References of "Haubruge, Eric"
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See detailTechnologie de production de masse d’insectes - INSECTECH
Richard, Gaetan ULg; Hance, Thierry; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure ULg et al

Report (2014)

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See detailIsolation of an amylolytic chrysophyte, Poterioochromonas sp. from the digestive tract of the termite R. santonensis
Tarayre, Cédric ULg; Bauwens, Julien ULg; Brasseur, Catherine ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2014), 18(1),

The aim of this work was the isolation and cultivation of amylolytic protists living in the digestive tract of the termite Reticulitermes santonensis (Feytaud). A chrysophyte identified as ... [more ▼]

The aim of this work was the isolation and cultivation of amylolytic protists living in the digestive tract of the termite Reticulitermes santonensis (Feytaud). A chrysophyte identified as Poterioochromonas sp. was isolated in a special medium containing rice grains as a source of carbon and nitrogen. Then, the protist was grown in a medium containing starch as a carbon source, tryptone, and a phosphate buffer at different pH values (5, 6 and 7). Yeast extract was added or not. Ciprofloxacin was used to avoid the bacterial development. Other antibiotics were also tested but showed an inhibitive effect on the growth of Poterioochromonas sp. Yeast extract allowed reaching 1.9 (pH 5), 2.3 (pH 6) and 2.2 (pH 7) times higher final cell concentrations, and 2.8 (pH 5), 2.8 (pH 6) and 2.2 (pH 7) times higher biomass yields. The starch concentration did not decrease in the medium until 3 and 4 days of culture, with and without yeast extract, respectively. Eight days of culture were necessary for hydrolyzing the starch completely, with and without yeast extract. Maltose and maltotriose were detected in the culture media and were hydrolyzed progressively. Maximal maltose concentrations were 0.68, 0.66 and 0.51 g.l-1 in the medium containing yeast extract. Maltotriose concentrations were only 0.17, 0.14 and 0.12 g.l-1. Other glucose oligomers were also detected but in lower quantities. It was determined that the protist developed a weak amylase activity, particularly at a weakly acidic pH (5-6). Such a pH also allowed a better growth of the protist. A maximal amylase activity of 112 nkat.l-1 was measured with yeast extract at pH 5. No other enzymatic activity (protease, cellulase or xylanase) was detected except amylase. The degradation products of starch which were obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis allow the identification of α-amylase, amyloglucosidase and possibly β-amylase activities. [less ▲]

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See detailMacrolophus pygmaeus (Rambur) as an efficient predator of the tomato leafminer Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) in Europe. A review
De Backer, Lara ULg; Caparros Megido, Rudy ULg; Haubruge, Eric ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2014)

The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), originates from South America, and remains one of the main tomato pests in this continent. Since its introduction to Europe in 2006, Mediterranean countries ... [more ▼]

The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), originates from South America, and remains one of the main tomato pests in this continent. Since its introduction to Europe in 2006, Mediterranean countries have also been exposed to this pest. Because of the endophytic habits of the larvae and ability of adults to reproduce parthenogenetically, chemicals and sexual pheromone- based control methods generate poor results. Recently, the use of biocontrol agents, such as Macrolophus pygmaeus Rambur (Heteroptera: Miridae), has been investigated as an alternative means of control, the results of which are presented in this review. Macrolophus pygmaeus is a mirid bug that is widely used to control different phytophagous insects in integrated pest management strategies through Europe. Several studies have confirmed the high predation potential of M. pygmaeus on T. absoluta under laboratory and semi-field conditions. This predator spontaneously colonizes tomato greenhouses in the southern Mediterranean countries. The use of banker plants (i.e., plants that provide a habitat to the predator) improves the colonization ability of this natural enemy. Hence, if the local population size is low, an augmentative strategy could be adopted. Predators may be released before or after the onset of pest infestation, with recommendations varying depending on natural population densities of both the pest and predator. The efficiency of M. pygmaeus has also been evaluated when used in combination with other biocontrol agents or with chemicals. This work presents an overview of different types of control strategies using M. pygmaeus against the tomato leafminer, T. absoluta. [less ▲]

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See detailAggregation behavior of Harmonia axyridis under non-wintering conditions
Durieux, Delphine ULg; Fassotte, Bérénice ULg; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis et al

in Insect Science (2014)

The invasive multicolored Asian ladybeetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), aggregates inside dwellings during winter to avoid cold weather. This adaptive behavior disturbs ... [more ▼]

