References of "Henrist, Catherine"
     in
Bookmark and Share    
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailCharacterization of surface and porous properties of synthetic hybrid lamellar silica
Toussaint, Gilles ULg; Rodriguez, Miguel Angel; Cloots, Rudi ULg et al

in Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids (2011), 357

Synthetic lamellar silica and hybrid lamellar silicas have been prepared by liquid crystal templating, template extraction and silanization. The samples have been characterized by thermogravimetric ... [more ▼]

Synthetic lamellar silica and hybrid lamellar silicas have been prepared by liquid crystal templating, template extraction and silanization. The samples have been characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), carbon analysis, spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and nitrogen adsorption. The XRD analyses have shown that the lamellar periodic stacking is preserved for all samples. The quantity and type of organic molecules at the silica surface have been evaluated by carbon analysis, TGA and spectroscopy. The covalent grafting of the solvent used for extraction of the initial surfactant has been highlighted by these analyses. The nitrogen adsorption analyses have revealed three categories of pores and two types of samples. The initial lamellar silica exhibits a very low specific surface area and plate-like type of pores. The second type of samples is made up of the hybrid samples and the initial substrate from whom the surfactant has been extracted. These samples show a significantly higher specific surface area with interlamellar spaces corresponding to narrow-slit like mesopores around 4 nm. The nitrogen adsorption data analysis has highlighted the presence of micropores within the silica sheets. The difference of the specific surface is due to pore blocking by the surfactant impeding the access to nitrogen into interlamellar spaces and by the silanes covering the pores once the surface modified. The presence of micro and mesopores combined to a high BET specific surface of 612 m²/g makes these lamellar silicas interesting materials for catalysis applications. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 38 (10 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEffect of non-ionic surfactant and acidity on chitosan nanofibers with different molecular weights
Ziani, Khalid; Henrist, Catherine ULg; Jerome, Christine et al

in Carbohydrate Polymers (2011), 83(2), 470-476

Detailed reference viewed: 58 (9 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailTiO2 multilayer thick films (up to 4 μm) with ordered mesoporosity: Influence of template on the film mesostructure and use as high efficiency photoelectrode in DSSCs
Dewalque, Jennifer ULg; Cloots, Rudi ULg; Mathis, François ULg et al

in Journal of Materials Chemistry (2011), 21(20), 7356-7363

Mesoporous templated anatase thin films are very promising materials to act as photoelectrode in dye-sensitized solar cell. Templated-assisted dip-coating techniques are used to obtain thin films with ... [more ▼]

Mesoporous templated anatase thin films are very promising materials to act as photoelectrode in dye-sensitized solar cell. Templated-assisted dip-coating techniques are used to obtain thin films with ordered porosity. However, monolayer films are very thin and suffer from a low quantity of active material, leading to poor photovoltaic performances. In this paper, a dip-coating-based multilayer deposition technique is reported. First, we have studied the influence of the template on the film organization and porosity in terms of long-range order, percentage of porosity, pore size and pores connectivity. Different techniques such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atmospheric poroellipsometry (AEP) and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-vis.) have been used to describe the microstructural features of the films with a thickness of 1 µm. The film exhibiting the highest dye loading was selected and its thickness gradually increased up to 4 µm. Finally, the photovoltaic performances of the thick films (1 to 4 µm) have been evaluated in combination with the N-719 dye and show excellent efficiency (6.1%) when compared to values reported in the literature. Such mesostructured films are compared in terms of photovoltaic performance with TiO2 nanoparticles films, generally used in DSSC. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 100 (31 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailExperimental Design applied to spin coating of 2D colloidal crystal masks : a relevant method?
Colson, Pierre ULg; Cloots, Rudi ULg; Henrist, Catherine ULg

in Langmuir (2011), 27(21), 12800-12806

Monolayers of colloidal spheres are used as masks in nanosphere lithography (NSL) for the selective deposition of nanostructured layers. Several methods exist for the formation of the self-organized ... [more ▼]

