References of "Haubruge, Eric"
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See detailRisques et valorisation des insectes dans l’alimentation humaine et animale
Caparros Megido, Rudy ULg; Alabi, Taofic ULg; Larreché, Stéphane et al

in Annales de la Société Entomologique de France (2015)

In a context of dwindling lands and resources, associated wit a strong dependence on protein for feed and food, new methods of production and/or new food must be developed without affecting the quality of ... [more ▼]

In a context of dwindling lands and resources, associated wit a strong dependence on protein for feed and food, new methods of production and/or new food must be developed without affecting the quality of food, natural habitat and biodiversity of animal and vegetable species. As such, insects appear more and more as a solution of the future. To date, the consumption of insects is indicated by the term “entomophagy”, from the Ancient Greek “entomos” meaning insect and “phagos” meaning food. In such a context, a global evaluation of entomophagy seems essential before allowing the introduction of this practice in animal and human feed. Firstly, through this review, elements concerning the potentialities of insect valorization and their nutritional qualities will be brought. Secondly, the environmental impact of such a practice as well as the biological, chemical, physical or sanitary risks and even the potential presence of allergens and antinutritional factors will be approached. Thirdly, a review of the current European regulations will be proposed. Finally, reflections will be brought on the economic perspectives of entomophagy. [less ▲]

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See detailMeliponini and Apini in Africa (Apidae: Apinae): a review on the challenges and stakes bound to their diversity and their distribution
Fabre Anguilet, Edgard ULg; Nguyen, Bach Kim ULg; Bengone Ndong, Toussaint et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2015), 19(4),

Introduction. Meliponini and Apini contribute to the pollination of flowering plants and to improving agricultural yields. These bees’ diversity, distribution and abundance depend on the ecosystem in ... [more ▼]

Introduction. Meliponini and Apini contribute to the pollination of flowering plants and to improving agricultural yields. These bees’ diversity, distribution and abundance depend on the ecosystem in which they evolve. The present work aims to summarize the diversity, distribution, abundance, potential threats, challenges and issues faced with respect to these social bees in Africa. Literature. In Africa, there were 21 species of Meliponini and 2 species of Apini (Apis). Aspects related to the species diversity, distribution, biology, ecology and abundance of nests are poorly documented, especially for Meliponini. This deficit could be related to a lack of interest of the authors or the various difficulties in performing these studies in Africa. With regard to the difficulties, there is a need to clarify the taxonomy of Meliponini, and the observation of nests in certain forest environments is difficult. Nest predation and habitat loss are the main threats that could cause the depopulation of certain social bee species in Africa. If there is currently new evidence that diseases and pests did not endanger these bees, then there is a need for further studies for better assessment of the risks that are associated with these potential threats. Conclusions. Work on the diversity, distribution and abundance of the social bees must be strengthened to address the challenges that are related to these insects in Africa. Indeed, this approach will contribute to answering the challenges of sustainable management of the biodiversity and economic and agricultural issues. [less ▲]

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See detailAre edible insects really green?
Caparros Megido, Rudy ULg; Alabi, Taofic ULg; Haubruge, Eric ULg et al

in Food Science and Law (2015)

Edible insects are considered as one of the future and sustainable sources of animal protein. Insects for food or feed could have several origins. In Asia, Africa, South America or Oceania, the diversity ... [more ▼]

Edible insects are considered as one of the future and sustainable sources of animal protein. Insects for food or feed could have several origins. In Asia, Africa, South America or Oceania, the diversity of edible insects is very high (approximately 2000 species) and these insects are principally collected from the wild or semi-cultivated. However, in Western countries, entomophagy promoters rely on a few numbers of insect species (approximately 10 species) and on the development of industrial farming of these insects. Effectively, insects are good candidates for sustainable farming as they possess a high conversion rate and a low environmental impact, require a reduced-size breeding space and could recycle organic industrial and/or agricultural by-products. This review will discuss the different possible origins of edible insects and the environmental impact related to these practices. Moreover, as scientific literature is very poor on this subject, suggestions on further studies in this area will be proposed. [less ▲]