The invasive multicolored Asian ladybeetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), aggregates inside dwellings during winter to avoid cold weather. This adaptive behavior disturbs homeowners, because of the large numbers of individuals that aggregate, which induces allergic reactions. The migratory flight patterns of this species have been well documented, with individuals preferentially moving toward prominent and high color contrast elements. However, the factors involved in the selection of aggregation sites by this species have yet to be elucidated. Here, we evaluated the influence of (i) the density of individuals and (ii) the type of available shelters on decisions by H. axyridis to settle and aggregate under shelters. A dual choice bioassay conducted in the laboratory demonstrated the presence of mutual attraction to conspecifics. We also found that individuals preferentially settled under red covered shelters compared to transparent shelters, and that the type of shelter outweighed the effect of social interactions among conspecifics. Moreover, this experiment was performed under non-wintering conditions, providing the first evidence that aggregative behavior in this species can also occur under those specific conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailMicroorganism-associated semiochemicals reduce the size of aphid populations in potato fields
Alabi, Taofic ULg; Brostaux, Yves ULg; Grigorescu, Alina ULg et al

in Revue des Régions Arides (2014), 35

The chemical cues released by many insect species, including agricultural pests, are used by predators and parasitoids to locate their prey or host. For instance, aphids excrete honeydew, which contains ... [more ▼]

The chemical cues released by many insect species, including agricultural pests, are used by predators and parasitoids to locate their prey or host. For instance, aphids excrete honeydew, which contains bacteria that produce semiochemicals. Ladybeetles and hoverflies use these semiochemicals to locate the colonies of prey aphid species. One bacterium (Staphylococcus sciuri) has been identified in the honeydew of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. This bacterium is responsible for the production of kairomonal substances, which guide hoverflies to aphid colonies. In the present study, we cultivated S. sciuri, and used solid-phase microextraction (SPME) to confirm the ability of this bacterium to produce 3-methyl-2-butenal and 3-methyl-2-butenoic acid, which previous studies have demonstrated as being the two semiochemicals that exhibit kairomonal activity. We subsequently conducted field experiments to evaluate the efficiency of two solutions as biological products to control aphid populations inhabiting potato plants; the first solution contained a suspension of living S. sciuri, and the second solution contained a mixture of the two semiochemicals produced by this bacterium. While the semiochemical solution did not lead to a significant reduction in aphid number, potato plants treated with the S. sciuri solution were infested with 28% less aphids compared to untreated plants. This study demonstrates the potential of using naturally occurring bacteria as a form of biological control of aphid infestations in agricultural management. [less ▲]

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See detailEffet du mode de conservation d’huile de Jatropha curcas L. sur son efficacité dans la lutte contre les principaux insectes ravageurs du niébé (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. au Niger
Abdoul Habou, zakari; Toudou, Adam; Haubruge, Eric ULg et al

in Tropicultura (2014), 32(4), 191-196

Jatropha curcas oil has an insecticidal activity harnessed by the farmers in Niger. In this study, we compared the insecticidal activity of two batches of oil conserved during 70 days, one exposed to ... [more ▼]

Jatropha curcas oil has an insecticidal activity harnessed by the farmers in Niger. In this study, we compared the insecticidal activity of two batches of oil conserved during 70 days, one exposed to light and the other kept in the dark. The insecticidal efficacy was evaluated in a field with three concentrations (5, 10 and 15%) trial on the main pests of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) and in a laboratory test on Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybon (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) with different concentrations of crude oil (50; 100; 150 and 200 µl). No difference in insecticidal effect was found between the two modes of oil conservation, both in the laboratory and in the field. In the field, regardless of the mode of conservation, the concentrations of 10% of J. curcas oil enables a reduction of over than 80% of thrips, aphids, and bugs compared to the control. Its increased seeds yield more than 50%. The concentration of 15% gives an insecticidal effect comparable to that of the reference treatment (deltaméthrine) but induces phytotoxicity symptoms on the leaves of Cowpea. [less ▲]

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See detailInsecticidal effect of Jatropha curcas L. seed oil on Callosobruchus maculatus Fab and Bruchidius atrolineatus Pic (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) on stored cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) in Niger
Abdoul Habou, Zakari; Haougui, Adamou; Basso, Adamou et al

in African Journal of Agricultural Research (2014), 9(32), 2506-2510

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See detailInsects Associated With Jatropha curcas Linn. (Euphorbiaceae) in West Niger
Zakari, Abdoul Habou; Toudou, Adam; Haubruge, Eric ULg et al

in Journal of Insect Science [=JIS] (2014)