Monolayers of colloidal spheres are used as masks in nanosphere lithography (NSL) for the selective deposition of nanostructured layers. Several methods exist for the formation of the self-organized particles monolayers, among which spin coating appears to be very promising. However, a spin coating process is defined by several parameters like several ramps, rotation speeds and durations. All parameters influence the spreading and drying of the droplet containing the particles. Moreover, scientists are confronted to the formation of numerous defects in spin coated layers, limiting well-ordered areas to a few µm2. So far, empiricism mainly ruled the world of nanoparticles self-organization by spin coating and much of the literature is experimentally based. Therefore, the development of experimental protocols to control the ordering of particles is a major goal for further progress in NSL. We applied experimental design to spin coating, to evaluate the efficiency of this method to extract and model the relationships between the experimental parameters and the degree of ordering in the particles monolayers. A set of experiments was generated by the MODDE software and applied to the spin coating of latex suspension (diam. 490 nm). We calculated the ordering by a homemade image analysis tool. The results of Partial Least Squares (PLS) modeling show that the proposed mathematical model only fits data from strictly monolayers but is not predictive for new sets of parameters. We submitted the data to Principal Component Analysis (PCA) that was able to explain 91% of the results when based on strictly monolayers samples. PCA shows that the ordering was positively correlated to the ramp time and negatively correlated to the first rotation speed. We obtain large defect-free domains with the best set of parameters tested in this study. This protocol leads to areas of 200 µm2, which has never been reported so far. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 67 (20 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailNbVO5 Mesoporous Thin Films by Evaporation Induced Micelles Packing: Pore Size Dependence of the Mechanical Stability upon Thermal Treatment and Li Insertion/Extraction
Krins, Natacha ULg; Bass, John D; Grosso, David et al

in Chemistry Of Materials (2011), 23(18), 4124-4131

Mesoporous thin films (MTFs) appear as an interesting architecture for positive electrodes in Li-ion energy storage systems because they offer high specific area and interconnected porosity presenting ... [more ▼]

Mesoporous thin films (MTFs) appear as an interesting architecture for positive electrodes in Li-ion energy storage systems because they offer high specific area and interconnected porosity presenting homogeneous pore size and wall thickness. However, it must be ascertained that the mesostructure survives template removal or/and crystallization and is retained on electrochemical cycling. In order to investigate the potentialities and limits of the soft-templating approach in the case of complex transition metal oxide networks, we deliberately selected a "difficult" compound: NbVO5 was chosen because it combines a challenging synthesis with reported severe structural distortions during the first lithium insertion in the bulk material. In this work, NbVO5 MTFs with different pore sizes were synthesized using the evaporation induced micelles packing (EIMP) method. PS-b-PEO diblock copolymers of different molar weights were used as structure directing agent in order to obtain wormlike porous networks with pore size and wall thickness ranging from 15 to 100 nm. Thermal ellipsometry analysis, used to track surfactant removal and crystallization of the layer, reveals that partial crystallization is possible while retaining the mesoporous architecture. Electron tomography complements result from environmental ellipsometric porosimetry, atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy to provide a comprehensive description of the structure. A multilayer process is also proposed to build crack-free thick mesoporous films. The mechanical stability of MTFs presenting three different pore sizes is tested by inserting Li(+) in amorphous NbVO5 MTFs using cyclic voltammetry. Capacity retention data show that the mechanical stresses associated with Li+ insertion are better accommodated by MTFs compared to nonporous films, and this ability is enhanced as the pore size decreases. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 54 (11 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThermoelectric properties of n-type Ca1-xDyxMn1-yNbyO3-delta compounds (x=0, 0.02, 0.1 and y=0, 0.02) prepared by spray-drying method
Muguerra, Hervé; Rivas-Murias, Beatriz; Traianidis, Maria et al

in Journal Of Alloys And Compounds (2011), 509(29), 7710-7716

We report the high temperature thermoelectric properties of Ca1-xDyxMn1-yNbyO3-delta (x = 0, 0.02, 0.1 and y = 0, 0.02) synthesized by spray-drying method. A maximum power factor (PF) value of 2.65 mu WK ... [more ▼]

We report the high temperature thermoelectric properties of Ca1-xDyxMn1-yNbyO3-delta (x = 0, 0.02, 0.1 and y = 0, 0.02) synthesized by spray-drying method. A maximum power factor (PF) value of 2.65 mu WK-2 cm(-1) is obtained at 1100 K for CaMn0.98Nb0.02O3-delta. This represents an improvement of about 75% with respect to undoped CaMnO3-delta sample at the same temperature. We also provide a complete structural characterization of the samples. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 113 (12 ULg)
Full Text
See detailTiO2 thin films (1 µm) with ordered porosity used as high performance photoelectrode in DSSC
Dewalque, Jennifer ULg; Cloots, Rudi ULg; Dubreuil, Olivier et al

Poster (2010, July 06)

Mesoporous anatase thin films are very promising materials to act as electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells. Randomly oriented nanocrystalline TiO2 particles are usually used to prepare photoelectrodes ... [more ▼]

Mesoporous anatase thin films are very promising materials to act as electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells. Randomly oriented nanocrystalline TiO2 particles are usually used to prepare photoelectrodes with a thickness of 10-15 µm. Templated-assisted dip-coating techniques are used to obtain thin films with ordered porosity. The use of different templates influences the film porosity in terms of long-range order, percentage of porosity, pore size and pores connectivity. The photovoltaic performances of the samples have been evaluated. Such mesostructured films are compared in terms of photovoltaic performance with TiO2 nanoparticles films, generally used in DSSC. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 35 (9 ULg)
See detailRepeated thermal treatments applied to ordered TiO2 mesoporous thin film: Effect on the film crystallization and surface area
Henrist, Catherine ULg; Dubreuil, Olivier; Krins, Natacha ULg et al

Conference (2010, July 06)

Ordered, mesoporous films are prepared by template-assisted sol-gel techniques such as dip-coating from a precursors solution. However, monolayer films are only a few hundred nanometers thick and present ... [more ▼]

Ordered, mesoporous films are prepared by template-assisted sol-gel techniques such as dip-coating from a precursors solution. However, monolayer films are only a few hundred nanometers thick and present a limited surface area of active material resulting in poor photovoltaic performances. Therefore it is needed to increase the film thickness. A multilayer deposition process for anatase mesoporous film has been reported in the literature in 2005 by Zukalova and all. Unfortunately, later researches have shown a surface area limitation despite the increase of film thickness due to the repeated thermal treatments applied to the layers. In this study, we have investigated the microstructural evolution of a single mesoporous TiO2 layer submitted to repeated thermal treatments. The modifications are discussed in terms of film thickness, surface area, anatase crystals size and global crystallinity. Besides, we propose an alternative thermal treatment designed in an attempt to overcome the limitations induced by repeated calcinations. We have followed and compared the properties of mesoporous films submitted to both thermal treatments by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and environmental poroellipsometry (EEP). Those results show the importance of the tuning of thermal treatment when multilayers films are envisaged for DSSC applications. Indeed, this study quantifies the maximum perturbation encountered by the first layer during the preparation of a multilayer (up to 12) coating, which is submitted to a multistep calcination. Finally, the photovoltaic performances of assembled cells have been evaluated. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 26 (9 ULg)
Full Text
See detailSynthesis of hybrid lamellar silica by liquid crystal templating and silanation
Toussaint, Gilles; Henrist, Catherine ULg; Vertruyen, Bénédicte ULg et al

in Advances in Science and Technology (2010), 68

This paper is focused on the preparation and characterization of different lamellar silica prepared by liquid crystal templating and silanisation. The initial template can be removed and replaced in the ... [more ▼]

This paper is focused on the preparation and characterization of different lamellar silica prepared by liquid crystal templating and silanisation. The initial template can be removed and replaced in the interlamellar spaces by different types of silane, being covalently grafted to the solid by reaction with the surface silanols. The lamellar stacking periodicity remains after this modification. The surfactant extraction can lead in significant grafting of isopropanol if the solid is simply refluxed in isopropanol, which have the effect of preserving the periodicity of the lamellar stacking. The surfactant extraction in an Soxhlet equipment avoid this reaction, with the effect of platelets organization collapsing. The lamellar silica studied exhibit great specific surface and combination of meso and microporosity, making them interesting materials for nanocomposite or catalysis applications. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 16 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailStructural and magnetic properties of nanosized barium hexaferrite powders obtained by microemulsion technique
Koutzarova, Tantyana; Kolev, Svetoslav; Ausloos, Marcel ULg et al

in Diffusion and Defect Data--Solid State Data, Pt. B: Solid State Phenomena (2010), 159

Detailed reference viewed: 15 (5 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailImprovement of the thermoelectric properties of [Bi1.68Ca2O4-delta](RS)[CoO2](1.69) cobaltite by chimie douce methods
Muguerra, Hervé; Rivas-Murias, Beatriz; Traianidis, Maria et al

in Journal of Solid State Chemistry (2010), 183(6), 1252-1257

[Bi1 68Ca2O4 delta](RS)[CoO2](1 69) has been obtained by different chimie douce methods and uniaxially or isostatically pressed The influence of these parameters on the thermoelectric properties has been ... [more ▼]

[Bi1 68Ca2O4 delta](RS)[CoO2](1 69) has been obtained by different chimie douce methods and uniaxially or isostatically pressed The influence of these parameters on the thermoelectric properties has been investigated. Contrary to the Seebeck coefficient, which remains unchanged, the electrical conductivity is greatly modified In particular, spray-drying synthesis followed by uniaxial pressing results in an electrical conductivity two times larger than in the case of conventional solid state synthesis. Our results suggest that a narrow particle size distribution is beneficial to the thermoelectric properties of the layered compounds. The spray-drying technique seems to be promising to Improve the electrical conductivity of layered materials. Moreover, this method presents other advantages (homogeneous samples and less energetic processing) which could be interesting to the future manufacturing of thermoelectric devices (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 67 (10 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEnhancement of the power factor of [Bi1.68Ca2O4](RS)[CoO2](1.69) - Ag composites prepared by the spray-drying method
Rivas-Murias, B.; Muguerra, Hervé ULg; Traianidis, M. et al

in Solid State Sciences (2010), 12(8), 1490-1495

[Bi1.68Ca2O4](RS)[CoO2](1.69) (BCCO) sample and Ag-BCCO composites (with 10, 20 or 30 wt% Ag) have been prepared by the spray-drying technique and uniaxially/isostatically packed. Scanning electron ... [more ▼]

[Bi1.68Ca2O4](RS)[CoO2](1.69) (BCCO) sample and Ag-BCCO composites (with 10, 20 or 30 wt% Ag) have been prepared by the spray-drying technique and uniaxially/isostatically packed. Scanning electron microscopy reveals that the Ag particles are well distributed in the BCCO cobaltite matrix at low Ag contents. The Ag particles have an important effect on densification and grain orientation of the samples, with a direct impact on their electrical conductivity. The electrical conductivity is higher for the uniaxial samples and increases with the Ag content up to 20% in weight, while the Seebeck coefficient is hardly affected. These features induce an improvement of the power factor, reaching a maximum value of 2.2 mu W K-2 cm(-1) at similar to 1050 K for the uniaxial sample with 20 wt% Ag. Our results suggest that the spray-drying technique is a promising method to obtain composites with a well-dispersed secondary phase. (C) 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 53 (11 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAg-and SiO2-doped porous TiO2 with enhanced thermal stability
Braconnier, Benoît ULg; Páez Martínez, Carlos ULg; Lambert, Stéphanie ULg et al

in Microporous and Mesoporous Materials (2009), 122

Detailed reference viewed: 94 (40 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailControl of the porosity of anatase thin films prepared by EISA: Influence of thickness and heat treatment
Henrist, Catherine ULg; Dewalque, Jennifer ULg; Mathis, François ULg et al

in Microporous and Mesoporous Materials (2009), 117

Mesoporous anatase thin films were prepared by the evaporation-induced self-assembly process. This paper reports a study of the influence of several physical parameters on the long-range ordering of the ... [more ▼]

Mesoporous anatase thin films were prepared by the evaporation-induced self-assembly process. This paper reports a study of the influence of several physical parameters on the long-range ordering of the mesopores. A preliminary study was done to set the best humidity conditions during dip-coating and ageing of the films. The withdrawal speed, already known to modify the thickness of the deposited film, was shown to exert a strong influence on the percentage of porosity. This was studied by step profilometry combined with Rutherford backscattered spectrometry (RBS). In parallel, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and RBS were used to tune the precise thermal treatment applied to the so-obtained films, in order to preserve the porous mesostructure and promote the nanocrystallization of anatase TiO2. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 121 (51 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailHybrid lamellar silica: Combined template extraction and hydrophilic silanation
Toussaint, Gilles ULg; Brisbois, Magali ULg; Grandjean, Jean ULg et al

in Journal of Colloid & Interface Science (2009), 329(1), 120-126

The surface modification of lamellar silica prepared by liquid crystal templating has been investigated. Two hydrophilic surface modifier agents, 2-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane and 2-[methoxy ... [more ▼]

The surface modification of lamellar silica prepared by liquid crystal templating has been investigated. Two hydrophilic surface modifier agents, 2-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane and 2-[methoxy(polyethyleneoxy)propyl)] trimethoxysilane, have been tested. Characterizations of the modified silica include thermal analysis, C-13 and Si-29 solid state NMR, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The different characterizations confirmed the preservation of the lamellar morphology and the Successful surface modification with both silanes along with the template elimination. The results also indicate that the structure and length of the silanes influence the final lamellar organization as well as the grafting yields and mechanisms. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 106 (38 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEffects of Rice Straw on the Color and Microstructure of Bizen, a Traditional Japanese Stoneware, as a Function of Oxygen Partial Pressure
Kusano, Y.; Doi, A.; Fukuhara, M. et al

in Journal of the American Ceramic Society (2009), 92(8), 1840-1844

The effects of oxygen partial pressure during thermal treatment on the color and microstructure of Bizen, a traditional Japanese stoneware, were studied through model experiments using clay pellets ... [more ▼]

The effects of oxygen partial pressure during thermal treatment on the color and microstructure of Bizen, a traditional Japanese stoneware, were studied through model experiments using clay pellets covered lightly with rice straw as a coloring assistant. When heated in flowing nitrogen, the model pellet turned blackish owing to the formation of alpha-Fe particles coated with graphite. However, schreibersite (Fe3P), which is also blackish, was formed specifically on the pellet surface in direct contact with the straw. The rice straw seems to have generated a strongly reducing atmosphere, strong enough for the metallization to alpha-Fe, and also to have provided phosphorus through contact. When oxygen content in the surrounding gas atmosphere was raised to N-2/O-2=99/1, the pellet surface turned yellowish brown because the main coloring material was Fe3+-containing mullite. At oxygen contents of N-2/O-2=98/2 or more, the formation of hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) pushed the color to deep red. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 13 (0 ULg)
See detailTiO2 mesoporous thin films acting as photoelectrode in dye-sensitized solar cells
Dewalque, Jennifer ULg; Cloots, Rudi ULg; Henrist, Catherine ULg

Conference (2008, December 03)

This study aims at developing thin films of nanocrystalline, mesostructured titanium dioxide in order to build low cost and efficient photovoltaic devices. The synthesis is based on the Evaporation ... [more ▼]