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See detailLes vers à soie sauvages à Madagascar : Enjeux écologiques et socio-économiques
Verheggen, François ULg; Haubruge, Eric ULg; Bogaert, Jan ULg

in Entomologie Faunistique = Faunistic Entomology (2015), 68

We here introduce the book « The Malagasy silk moths: ecological and socio-economic challenges » published in 2013 by the Presses agronomiques de Gembloux (Belgium). This book reflects the achievements ... [more ▼]

We here introduce the book « The Malagasy silk moths: ecological and socio-economic challenges » published in 2013 by the Presses agronomiques de Gembloux (Belgium). This book reflects the achievements and scientific activities of the project "Sustainable Management and valorisation of the endemic silkworm Borocera cajani in forest areas in the Antananarivo region" funded by Commission universitaire pour le Développement (CUD - CIUF). [less ▲]

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See detailProduction of biofuels and biomolecules in the framework of circular economy: A regional case study
Jacquet, Nicolas ULg; Haubruge, Eric ULg; Richel, Aurore ULg

in Waste Management & Research : The Journal of the International Solid Wastes & Public Cleansing Association (2015), 33(12), 1121-1126

Faced to the economic and energetic context of our society, it is widely recognised that an alternative to fossil fuels and oil-based products will be needed in the nearest future. In this way ... [more ▼]

Faced to the economic and energetic context of our society, it is widely recognised that an alternative to fossil fuels and oil-based products will be needed in the nearest future. In this way, development of urban biorefinery could bring many solutions to this problem. Study of the implementation of urban biorefinery highlights two sustainable configurations that provide solutions to the Walloon context by promoting niche markets, developing circular economy and reducing transport of supply feedstock. First, autonomous urban biorefineries are proposed, which use biological waste for the production of added value molecules and/or finished products and are energetically self-sufficient. Second,integrated urban biorefineries, which benefit from an energy supply from a nearby industrial activity. In the Walloon economic context, these types of urban biorefineries could provide solutions by promoting niche markets, developing a circular economy model, optimise the transport of supply feedstock and contribute to the sustainable development. [less ▲]

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See detailProduction of biofuels and biobased compounds in urban biorefineries
Richel, Aurore ULg; Haubruge, Eric ULg

in Journal of Fundamental Renewable Energy and Applications (2015), 5(6), 93

“Urban biorefining” is an original concept aiming at using urban wastes (household wastes, municipal wastes, industrial liquid and or solid residues and side-products etc) mainly of vegetal origin for the ... [more ▼]

“Urban biorefining” is an original concept aiming at using urban wastes (household wastes, municipal wastes, industrial liquid and or solid residues and side-products etc) mainly of vegetal origin for the production of an array of biofuels and bio-products. This “urban bio-refining” concept fits particularly with the economic, geographic and politic contexts and constraints of the Walloon Region (south part of Belgium). Indeed, Walloon Region is a very small territory (area of about 6,504 sq mi) with a temperate climate. Supply feedstock mainly arising form forestry and agriculture are thus rather restricted, submitted to importation and subjected to non-standardized quality. Several examples of our regional strategy still available on an industrial scale are herein proposed and detailed. [less ▲]

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See detailProduction of biofuels and biobased compounds in urban biorefineries: A new paradigm for green chemistry
Richel, Aurore ULg; Haubruge, Eric ULg; Jacquet, Nicolas ULg

in Organic Chemistry Current Research (2015), 4(2), 88

Urban bio-refining is an original concept aiming at using urban wastes (household wastes, municipal wastes, industrial liquid and/or solid residues and side-products, etc.), mainly of vegetable origin ... [more ▼]

Urban bio-refining is an original concept aiming at using urban wastes (household wastes, municipal wastes, industrial liquid and/or solid residues and side-products, etc.), mainly of vegetable origin, for the production of an array of biofuels and bioproducts. This urban bio-refining concept fits particularly with the economic, geographic and politic contexts and constraints of the Walloon Region (south part of Belgium). Indeed, Walloon Region is a very small territory (area of about 6,504 sq mi) with a temperate climate. Supply feedstock, mainly arising from forestry and agriculture, are thus rather restricted, submitted to importation, and subjected to non-standardized quality. Several examples of our regional strategy, still available on an industrial scale, are herein proposed and detailed. [less ▲]

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See detailOrientation behaviour of Culicoides obsoletus (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), a relevant virus vector in northern Europe, toward host-associated odorant cues
Zimmer, Jean-Yves; Verheggen, François ULg; Haubruge, Eric ULg et al

in Veterinary Parasitology (2015), 211

Some Culicoides biting midge species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are biological virus vectors worldwide and have recently been associated with outbreaks of important epizootic diseases such as bluetongue ... [more ▼]

Some Culicoides biting midge species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are biological virus vectors worldwide and have recently been associated with outbreaks of important epizootic diseases such as bluetongue and Schmallenberg in northern Europe. These diseases, which affect domestic and wild ruminants, have caused considerable economic losses. Knowledge of host preferences of these biting midges – especially of the relevant vectors of arboviruses near farms, such as Culicoides obsoletus in northern Europe – is essential to understand pathogen transmission cycles and the epidemiology of associated diseases. This study aimed to determine host preferences of C. obsoletus using an in-field flight tunnel containing pairs of calf, sheep, chicken, and human hosts (and controls) and a laboratory two-choice bioassay containing volatile extracts of host skin (and controls). Behavioural responses of nulliparous C. obsoletus females in the in-field flight tunnel showed a preference for human (but also calf and sheep) hosts, probably due to their exhalation of greater quantities of carbon dioxide. The laboratory experiment revealed that volatile organic compounds released from the skin of chicken and sheep seemed to attract this species. Culicoides obsoletus, thus, seems to have a wide host range and to be particularly attracted by humans under field conditions. A better understanding of vector–host interaction could enable the development of control strategies against adult biting midges, by exploiting insect-repelling or -attractive semiochemicals. Volatile extracts of chicken and/or sheep skin could be used to identify volatile compounds attractive to C. obsoletus, which in turn could be used in baited traps. [less ▲]

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See detailDes insectes au menu: apports protéiques et nutriments particuliers?
Caparros Megido, Rudy ULg; Alabi, Taofic ULg; Haubruge, Eric ULg et al

in 56èmes Journées Nationales de Diététique et de Nutrition (2015)

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See detailAphid species and associated natural enemies in field crops: what about the invasive ladybird Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)?
Vandereycken, Axel ULg; Durieux, Delphine ULg; Joie, Emilie ULg et al

in Entomologie Faunistique = Faunistic Entomology (2015), 68

Following the introduction in the 80's of the invasive coccinellid species Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) in Europe, several studies have begun to focus on the interactions with other aphid predator species ... [more ▼]

Following the introduction in the 80's of the invasive coccinellid species Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) in Europe, several studies have begun to focus on the interactions with other aphid predator species. In this study, aphids and associated predators were sampled to determine their relative abundance in four agricultural crops (broad bean, corn, potato, and wheat) in Belgium during 2010 and 2011. The Moericke trap was used to quantify the mean number of aphids and aphid predators from May to September in both years. A total of 28 aphid species and 21 aphidophagous species were observed. In both years, H. axyridis was among the most abundant aphidophagous predators in all four crops, and was the second most abundant coccinellid species after Coccinella septempunctata L. The community of aphidophagous species was similar across all four inventoried crops. However, the highest population densities of this alien species were recorded in broad bean and potato crops, which also hosted the highest aphid population densities. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the communities of aphid predators are highly diversified in the agroecosystems, despite the high occurrence of H. axyridis, an introduced predator that has become well established in this environment. [less ▲]

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See detailFirst Evidence of a Volatile Sex Pheromone in Lady Beetles
Fassotte, Bérénice ULg; Fischer, Christophe ULg; Durieux, Delphine ULg et al

in PLoS ONE (2014)

To date, volatile sex pheromones have not been identified in the Coccinellidae family; yet, various studies have suggested that such semiochemicals exist. Here, we collected volatile chemicals released by ... [more ▼]

To date, volatile sex pheromones have not been identified in the Coccinellidae family; yet, various studies have suggested that such semiochemicals exist. Here, we collected volatile chemicals released by virgin females of the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), which were either allowed or not allowed to feed on aphids. Virgin females in the presence of aphids, exhibited “calling behavior”, which is commonly associated with the emission of a sex pheromone in several Coleoptera species. These calling females were found to release a blend of volatile compounds that is involved in the remote attraction (i.e., from a distance) of males. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses revealed that (–)-β-caryophyllene was the major constituent of the volatile blend (ranging from 80 to 86%), with four other chemical components also being present; β-elemene, methyl-eugenol, α-humulene, and α-bulnesene. In a second set of experiments, the emission of the five constituents identified from the blend was quantified daily over a 9-day period after exposure to aphids. We found that the quantity of all five chemicals significantly increased across the experimental period. Finally, we evaluated the activity of a synthetic blend of these chemicals by performing bioassays which demonstrated the same attractive effect in males only. The results confirm that female H. axyridis produce a volatile sex pheromone. These findings have potential in the development of more specific and efficient biological pest-control management methods aimed at manipulating the behavior of this invasive lady beetle. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of two capture methods in the assessment of species richness of eusocial bees in Gabon
Fabre Anguilet, Edgard ULg; Bengone Ndong, Toussaint; Francis, Frédéric ULg et al

Poster (2014, December 13)

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See detailBelowground Chemical Ecology: The Case of Wireworms
Barsics, Fanny ULg; Delory, Benjamin ULg; Delaplace, Pierre ULg et al

Conference (2014, December 13)

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See detailHoney bee colony strength - Assessing accuracy of the Liebefeld estimation method
Leclercq, Gil ULg; Gengler, Nicolas ULg; Francis, Frédéric ULg et al

Poster (2014, December 12)

Honey bee colony strength (number of adult bees in a colony) is a crucial character used for both breeding and research. In breeding programs a rough estimate is usually sufficient to select strong ... [more ▼]

Honey bee colony strength (number of adult bees in a colony) is a crucial character used for both breeding and research. In breeding programs a rough estimate is usually sufficient to select strong colonies. On the other hand, the accuracy of this character can deeply affect the quality of several studies in both fundamental and applied research. For example these studies are related to the assessment of low demographic variations following a stress, or the estimate of a host-parasite ratio (e.g. involving the mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman). The “Liebefeld estimation method” is extensively used in these studies while its accuracy remains weakly documented. Our goal is to provide more information on the accuracy of this method. [less ▲]

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See detailLes porcheries : réservoirs des Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), vecteurs des virus de la Maladie de la Langue bleue et de Schmallenberg ?
Zimmer, Jean-Yves ULg; Saegerman, Claude ULg; Martinelle, Ludovic ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2014), 18(4), 480-487

La fièvre catarrhale ovine (FCO) est une arbovirose qui affecte les ruminants domestiques et sauvages. Depuis sa récente apparition en Europe du Nord, cette épizootie virale a engendré des pertes ... [more ▼]