Jatropha curcas has been introduced into Niger since 2004 by International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT). This plant is cultivated for its oil, which can be used as a ... [more ▼]

Jatropha curcas has been introduced into Niger since 2004 by International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT). This plant is cultivated for its oil, which can be used as a Biofuel. Through direct and indirect insect collection methods, an inventory of the insect associated with J. curcas has been conducted in Western Niger during two rainy seasons (from June to October) in 2010 and 2011. We have identified insects belonging to the following families: Acrididae (Oedaleus senegalensis Krauss, 15 Oedaleus nigeriensis Uvarov, Heteracris leani Uvarov, Catantops stramineus Walker, Parga cyanoptera Uvarov, and Acanthacris ruficornis citrina Audinet-Serville), Pyrgomorphidae (Poekilocerus bufonius hieroglyphicus Klug), Cetoniidae (Pachnoda interrupta Olivier, Pachnoda marginata aurantia Herbst, Pachnoda sinuata Heinrich and McClain, and Rhabdotis sobrina Gory and Percheron), Meloidae (Decapotoma lunata Pallas), Pentatomidae (Agonoscelis versicoloratus Dallas, Nezara viridula Linn, and Antestia sp. Kirkaldy), Coreidae (Leptoglossus membranaceus Fabricius and Cletus trigonus Thunberg), and Scutelleridae (Calidea panaethiopica Kirkaldy). Origin and 20 potential impact on J. curcas of all these insect species are presented and discussed. The lower insect’s diversity indexes are observed in 2010 and 2011 for Niamey, Saga, and Gaya because of semi-arid character of the Sahelian area. [less ▲]

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See detailWhole-genome sequence of Serratia symbiotica strain CWBI-2.3T, a free-living symbiont of the Black Bean Aphid Aphis fabae
Foray, Vincent; Grigorescu, Alina ULg; Sabri, Ahmed et al

in Genome Announcements (2014), 2(4),

The gammaproteobacterium Serratia symbiotica is one of the major secondary symbionts found in aphids. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of S. symbiotica strain CWBI-2.3T, previously isolated from ... [more ▼]

The gammaproteobacterium Serratia symbiotica is one of the major secondary symbionts found in aphids. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of S. symbiotica strain CWBI-2.3T, previously isolated from the black bean aphid Aphis fabae. The 3.58-Mb genome sequence might provide new insights to understand the evolution of insect-microbe symbiosis. [less ▲]

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See detailStudy of the potentiality of insect breeding system for human food in Cambodia (Ratanakiri province)
Caparros Megido, Rudy ULg; Alabi, Taofic ULg; Nieus, Clément et al

Conference (2014)

The main purpose of this work was to optimize a cheap cricket breeding production for local farmers based on unused wild resources. Cricket development (Teleogryllus testaceus (Walker)) was compared ... [more ▼]

The main purpose of this work was to optimize a cheap cricket breeding production for local farmers based on unused wild resources. Cricket development (Teleogryllus testaceus (Walker)) was compared according to seven diets composed of different ratio of aerial parts of taro, young cassava leaves, young cashew leaves, brown rice flour (with or without banana slices) and between the traditionally used chicken feed diet. Cricket mortality was low on all diets (<10 %) excepted on the two cashew-based diets (>90 %). Mean adult body mass was significantly higher on chicken feed diet and on the two cassava-based diet than on the other. Moreover, protein percentage in cassava-feed crickets was similar with this of wild crickets. As each villager grows cassava for their tubers without using the leaves, this free available resource could be used to rear crickets in order to contribute to the reduction of protein deficiency and create new source of incomes for local farmers. [less ▲]

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See detailConsumer acceptance of insect-based products
Caparros Megido, Rudy ULg; Gierts, Chloé; Blecker, Christophe ULg et al

Conference (2014)

In this study, sociocultural and food formulation aspects related to edible insects were investigated on Belgian consumers. Hedonic tests were realized to assess the acceptability of insect-based burgers ... [more ▼]

In this study, sociocultural and food formulation aspects related to edible insects were investigated on Belgian consumers. Hedonic tests were realized to assess the acceptability of insect-based burgers and insect-based breads. In the first experiment, four burgers (beef, lentil, beef/insect and lentil/insect) were presented to the participants. In the second experiment, entire mealworms, mealworm bread and mealworm crepes were presented to the participants. No difference of appreciations was noticed between a beef and a beef/insect burger and between a lentil and a lentil/insect burger. Crepes made of mealworm flour were slightly preferred in comparison with mealworm bread and entire mealworms. These results confirm that shape and appearance but also popularization and information spreading are key conditions in the acceptation of insect products in western countries and that insects will preferentially be consumed, in the future, if they are presented in an invisible way and associated with familiar flavors. [less ▲]

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See detailAphid honeydew: An arrestant and a contact kairomone for Episyrphus balteatus (Diptera: Syrphidae) larvae and adults
Leroy, Pascal; Almohamad, Raki; Attia, Sabrine et al

in European Journal of Entomology (2014), 111(2), 237-242

Predator searching efficiency increases in response to a variety of environmental cues associated with its prey. The sugary excretion of aphids (honeydew) has been found to act as a prey-associated cue ... [more ▼]

Predator searching efficiency increases in response to a variety of environmental cues associated with its prey. The sugary excretion of aphids (honeydew) has been found to act as a prey-associated cue for many aphid natural enemies. In the present study, the honeydew excreted by Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) was identified as an arrestant and a contact kairomone for young larvae and adults of a common predatory hoverfly, Episyrphus balteatus (De Geer) (Diptera: Syrphidae). First and second instar larvae increased their foraging behaviour in the honeydew-treated area. When plants were sprayed with crude honeydew, the speed of movement of female E. balteatus was significantly higher than in controls, resulting in a longer period of time spent on treated plants and laying eggs. We conclude that the honeydew excreted by A. pisum induces searching behaviour and acts as and arrestant not only for adults but also for young E. balteatus larvae. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimization of cricket breeding production system for human food in Ratanakiri province (Cambodia)
Caparros Megido, Rudy ULg; Alabi, Taofic ULg; Nieus, Clément et al

Poster (2014)

Despite many natural resources, Cambodia is considered as a relatively poor country with a Gross National Income per capita averaging about 880 USD in 2012. Annâdya project in the Ratanakiri province ... [more ▼]

Despite many natural resources, Cambodia is considered as a relatively poor country with a Gross National Income per capita averaging about 880 USD in 2012. Annâdya project in the Ratanakiri province (Cambodia) aims to improve the food security and nutrition of smallholder households by introducing and facilitating the adoption of productive and environmentally sustainable agricultural technologies. The main purpose of this work was to optimize a cheap cricket breeding production system for local farmers to contribute to the reduction of protein deficiency and to create new source of incomes. Cricket development, Teleogryllus testaceus (Walker), was compared between seven diets composed of different ratio of aerial parts of taro, young cassava leaves, young cashew leaves, brown rice flour (with or without the addition of banana slices) and between the traditionally used chicken feed diet. Cricket mortality was relatively low on all diets (<10 %) excepted on the two cashew-based diets where mortality achieves 90 %. Mean adult body mass of the cricket was significantly higher on control diet (chicken feed) and on the two cassava-based diet (80% of cassava leave flour, 20% of brown rice with or without banana slices) than on the other diets (F = 20.87, P<0.001). The nutritional analyzes of the seven diets shows that the ideal diet should contain 19% protein, 5-6% fat, and a percentage of carbohydrates as high as possible. While the cricket mass body gain seems to be proportional to the carbohydrate content of the diet, the use of older cassava leaves, more rich in carbohydrates than the younger ones, is an interesting solution to substitute relatively expensive brown rice and banana slices also consumed by local population. In the future, consideration should be given to the adjustment of cassava leave maturity in function of the cricket growth stage as it is already done with chicken feed in Thai cricket farms. [less ▲]

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See detailSituation and perspective of entomophagy in Kinshasa
Nsevolo, Papy; Caparros Megido, Rudy ULg; Blecker, Christophe ULg et al

Poster (2014)

Eating edible insects in Republic Democratic of Congo is a tradition for centuries but a lack of knowledge remains about an actualized inventory of species consumed in the country. Moreover, a rigorous ... [more ▼]

