References of "Haubruge, Eric"
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See detailPhenology of the invasive coccinellid Harmonia axyridis Pallas and other aphidophages in crops
Vandereycken, Axel ULg; Durieux, Delphine ULg; Joie, Emilie ULg et al

Poster (2012, May 22)

The multicoloured Asian ladybird Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), previously introduced as a biological control agent to control aphids populations, is now frequently considered as an ... [more ▼]

The multicoloured Asian ladybird Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), previously introduced as a biological control agent to control aphids populations, is now frequently considered as an intraguild predator, consuming other aphids natural enemies. The interactions between this exotic ladybird and other aphidophagous species present in Belgian agro-ecosystems are mainly asymmetric in support of H. axyridis. An aphidophages sampling has been performed between 2009 and 2011 in four agrosystems such as broad bean, wheat, corn and potato. The sampling method consisted in the counting of aphids and all developmental stages of aphidophages present in quadrats of 1m² from April to September. Harmonia axyridis, the invasive coccinellid, was mainly observed in broad bean (21.84 ± 6.30 individuals/100m²) and corn (70.83±6.60 individuals/100m²) with other aphidophages such as Episyrphus balteatus (De Geer), Chrysoperla carnea sensus lato (Stephens), Coccinella septempunctata (Linné) and Propylea quatuordecimpunctata (Linné). In corn, our field data showed that immature stages and adults of H. axyridis were found throughout the summer. Adults were observed from mid-June to the beginning of September with two peaks, in the late June and in the beginning of August. The life history of larvae starts in late-June to the beginning of Augustus with only one peak (347.91 ± 59.99 individuals /100m²) in the beginning of July. The peak of H. axyridis arrives when no extraguild preys are present. At this moment, pupae of E. balteatus and C. septempunctata are the main food available to ensure the development of H. axyridis so that native aphidophages could be intraguild prey for H. axyridis. In the four crops, reproduction of H. axyridis starts after those of other aphidophages and so it does not benefit of available prey such as aphid: in corn and broad bean, C. septempunctata reproduce the first, in wheat it is E. balteatus and in potato it is C. carnea. That could be explained by several reasons: (1) H. axyridis reproduces firstly in arboreal habitats and after that comes in agrosystems, (2) the delay between aphidophage reproductions allows a reduction of interactions with other larvae during spring and therefore decrease mortality levels and (3) H. axyridis is able to use pollen as food substitute when no aphids are available. [less ▲]

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See detailFactors involved in the aggregation of Harmonia axyridis Pallas
Durieux, Delphine ULg; Fischer, Christophe ULg; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis et al

Conference (2012, May 22)

In order to survive cold winters, the invasive multicoloured Asian ladybeetle, Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) forms large aggregations in dwellings to overwinter. The factors ... [more ▼]

In order to survive cold winters, the invasive multicoloured Asian ladybeetle, Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) forms large aggregations in dwellings to overwinter. The factors involved in the selection of aggregation sites remain misunderstood. The work presented herein focussed on the study of the chemical compounds involved in this phenomenon. Chemical and behavioural analyses highlighted that long-chain hydrocarbons lead congeners towards aggregation sites and ensure the cohesion of the cluster. Subsequently, physical factors were investigated. We studied the influence of (1) the density of individuals and (2) the quality of available shelters on H. axyridis decision to settle and aggregate under shelters. A binary choice experiment conducted in laboratory showed that the multicoloured Asian ladybeetles present a permanent aggregative behaviour, even during non-wintering conditions. These experiments also highlighted the existence of social interactions between individuals. All these results contribute to improve knowledge of this behaviour in H. axyridis and could be used in the design of species-specific traps in order to control infestations in dwellings. [less ▲]

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See detailA Semiochemical Slow-release Formulation in a Biological Control Approach to Attract Hoverflies
Heuskin, Stéphanie ULg; Lorge, Stéphanie ULg; Leroy, Pascal ULg et al

in Journal of Environment and Ecology (2012), 3(1), 72-85

E-β-Farnesene, the alarm pheromone of many aphid species, and E-β-caryophyllene are considered as two sesquiterpenes attractive for aphid predators, among which Syrphidae species. Both compounds were ... [more ▼]

E-β-Farnesene, the alarm pheromone of many aphid species, and E-β-caryophyllene are considered as two sesquiterpenes attractive for aphid predators, among which Syrphidae species. Both compounds were formulated in alginate gel beads as slow-release devices in a biological control approach against aphids. Semiochemical diffusion from beads was studied in the laboratory according to abiotic parameters. Efficiency of formulations as hoverfly attractant was demonstrated in field experiments from June to August 2009. The diffusion of semiochemicals from alginate bead formulations was principally limited by high values (>85%) of relative humidity in the air. Temperature also impacts the release of volatile compounds. In field experiments, these two abiotic factors were supposed to highly condition the trapping of hoverflies. These field trappings demonstrated the efficiency of both semiochemical formulations compared to control (formulation without semiochemical) to catch females of Syrphidae during three months. [less ▲]

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See detailMultidisciplinary and Evidence-based Method for Prioritizing Diseases of Food-producing Animals and Zoonoses
Humblet, Marie-France ULg; Vandeputte, Sébastien ULg; Albert, Adelin ULg et al

in Emerging Infectious Diseases (2012), 18(4),

To prioritize 100 animal diseases and zoonoses in Europe, we used a multicriteria decision-making procedure based on opinions of experts and evidence-based data. Forty international experts performed ... [more ▼]

To prioritize 100 animal diseases and zoonoses in Europe, we used a multicriteria decision-making procedure based on opinions of experts and evidence-based data. Forty international experts performed intracategory and intercategory weighting of 57 prioritization criteria. Two methods (deterministic with mean of each weight and probabilistic with distribution functions of weights by using Monte Carlo simulation) were used to calculate a score for each disease. