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See detailEcology of mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) potentially vectors of arboviruses according to the kinds of animal husbandry in Belgium
Boukraa, Slimane ULg; De la Grandière de Noronha Cotta, Maria Ana ULg; Bawin, Thomas ULg et al

Poster (2013, November 12)

Human activity, commercial exchanges and climate changes current and future, could favor the (re)-emergence of vector-borne diseases, by inducing changes on Culicidae populations. This study aims to ... [more ▼]

Human activity, commercial exchanges and climate changes current and future, could favor the (re)-emergence of vector-borne diseases, by inducing changes on Culicidae populations. This study aims to determine the potential importance of agricultural environments, especially cattle farms and equestrian, to welcome and favor the proliferation of some species of mosquito responsible for transmission of arboviruses. To better understand the structure of the Culicidae population and identify habitats favorable to the development of each species, a taxonomic inventory was conducted in 2008 (III, VI and X) and 2009 (V and IX) in ten cattle farms, and in 2011 (VI-X) and 2012 (VI-IX) in six equestrian farms located in Belgium. The harvest of mosquitoes is based on adult trapping by CO2-traps (Mosquito magnet) and on larval sampling at the level of 64 biotopes such as water troughs, used tires, abandoned utensils and temporary puddles or not. The morphotaxonomic of larvae and genitalia, and molecular study showed the presence of 15 species: Culiseta annulata Schrank, 1776; Cs. morsitans Theobald, 1901 Anopheles claviger s.s. Meigen, 1804; An. maculipennis s.s. Meigen, 1818; An. messeae Falleroni, 1926; An. plumbeus Stephens, 1828; Culex pipiens molestus Forskal, 1775; Cx. pipiens pipiens L., 1758; Cx. torrentium Martini, 1925; Cx. hortensis hortensis Ficalbi, 1889; Cx. territans Walker, 1856; Coquillettidia richiardii Ficalbi, 1889; Ochlerotatus geniculatus Olivier, 1791; Oc. cantans Meigen, 1818 and Aedes cinereus Meigen, 1818. Among the 57,680 individuals examined, Cx. pipiens s.l., Cx. torrentium and Cs. annulata are the dominants species and ubiquitous in all farms visited. The species of the genus Anopheles have strong ecological requirements and are therefore associated with some special habitats; other species however have a strong ability to adapt and therefore attend a wide variety of biotopes (Cx. pipiens s.l., Cx. torrentium and Cs. annulata). Water troughs, used tires and ponds are the most favorable habitats for larval development of Culicidae. The species potentially vectors of arboviruses that can cause problems in epidemiological farms are Cx. pipiens s.l., Cx. torrentium and Cq. richiardii. Therefore, despite the low diversity of mosquito observed within the livestock environments, they represent a significant risk for the reproduction of some potential vectors of arboviruses. In addition, some larval habitats constitute very favorable sites for proliferation of mosquito, causing a real problem of nuisance for animals of farms. [less ▲]

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See detailA four-year inventory of the invasive ladybeetle Harmonia axyridis in agricultural ecosystems
Vandereycken, Axel ULg; Durieux, Delphine ULg; Joie, Emilie ULg et al

Conference (2013, October 26)

The Multicoloured Asian Ladybird, Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is known to thrive principally in shrubby and arboreal habitats. Its occurrence in agroecosystems remains poorly ... [more ▼]

The Multicoloured Asian Ladybird, Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is known to thrive principally in shrubby and arboreal habitats. Its occurrence in agroecosystems remains poorly documented. This study focuses on the occurrence of this exotic species and its seasonal abundance in various field crops. The abundance of adults and larvae of H. axyridis was evaluated over a four-year period, from 2009 to 2012, in four important agronomical crops (wheat, corn, broad bean and potato) in Belgium. A total of 28 aphid predator species were observed including 14 coccinellid species, 13 hoverfly species and one lacewing species. H. axyridis is present and reproduces in all of the four crops studied, with the largest numbers recorded in corn and broad bean crops. In corn, H. axyridis numbers were found to increase over the four inventoried year, reaching 86% of the aphid predators in 2012, while it represented only 15% in 2009. H. axyridis was not always recorded where aphids were abundant, e.g. aphids were abundant on wheat where no H. axyridis were recorded. H. axyridis starts reproducing after the peak in aphid population, suggesting that H. axyridis is able to complete its development by feeding on alternative prey such as larvae and pupae of the same and other species of ladybird and other aphidophagous species. H. axyridis is often considered to be bivoltine but it only completes one generation per year in field crops. The second generation generally develops late in the season in other habitats. Harmonia axyridis is an invasive and an intraguild predator present in high quantities in some specific crops. In these crops, H. axyridis could negatively impact on population of native species due to IGP observed in several other studies. [less ▲]

