5M), Ca2+ (0.2 M) and alginate (1.5%) concentrations and the maturation time of beads in CaCl2 solution (48 h). After physical characterisation of beads, semiochemical slow-release measurements showed that alginate formulations were efficient sesquiterpene releasers, with 503 μg of E-β-farnesene and 1791 μg of E-β-caryophyllene totally released in 35 days. The efficiency of semiochemical alginate beads as attractants for female parasitoids was demonstrated, with high percentages of attraction for semiochemical odours (88 and 90% for E-β-farnesene and E-β-caryophyllene respectively) and significant statistical results. CONCLUSION: Semiochemical alginate beads can be considered as efficient slow-release systems in biological control. These formulations could be very useful to attract aphid parasitoids on crop fields. [less ▲]

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See detailMicroorganisms from Aphid Honeydew Attract and Enhance the Efficacy of Natural Enemies
Leroy, Pascal ULg; Sabri, Ahmed ULg; Heuskin, Stéphanie ULg et al

in Nature Communications (2011), 2

Aphids are one of the most serious pests of crops worldwide, causing major yield and economic losses. To control aphids, natural enemies could be an option but their efficacy is sometimes limited by their ... [more ▼]

Aphids are one of the most serious pests of crops worldwide, causing major yield and economic losses. To control aphids, natural enemies could be an option but their efficacy is sometimes limited by their dispersal in natural environment. Here we report the first isolation of a bacterium from the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum honeydew, Staphylococcus sciuri, which acts as a kairomone enhancing the efficiency of aphid natural enemies. Our findings represent the first case of a host-associated bacterium driving prey location and ovipositional preference for the natural enemy. We show that this bacterium has a key role in tritrophic interactions because it is the direct source of volatiles used to locate prey. Some specific semiochemicals produced by S. sciuri were also identified as significant attractants and ovipositional stimulants. The use of this host-associated bacterium could certainly provide a novel approach to control aphids in field and greenhouse systems. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of natural semiochemical slow-release formulations as biological control devices
Heuskin, Stéphanie ULg; Lorge, Stéphanie ULg; Leroy, Pascal ULg et al

in Ioannou, Efstathia; Roussis, Vassilios (Eds.) Trends in natural products research : a PSE young scientists' meeting, June 12-15, 2011, Kolymvari - Crete. Book of abstracts (2011, June 12)

Semiochemicals – informative molecules used in insect-insect or plant-insect interactions – have been widely considered within various integrated pest management (IPM) strategies. In the present work, two ... [more ▼]

Semiochemicals – informative molecules used in insect-insect or plant-insect interactions – have been widely considered within various integrated pest management (IPM) strategies. In the present work, two sesquiterpenoids, E-β-farnesene and E-β-caryophyllene, were formulated for their properties as aphid enemy attractants. E-β-farnesene, the alarm pheromone of many aphid species, was also identified as a kairomone by attracting aphid predators and parasitoids. E-β-caryophyllene was identified as a potential component of the aggregation pheromone of the Asian ladybird, Harmonia axyridis Pallas, another aphid predator. The two products were purified from essential oils of Matricaria chamomilla L. (Asteraceae) and Nepeta cataria L. (Lamiaceae), respectively. Natural and biodegradable formulations were then investigated in order to deliver these molecules on crop fields for a long period of time as biological control devices. Due to their sensitivity to oxidation, both sesquiterpenes needed to be protected from oxygen degradation. For this purpose, alginate – hydrophilic matrix with low oxygen permeability – was used as polymer for the formulations: the main objective was to deliver semiochemicals in the air in a controlled way. Consequently, a careful selection of alginates was realised. Formulated beads showed different structural and encapsulation properties depending on various formulation factors. Alginate formulations were characterised by texturometry and by confocal microscopy in order to observe the distribution of semiochemicals in alginate network. The last step of alginate bead characterisation consisted in studying release rate of semiochemicals in laboratory-controlled conditions by optimised volatile collection system and validated fast GC analytical procedures Finally, the efficiency of formulations as aphid predator (Syrphidae species) and parasitoid (Aphidius ervi) attractants was demonstrated by field trapping and olfactometry experiments. [less ▲]

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See detailA semiochemical enhancing the attractiveness of aphidophagous predators in potato crops
Leroy, Pascal ULg; Vandereycken, Axel ULg; Sabri, Ahmed ULg et al

Poster (2011, May 24)

Aphids are major pests of crops worldwide and the use of pesticides has led to resistant populations. The integration of aphid natural enemies in integrated management programs could be an option, but ... [more ▼]

Aphids are major pests of crops worldwide and the use of pesticides has led to resistant populations. The integration of aphid natural enemies in integrated management programs could be an option, but their efficacy is often limited by their quick dispersal from the ecosystem where they are released. Here, using wind-tunnel and field experiments, we have demonstrated that 3-Methyl-2-butenal acts as an efficient attractant and ovipositional stimulant for the hoverfly Episyrphus balteatus (De Geer) (Diptera: Syrphidae), enhancing its efficiency as biological control agent in crop fields. Wind-tunnel assays allowed determining that a minimal dose of 250 µg of 3-Methyl-2-butenal is required to attract the hoverflies over a distance of 2.5 m while a minimal dose of 500 µg is needed to induce the oviposition. Both attraction and oviposition increased proportionally to the tested doses showing that hoverflies are able to regulate their oviposition according to the chemical stimuli from their environment. In field experiments, both Syrphidae and Chrysopidae were strongly attracted by the 3-Methyl-2-butenal at a dose of 10 mg which also induces the oviposition of these two aphid predators in potato crops. This study also highlighted that hoverflies are the most abundant aphid predators found in natural environment. Against aphids, the use of this semiochemical could certainly enhance the efficiency of natural enemies. Furthermore, the use of the chemical cue 3-Methyl-2-butenal could provide a novel approach to control aphids in field and greenhouse systems. [less ▲]

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