La fièvre catarrhale ovine (FCO) est une arbovirose qui affecte les ruminants domestiques et sauvages. Depuis sa récente apparition en Europe du Nord, cette épizootie virale a engendré des pertes économiques considérables. Les vecteurs biologiques du virus de la FCO sont des moucherons piqueurs appartenant au genre Culicoides (Diptera : Ceratopogonidae). Plusieurs campagnes de piégeage lumineux de ces moucherons adultes ont été réalisées précédemment en Belgique au sein d’exploitations bovines et ovines, mais aucune à l’intérieur des exploitations porcines. Cette étude vise donc à évaluer, au moyen de pièges lumineux, les populations de culicoïdes éventuellement présentes à l’intérieur de deux porcheries belges au cours de l’automne et de l’hiver 2008. La présence des espèces (potentiellement) vectrices du genre Culicoides a ainsi été mise en évidence à l’intérieur de ces bâtiments durant l’automne : 8 et 749 spécimens appartenant à 2 et 7 espèces ont ainsi respectivement été piégés au sein des porcheries, avec une majorité de femelles du complexe Obsoletus. L’ouverture des bâtiments semble fortement influencer leur présence. L’observation du statut alimentaire des femelles laisse supposer que ces moucherons sont susceptibles de se nourrir ou de pondre au sein des porcheries, même si le sang de porc n’a pas pu être identifié dans l’abdomen des femelles gorgées et que le lisier n’a pas révélé la présence de larves. Les porcs pourraient ainsi intervenir dans le maintien des populations d’espèces potentiellement vectrices du virus de la FCO, ou du nouveau virus dénommé virus Schmallenberg. [less ▲]

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See detailWood digestion in lower termites: multidisciplinary approaches based on differential feeding
Bauwens, Julien ULg; Brasseur, Catherine ULg; Tarayre, Cédric ULg et al

Poster (2014, December)

Termites digestive tract and hindgut especially still holds many secrets despites hundreds of years of research. The complexity of the symbiotic microbial community and the contrast of physio-chemical ... [more ▼]

Termites digestive tract and hindgut especially still holds many secrets despites hundreds of years of research. The complexity of the symbiotic microbial community and the contrast of physio-chemical environments found in lower termites paunch are potentially the key point to explain the efficiency of ligno-cellulose digestion. Contribution of advancing technologies accelerates the progress of our knowledge in this field. Here, we present multiple approaches combining old and recent techniques used to highlight the effect of ligno-cellulosic compounds on termite gut and the role of populations from the symbiotic microbial community. Termites Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) submitted to various artificial diets showed variations in flagellates populations profile and enzymatic activities. Differential protein expression was investigated using 2D-DIGE MALDI-TOF-TOF and 2D-LC-MS/MS using high resolution orbitrap analyzer. Results from both proteomic experiments tend to support each-other and bring complementary points of view. The gel-free analysis resulted in highly contrasted identification of enzymes involved in ligno-cellulose digestion and metabolism. Finally, differential feeding experiments leaded to in vivo selection of different symbiotic communities. These communities were characterized following some metabolism assays and allowed the cultivation of diverse microbial consortia using media closely related to the respective artificial diets. This work provides relevant data on termite and associated microbial community response to alimentary diets. [less ▲]

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See detailThe role of olfaction in wireworms: a review on foraging behavior and sensory apparatus
Barsics, Fanny ULg; Haubruge, Eric ULg; Francis, Frédéric ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2014), 18(4), 524-535

Introduction Integrated management of wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) depends upon approaches applied both above- and belowground, and over several spatial scales. While foraging, these soil pests use ... [more ▼]

Introduction Integrated management of wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) depends upon approaches applied both above- and belowground, and over several spatial scales. While foraging, these soil pests use biotic and abiotic signals to orientate towards target plant organs. Development of efficient techniques for implementation in integrated strategies relies upon improved knowledge of this process. In particular, an important step consists of elucidating the role of volatile organic compounds (VOC), emitted by belowground plant organs, in wireworm chemical ecology. This would have a positive impact on push-pull strategies and varietal selection developed against these insects. Literature In this work, we summarized the available data regarding wireworm foraging behavior as well as variables that should be considered when studying the potential role of plant-produced volatile semiochemicals. This includes CO2 gradients and other host-related cues, temperature, relative humidity and soil moisture, and wireworm physiological stage. We also review what is known of the sensory apparatus of wireworms, since this is involved in every step of the foraging process. Conclusion Some baseline data for studying VOC related wireworm foraging behavior exists. Using it as a tool in applied entomology should result in discovery of the semiochemicals that underpin trophic interactions involving these pests. However, most of the key pest species are not fully described with regards to the parameters detailed here. Obtaining accurate information to fill the current knowledge gaps will be needed in order to devise new integrated management strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailIsolation and cultivation of xylanolytic and cellulolytic Sarocladium kiliense and Trichoderma virens from the gut of the termite Reticulitermes santonensis
Tarayre, Cédric ULg; Bauwens, Julien ULg; Brasseur, Catherine ULg et al

in Environmental Science and Pollution Research (2014)