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See detailImportation récente d’Aedes albopictus en Belgique : modes d’introduction, risques et gestion des risques
Boukraa, Slimane ULg; Raharimalala, Fara Nantenaina ULg; Zimmer, Jean-Yves ULg et al

Conference (2013, October 25)

L'environnement et les changements climatiques, ainsi que la mondialisation des échanges commerciaux internationaux peuvent affecter la distribution des pathogènes et/ou des arthropodes vecteurs ... [more ▼]

L'environnement et les changements climatiques, ainsi que la mondialisation des échanges commerciaux internationaux peuvent affecter la distribution des pathogènes et/ou des arthropodes vecteurs. Actuellement, l’espèce Aedes albopictus Skuse est considérée comme le moustique le plus invasif dans le monde entier et l’un des plus importants vecteurs d’arbovirus (notamment chikungunya et dengue). En Belgique, Ae. albopictus a été introduit pour la première fois en 2000 à Vrasene (Province de Flandre-Orientale), dans une entreprise de recyclage des pneus usagés en provenance des États-Unis et du Japon. Plusieurs autres inspections ont été effectuées (2001-2012) après ce premier rapport, mais aucun autre spécimen n’a été trouvé. L’espèce était considérée comme éliminée naturellement et aucune nouvelle introduction n’avait été signalée. Dans le cadre d'une étude de surveillance de moustiques réalisée dans plusieurs endroits à travers la Belgique en 2013, un adulte mâle d’Ae. albopictus a été capturé à l'aide d’un piège à CO2 à Vrasene dans la même entreprise de recyclage de pneus (51°12'49" N, 4°11'37" E; juillet 2013). L’espèce a été confirmée par identification morphologique et moléculaire. Cette redécouverte d’Ae. albopictus ainsi que son absence durant les treize dernières années, démontrent sa réintroduction en Belgique via le commerce de pneus usagés. Une étude sur la survie et la dispersion de ce moustique en Belgique, ainsi que de son écologie dans les pays voisins pourrait fournir des indications importantes pour élucider davantage son caractère invasif et identifier les zones à haut risque. Contexte Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894) (Diptera: Culicidae), communément appelé « le moustique tigre », est une espèce invasive originaire d’Asie du Sud-Est. Une nouvelle réintroduction de ce vecteur d’arbovirus a été enregistré en été 2013 en Belgique. Cette présentation abordera successivement : (a) L’invasion d’Ae. albopictus et importance médicale, (b) (Ré)-Introduction d’Ae. albopictus en Belgique, (c) Risque lié à l’introduction et à l’adaptation d’Ae. albopictus en Belgique, (d) Gestion de risque et contrôle. a. Invasion d’Ae. albopictus et importance médicale Depuis la fin des années 70s, Ae. albopictus connait une propagation explosive dans le monde entier où il est considéré actuellement comme le moustique le plus invasif dans le monde (1). La mondialisation des échanges commerciaux, notamment les pneus usagés (2) et le Lucky Bambou (3), est un facteur clé de cette invasion. En Europe, il a été signalé dans 20 pays et est aujourd'hui bien installé dans la région méditerranéenne (1). Ae. albopictus fait partie des plus importants vecteurs d’arbovirus, en particulier pour les virus de la dengue et du chikungunya (1), et des filarioses animales notamment Dirofilaria spp. (4). Le risque d'apparition et la propagation de ces arbovirus aux régions non épidémiques ont surtout augmenté dans les régions où Ae. albopictus est établi. Cette hypothèse est démontrée à plusieurs reprises, notamment les récentes transmissions autochtones du chikungunya et de la dengue en Italie, en Croatie et en France (1). b. (Ré)-Introduction d’Ae. albopictus en Belgique En Belgique, Ae. albopictus a été introduit pour la première fois en 2000 à Vrasene (Province de Flandre-Orientale), dans une entreprise de recyclage des pneus usagés en provenance des États-Unis et du Japon (5). Plusieurs autres inspections ont été effectuées (2001-2012) après ce premier rapport, mais aucun autre spécimen n’a été trouvé (6, Schaffner données non publiées). L’espèce était considérée comme éliminée naturellement et aucune nouvelle introduction n’avait été signalée (6). Cependant, une étude sur la surveillance de moustiques réalisée dans plusieurs endroits à travers la Belgique en 2013 a de nouveau signalé la capture d’Ae. albopictus à Vrasene, dans la même entreprise de recyclage de pneus. Cette redécouverte d’Ae. albopictus, ainsi que l'absence de toute constatation au cours des années précédentes (2001-2012), démontre sa réintroduction en Belgique via le commerce des pneus usagés (7). c. Risque lié à l’introduction et à l’adaptation d’Ae. albopictus en Belgique Aedes albopictus est un vecteur efficace confirmé des virus de la dengue et du chikungunya (1), ainsi que des filarioses animales notamment Dirofilaria spp. (4) ; la Belgique enregistre de plus régulièrement des cas de chikungunya importés (8). Ainsi, s'il s'établit dans le pays, Ae. albopictus peut devenir une menace importante et réelle pour la santé humaine et animale tant par son rôle de vecteur d'agents pathogènes que par sa nuisance. d. Gestion de risque et contrôle Une étude sur la survie et la dispersion d’Ae. albopictus en Belgique, ainsi que sur sa bio-écologie dans les pays voisins pourrait fournir des indications importantes pour élucider davantage son caractère invasif, et identifier les zones à haut risque. Une réponse proactive rapide est essentielle pour la lutte anti-vectorielle afin d’éviter son installation en Belgique. Cela inclut la mise en œuvre rapide de mesures de contrôle, avant que l’élimination ne devienne impossible (9). Les programmes de surveillance et de contrôle doivent cibler davantage toutes les zones possibles d’introduction de ce vecteur, en particulier les entreprises du commerce international des pneumatiques et des plantes ornementales telle que le Lucky Bambou. Ces programmes doivent également être appliqués durant toute la saison d’activité d’Ae. albopictus, sous une logique de lutte anti-vectorielle intégrée (10). A cet effet, l’appel aux moyens de lutte mécanique et les traitements larvicides sont fortement recommandés. Le recours aux traitements adulticides cependant, sera justifié uniquement en cas d’abondance de l’espèce due à de nouvelles réintroductions. Conclusion Les réintroductions d’Ae. albopictus en Belgique via l’importation de pneus usagés, l’environnement favorable à son installation et la confirmation régulière de cas importés du chikungunyia rendent la Belgique vulnérable aux risques d’une transmission autochtone de cette maladie infectieuse. Vu que plusieurs pays d'Europe de l'Ouest connaissent actuellement des introductions répétées d'Ae. albopictus sur leurs territoires, la mobilisation et la coordination des surveillances entomologiques entre ces pays - y compris la Belgique - sont devenues plus que nécessaires afin de traquer toutes les voies potentielles de réintroductions. Compte tenu du grand pouvoir adaptatif et invasif d'Ae. albopictus, il est recommandé d’agir rapidement et efficacement pour éliminer cette espèce avant son installation et sa dissémination ; ces mesures permettraient ainsi de réduire le risque de transmission des arboviroses en Belgique. Référence 1. J. M. Medlock, K. M. Hansford, F. Schaffner, V. Versteirt, G. Hendrickx, H. Zeller, et al. A Review of the Invasive Mosquitoes in Europe: Ecology, Public Health Risks, and Control Options. Vect born Zoo Dis, 12, 435-447 (2012). 2. E. A. Gould, S. Higgs. Impact of climate change and other factors on emerging arbovirus diseases. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, 103(2), 109–121 (2009). 3. E. J. Scholte, E. Dijkstra, H. Blok, A. De Vries, W. Takken, A. Hofhuis et al. Accidental importation of the mosquito Aedes albopictus into the Netherlands: a survey of mosquito distribution and the presence of dengue virus. Med Vet Entomol, 22, 352-358 (2008). 4. G. Cancrini, P. Scaramozzino, S. Gabriella, M. Di Paolo, L. Toma, R. Romi. Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens implicated as natural vectors of Dirofilaria repens in central Italy. J Med Entomol, 44, 1064–1066 (2007). 5. F. Schaffner, W. Van Bortel, M. Coosemans. First record of Aedes (Stegomya) albopictus in Belgium. J Am Mosq Cont Assoc 20, 201-203 (2004). 6. V. Versteirt, S. Boyer, D. Damiens, E. M. De Clercq, W. Dekoninck, E. Ducheyne et al. Nationwide inventory of mosquito biodiversity (Diptera: Culicidae) in Belgium. Europe Bull Entomol Res 103, 193-203 (2013). 7. S. Boukraa, F. N. Raharimalala, J.-Y. Zimmer, F. Schaffner, T. Bawin, E. Haubruge, et al. Rediscovery of Aedes albopictus in Belgium: introduction or establishment ? Emerg Infect Dis, (Article soumis) (Septembre, 2013) 8. E. Bottieau, M. Van Esbroeck, L. Cnops, J. Clerinx, A. Van Gompel. Chikungunya infection confirmed in a Belgian traveller returning from Phuket (Thailand). Euro Surveill, 14, 1-2 (2009). 9. F. Schaffner, R. Bellini, D. Petrić, E.-J. Scholte, H. Zeller, L. Marrama Rakotoarivony. Development of guidelines for the surveillance of invasive mosquitoes in Europe. Parasit Vectors, 6, 209 (2013). 10. Centre national d’Expertise sur les Vecteurs. Introduction d’arthropodes vecteurs au niveau des plateformes portuaires et aéroportuaires. Identification des principaux risques (2012). [less ▲]

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See detailLes Ressources Sauvages des Bois de Tapia (Uapaca bojeri) à Madagascar
Barsics, Fanny ULg; Malaisse, François ULg; Razafimanantsoa, Tsiresy et al

Poster (2013, October 19)

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See detailLe taupin : un ravageur souterrain préoccupant
Barsics, Fanny ULg; Haubruge, Eric ULg; Verheggen, François ULg

Poster (2013, October 19)

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See detailInvestigation olfactive de la mort
Focant, Jean-François ULg; Stefanuto, Pierre-Hugues ULg; Brasseur, Catherine ULg et al

in Acta Clinica Belgica (2013, October), 68-6

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See detailAre bogs reservoirs for emerging disease vectors? Evaluation of Culicoides populations in the Hautes Fagnes Nature Reserve (Belgium)
Zimmer, Jean-Yves ULg; Losson, Bertrand ULg; Smeets, François ULg et al

Poster (2013, October)

Several species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges serve as biological vec{ors for the bluetongue virus (BTV) and the recently described Schmallenberg virus in northern Europe. since ... [more ▼]

Several species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges serve as biological vec{ors for the bluetongue virus (BTV) and the recently described Schmallenberg virus in northern Europe. since their recent emergence in this part of the continent, these diseases have caused considerable economic losses to the sheep and cattle industries. Much data is nou, âvailable that describe the distribuüon, population dynamics, and feeding habits of these insects. However, little is known regarding the presence of culicoides in unusual habitats such as peaÿ marshes, nor their potential vector capacity. This study evaluated Culicoides biting midges present in the bogs of a Belgian nature reserve compared to those residing at a nearby cattle farm. Culicoides were trapped in 2011 at four different sites (broadleaved and coniferous forested areas, open environments, and at a scientific station) located in the Hautes Fagnes Nature Reserve (Belgium). An additional light trap was operated on a nearby caftle farm. High numbers of biting midges were captured in the marshy area and most of them were Culicoides impunc{atus, a potential vector of BïV and other pâthogens. ln addition, fewer numbers of c. obsoletus/c. scoticus species, C. chiopterus, and C. dewulfi were observed in the bogs compared to the farm. The wet environment and oligotrophic nature of the soil were probably responsible for these changes in the respective populations. A total of 297,808 Culicoides midges belonging to 27 species were identified during this study and 3 of these species (C. sphagnumensis, C. clintoni and C. comosioculatus) were described in Belgium for the first time. [less ▲]

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See detailFirst Evidence of a Volatile Sex Pheromone in Harmonia axyridis (Pallas)
Fassotte, Bérénice ULg; Fischer, Christophe ULg; Durieux, Delphine ULg et al

Poster (2013, October)

Until now, no volatile sex pheromone has been highlighted in Coccinellidae but various studies have suggested the existence of such molecules. In the present work, we have sampled volatile organic ... [more ▼]