Eating edible insects in Republic Democratic of Congo is a tradition for centuries but a lack of knowledge remains about an actualized inventory of species consumed in the country. Moreover, a rigorous taxonomic matching of the used vernacular name of edible insects and a precise characterization of the sector of entomophagy are still needed. According to our studies focused on the city of Kinshasa, 14 edible species were inventoried as regularly consumed. They belong respectively and by degree of importance to the Lepidoptera (46.7%), Isoptera (18.6%), Orthoptera (17.6%), Coleoptera (9.7%) and Hymenoptera (3.7%) orders. Generally 80.0% of the Kinshasa population consumes at least one species of insects 5 days per month. The key peoples in the edible insect sector are mostly women. The incomes generated by this activity contribute to the well being of households, to reduce poverty and food insecurity in the capital Kinshasa. Future studies should focus on sustainable ways of harvesting wild populations, the use of improved conservation practices, the enhancement of cottage industries for farming insects and the development of economically feasible ways of mass-rearing edible species. [less ▲]

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See detailSix pattes et si délicieux : Les insectes dans nos assiettes
Caparros Megido, Rudy ULg; Haubruge, Eric ULg; Francis, Frédéric ULg

Book published by Les presses agronomiques de Gembloux (2014)

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See detailDepths and type of substrate influence the ability of Nasonia vitripennis Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to encounter host
Frederickx, Christine ULg; Dekeirsschieter, Jessica ULg; Verheggen, François ULg et al

in Journal of Insect Science [=JIS] (2014)

The foraging behaviour of a parasitoid insect species includes the host’s habitat and subsequent location of the host. Habitats-substrate, substrate moisture and light levels can affect the host location ... [more ▼]

The foraging behaviour of a parasitoid insect species includes the host’s habitat and subsequent location of the host. Habitats-substrate, substrate moisture and light levels can affect the host location made by different species of parasitoids. However, the depth at which parasitoids concentrate their search effort is an another important ecological characteristic and play an important role on the host location. Here, we have investigated the ability of a pupal parasitoid, Nasonia vitripennis Walker, to penetrate and kill fly pupae located at different depth of the substrate. Three different types of substrate were tested: loam soil, compost and vermiculite substrate. In both loam soil and compost, all of the parasitism activity was restricted to pupae placed directly on the surface. Parasitism activity in vermiculite showed that the average number of pupae parasitized was decreased with depth. These results suggest that fly pupae situated deeper in the substrate are less subjected to parasitism by N. vitripennis. [less ▲]

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See detailConsumer acceptance of insect-based meat substitutes
Caparros Megido, Rudy ULg; Gierts, Chloé; Blecker, Christophe ULg et al

Conference (2014)

Meat plays an important role in the consumption pattern of most European and North American consumers. Meat production is responsible for a well known environmental pressure due to the inefficient ... [more ▼]

Meat plays an important role in the consumption pattern of most European and North American consumers. Meat production is responsible for a well known environmental pressure due to the inefficient conversion of plant protein to meat protein and alternatives sources, such as insects or algae, will be rapidly required. In a recent theorical study, de Boer et al. (2013) show that consumers prefer to eat a hybrid meat product (i.e. a mix of meat and its substitute) rather than a pure meat substitute [3]. Based on these preliminary results, hedonic tests were realized to assess the acceptability of insect-based burgers in a target population composed of people from 15 to 25 years old, considered as the future insect consumers. Isolated in a tasting booth, each participant was invited to taste four burger samples containing a ratio of 20 gr of protein by 100 gr of burger. The first burger was prepared with 95% of grounded beef (1), the second with 95% of green lentil (2), the third with 45% of green lentil and 50% of mealworms (Tenebrio molitor L.; Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) and the fourth with 45% of grounded beef burger and 50% of mealworms. The last 5% of each burger consists of an aromatization portion containing onions, carrots, tomato paste and garlic. Participants were asked to rate each sample on a 9-point hedonic scale, where extreme sides were noted from “extremely dislike” (left) to “extremely like” (right). Tukey post-hoc comparisons on the appreciation results showed that beef-based products (with or without mealworms) were relatively preferred to lentil-based products (with or without mealworms), probably because hybrid meat burgers seem more familiar to the consumers than vegetable burgers, and that no liking differences were noticed between the two beef-based burgers and between the two insect-based burgers. These results confirm that shape and appearance are key criteria in the acceptation of meat substitute by non-vegetarian consumers and that insects will preferentially be consumed, in the future, if they are presented in an invisible way and associated with familiar flavors. [less ▲]

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