The purpose of this work was the isolation and cultivation of cellulolytic and xylanolytic microorganisms extracted from the gut of the lower termite Reticulitermes santonensis. Microcrystalline cellulose ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this work was the isolation and cultivation of cellulolytic and xylanolytic microorganisms extracted from the gut of the lower termite Reticulitermes santonensis. Microcrystalline cellulose (with and without lignin) and beech wood xylan were used as diets instead of poplar wood in order to select cellulose and hemicellulose-degrading fungi. The strain Sarocladium kiliense (Acremonium kiliense) CTGxxyl was isolated from the termites fed on xylan, while the strain Trichoderma virens CTGxAviL was isolated from the termites fed on cellulose (with and without lignin). Both molds were cultivated in liquid media containing different substrates: agro-residues or purified polymers. S. kiliense produced maximal β-glucosidase, endo-1,4-β-D-glucanase, exo-1,4-β-D-glucanase and endo-1,4-β-D-xylanase activities of 0.103, 3.99, 0.53, and 40.8 IU/ml, respectively. T. virens produced maximal β-xylosidase, endo-1,4-β-D-glucanase, exo-1,4-β-D-glucanase, and endo-1,4-β-D-xylanase activities of 0.38, 1.48, 0.69, and 426 IU/ml. The cellulase and the xylanase of S. kiliense, less common than T. virens, were further investigated. The optimal activity of the xylanase was observed at pH 9–10 at 60 °C. The cellulase showed its maximal activity at pH 10, 70 °C. Zymography identified different xylanases produced by both molds, and some fragment sizes were highlighted: 35, 100, and 170 kDa for S. kiliense and 20, 40, 80, and 170 kDa for T. virens. In both cases, endo-1,4-β-D-xylanase activitieswere confirmed through mass spectrometry. [less ▲]

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See detailHarmonia axyridis population study in agroecosystems
Vandereycken, Axel ULg; Fassotte, Bérénice ULg; Durieux, Delphine ULg et al

Poster (2014, October)

The Multicoloured Asian ladybird, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), is one of these species which was intentionally introduced for biological control and has spread from its native ... [more ▼]

The Multicoloured Asian ladybird, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), is one of these species which was intentionally introduced for biological control and has spread from its native range in Central and Eastern Asia to large parts of North and South America, Europe, and Africa. The decline of native species is linked to the spread and the aggressive behaviour of H. axyridis. From 2009, we evaluated the population densities of aphids predator and predator diversities, with a special focus on H. axyridis in agroecosystems of Wallonia (South of Belgium). First, field crops preferences of H. axyridis were determined. Later, changes linked to aphid’s predator populations over time were evaluated. Finally, H. axyridis population changes between two crop farming methods were also evaluated. Samplings performed in agroecosystems highlighted that the community of aphid's predator is composed of few dominant species: three coccinellids (Coccinella septempunctata L., P. quatuordecimpunctata L., and H. axyridis), one syrphid (Episyrphus balteatus De Geer), and one chrysopid (Chrysoperla carnea Stephens). We demonstrated that H. axyridis do not invade all crops at the same rate, maize and broad bean being more infested than wheat and potato at both larval and adult stages. Moreover, H. axyridis populations in maize have strongly increased from 2009 to 2011. Finally, we showed that organic farming do not contribute to increase the abundance of H. axyridis but leads to increase the total abundance of aphid’s natural enemies. [less ▲]

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