Until now, no volatile sex pheromone has been highlighted in Coccinellidae but various studies have suggested the existence of such molecules. In the present work, we have sampled volatile organic compounds released in the headspace of virgin females in the multicolored Asian ladybeetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), that were either allowed or not to feed on pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris). When fed on aphids, virgin females showed a stereotypical “calling behavior”, commonly associated with the emission of a sex pheromone in several Coleoptera species. Behavioral assays conducted with calling females in a four-arm olfactometer demonstrated that the blend of released volatile compounds was attractive at a distance for males, but not for other females. The headspace of virgin females that were not previously fed with aphids was not attractive for either sex. GC-MS analyses revealed the presence of five compounds in the volatile blend: (–)-β-caryophyllene, β-elemene, methyl-eugenol, α-humulene and α-bulnesene. Subsequently, we have collected and quantified the constituents from the blend over a period of 9 days after exposure to aphids. All five compounds were produced exclusively after feeding virgin females with aphids, and their quantity significantly increased during the whole period of collection. (–)-β-caryophyllene was found to be the major constituent, representing between 80 and 86 % of the total blend. All these results could promote the development of more specific and efficient management methods to manipulate the movements of this invasive ladybeetle and to reduce its negative impacts on biodiversity. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Multicoloured Asian Ladybird, invasive or not in agroecosystems ?
Vandereycken, Axel ULg; Durieux, Delphine ULg; Fassotte, Bérénice ULg et al

Poster (2013, September 10)

The Multicoloured Asian Ladybird, Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is known to thrive principally in shrubby and arboreal habitats. Its occurrence in agroecosystems remains poorly ... [more ▼]

The Multicoloured Asian Ladybird, Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is known to thrive principally in shrubby and arboreal habitats. Its occurrence in agroecosystems remains poorly documented. This study focuses on the occurrence of this exotic species and its seasonal abundance in various field crops. The abundance of adults and larvae of H. axyridis was evaluated over a four-year period, from 2009 to 2012, in four important agronomical crops (wheat, corn, broad bean and potato) in Belgium. A total of 28 aphid predator species were observed including 14 coccinellid species, 13 hoverfly species and one lacewing species. H. axyridis is present and reproduces in all of the four crops studied, with the largest numbers recorded in corn and broad bean crops. In corn, H. axyridis numbers were found to increase over the four inventoried year, reaching 86% of the aphid predators in 2012, while it represented only 15% in 2009. H. axyridis was not always recorded where aphids were abundant, e.g. aphids were abundant on wheat where no H. axyridis were recorded. H. axyridis starts reproducing after the peak in aphid population, suggesting that H. axyridis is able to complete its development by feeding on alternative prey such as larvae and pupae of the same and other species of ladybird and other aphidophagous species. H. axyridis is often considered to be bivoltine but it only completes one generation per year in field crops. The second generation generally develops late in the season in other habitats. Harmonia axyridis is an invasive and an intraguild predator present in high quantities in some specific crops. In these crops, H. axyridis could negatively impact on population of native species due to IGP observed in several other studies. [less ▲]

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See detailBreeding sites and species association of the main Bluetongue and Schmallenberg virus vectors, the Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), in northern Europe
Zimmer, Jean-Yves ULg; Losson, Bertrand ULg; Saegerman, Claude ULg et al

in Annales de la Société Entomologique de France (2013), 49(3), 335-344

Several species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges are biological vectors of bluetongue virus (BTV) and, as recently discovered, Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in northern Europe. Since ... [more ▼]

Several species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges are biological vectors of bluetongue virus (BTV) and, as recently discovered, Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in northern Europe. Since their recent emergence in this part of the continent, these diseases that affect domestic and wild ruminants have caused considerable economic losses to the sheep and cattle industries. The substrates that are suitable for larval development of the main vector species are still relatively unknown. This study assessed all the substrates present in the immediate surroundings of a Belgian cattle farm and aimed to highlight the main breeding sites of these midge species. A total of 1639 immature Culicoides and 1320 adult specimens belonging to 13 species were found in 15 out of the 43 substrates studied: maize silage residues for C. obsoletus/C. scoticus, old overwintered cattle dung in the meadow for C. chiopterus and C. dewulfi, ground of a flooded meadow, green filamentous algae and underlying substrate, silt from a pond, and ground of hollows caused by the crossing of machines on a dirt track for C. festivipennis, silt from a pond for C. nubeculosus, and ground of a flooded meadow for C. lupicaris. Identification of these micro-habitats and the associations among the species they contain could allow their localization and the development of new strategies of vector control, while preventing the creation of new Culicoides larval micro-habitats. Finally, measures designed to reduce larval populations could improve efficacy of vaccination campaigns against BTV in Europe. [less ▲]