This study aims at developing thin films of nanocrystalline, mesostructured titanium dioxide in order to build low cost and efficient photovoltaic devices. The synthesis is based on the Evaporation Induced-Self Assembly method using titanium isopropoxide as inorganic source, block copolymers as structuring and porogeneous agents and ethanol as solvent. The films were obtained by dip-coating various substrates in the solution. The influence of different experimental parameters, such as dip-coating and ageing relative humidity, withdrawal speed, surfactant:Ti ratio, substrate, was studied. The post-deposition thermal treatment had to be accurately adjusted in order to maximise the crystallisation of the inorganic network while avoiding the collapse of the porous mesostructure. The final structure obtained is discussed in the light of the XRD results combined with TEM analysis. Moreover the cell performance is limited by the film thickness which is mainly responsible of the small amount of absorbed light. Therefore a multilayer deposition process was studied and the as-obtained mesostructure was characterized by TEM, RBS and environmental ellipsometry. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 21 (3 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailElaboration of Magnetic Nanodots by Nanosphere Lithography : a Computerized Method for Order Quantification
Colson, Pierre ULg; Cloots, Rudi ULg; Henrist, Catherine ULg

Conference (2008, December 01)

Nanosphere lithography (NSL) is an ideal inexpensive fabrication tool for producing regular, nearly homogenous arrays of nanoparticules with different sizes. There are many different methods for the ... [more ▼]

Nanosphere lithography (NSL) is an ideal inexpensive fabrication tool for producing regular, nearly homogenous arrays of nanoparticules with different sizes. There are many different methods for the fabrication of the latex monolayer based on electrophoresis, the controlled evaporation of a solvent from the suspension containing latex particles, spincoating etc… We focused our work on this last method. The main problem with formation of 2D latex monolayers is that there are always a high number of different structural defects such as: point defects (vacancies), line defects (dislocations) and also many disordered areas. The influence of the different spincoating parameters on the amount of defects was determined by image analysis of SEM micrographies from the different samples. FePt and Co films were deposited onto quartz substrates through the polystryrene monolayers by magnetron sputtering. The nanopsheres were removed by sonication in toluene. Post-deposition annealing treatment was performed under reductive atmosphere for the FePt nanodots in order to transform the as-deposited chemically disoredered face-centered cubic (fcc) structure into the chemically ordered face-centered tetragonal (fct) phase (L10-phase). DRX , SEM and MFM analysis were performed on the different samples. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 26 (2 ULg)
Full Text
See detailMesoporous TiO2 thin films for photovoltaic applications
Dewalque, Jennifer ULg; Cloots, Rudi ULg; Mathis, François ULg et al

Poster (2008, September 08)

Thin films of nanocrystalline, mesostructured titanium dioxide are very promising materials to build low cost and efficient photovoltaic devices. TiO2 present a high chemical stability and electronic ... [more ▼]

Thin films of nanocrystalline, mesostructured titanium dioxide are very promising materials to build low cost and efficient photovoltaic devices. TiO2 present a high chemical stability and electronic properties such as photoinduced electronic transfer properties associated with the anatase phase. For many applications, highly porous nanostructured thin films with accessible pores are preferable to dense ones. Indeed, high accessible porosity leads to high surface area increasing the electron transfer area. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 30 (5 ULg)
Full Text
See detailMesoporous TiO2 thin films for photovoltaic applications
Dewalque, Jennifer ULg; Mathieu, Xavier; Decroly, André et al

Poster (2008, August)

Thin films of nanocrystalline, mesostructured titanium dioxide are very promising materials to build low cost and efficient photovoltaic devices. TiO2 present a high chemical stability and electronic ... [more ▼]

Thin films of nanocrystalline, mesostructured titanium dioxide are very promising materials to build low cost and efficient photovoltaic devices. TiO2 present a high chemical stability and electronic properties such as photo-induced electronic transfer properties associated with the anatase phase. For many applications, highly porous nanostructured thin films with accessible pores are preferable to dense ones. Indeed, high accessible porosity leads to high surface area increasing the electron transfer surface. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 42 (4 ULg)