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See detailProteomic Investigation of Aphid Honeydew Reveals an Unexpected Diversity of Proteins
Sabri, Ahmed; Vandermoten, Sophie ULg; Leroy, Pascal et al

in PLoS ONE (2013), 8(9),

Aphids feed on the phloem sap of plants, and are the most common honeydew-producing insects. While aphid honeydew is primarily considered to comprise sugars and amino acids, its protein diversity has yet ... [more ▼]

Aphids feed on the phloem sap of plants, and are the most common honeydew-producing insects. While aphid honeydew is primarily considered to comprise sugars and amino acids, its protein diversity has yet to be documented. Here, we report on the investigation of the honeydew proteome from the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. Using a two-Dimensional <br />Differential in-Gel Electrophoresis (2D-Dige) approach, more than 140 spots were isolated, demonstrating that aphid honeydew also represents a diverse source of proteins. About 66% of the isolated spots were identified through mass spectrometry analysis, revealing that the protein diversity of aphid honeydew originates from several organisms (i.e. the host aphid and its microbiota, including endosymbiotic bacteria and gut flora). Interestingly, our experiments also allowed to identify some proteins like chaperonin, GroEL and Dnak chaperones, elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu), and flagellin that might act as mediators in the plant-aphid interaction. In addition to providing the first aphid honeydew proteome analysis, we propose to reconsider the importance of this substance, mainly acknowledged to be a waste product, from the aphid <br />ecology perspective. [less ▲]

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See detailLes vers à soie malgaches - Enjeux écologiques et socio-économiques
Verheggen, François ULg; Bogaert, Jan ULg; Haubruge, Eric ULg

Book published by Presses agronomiques de Gembloux (2013)

Cet ouvrage reflète les réalisations et activités scientifiques du projet de coopération universitaire « Gestion et valorisation durable du ver à soie endémique Borocera cajani en milieu forestier dans la ... [more ▼]

Cet ouvrage reflète les réalisations et activités scientifiques du projet de coopération universitaire « Gestion et valorisation durable du ver à soie endémique Borocera cajani en milieu forestier dans la région d’Antananarivo » financé par la Commission Universitaire pour le Développement (CUD). Ce projet de recherche est le fruit d’une collaboration étroite entre le Département des Eaux et Forêts de l’école Supérieure des Sciences Agronomiques de l’Université d’Antananarivo, l’Université de Liège et l’Université Libre de Bruxelles. Une première section de l’ouvrage porte sur les aspects biologiques et écologiques des vers à soie endémiques de Madagascar – avec l’accent sur le landibe (Borocera cajani) – notamment sa morphologie, l’estimation de son abondance dans l’aire étudiée, la dynamique de ses populations, ses interactions avec ses plantes hôtes, son comportement d’alimentation et son développement larvaire. La deuxième section étudie les dimensions écologiques et botaniques de l’habitat des vers à soie, à savoir les formations de tapia (Uapaca bojeri), principalement à travers les aspects sylvicoles et botaniques, les causes et indicateurs de dégradation, la discussion autour de sa dénomination, la diversité floristique, la régénération et l’inventaire des ressources sauvages comestibles et leurs caractéristiques chimiques. La troisième section renseigne sur l’état et la valorisation de la filière soie et couvre une diversité d’approches, allant des connaissances et savoir-faire des communautés locales au rôle de la soie dans l’économie rurale. Le contexte socio-institutionnel ainsi que les interactions entre les acteurs concernés par la filière complètent ce volet. L’ouvrage contient 21 contributions scientifiques, rédigées par 34 auteurs, dont certains ont déjà fait l’objet d’une publication dans une revue internationale. Le volume a été composé sous la direction scientifique de François J. Verheggen, Jan Bogaert et éric Haubruge, enseignants à Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech (Université de Liège). Il s’adresse à tous ceux qui s’intéressent à la coopération universitaire et/ou aux recherches écologiques, entomologiques et sociologiques dans un contexte malgache. [less ▲]

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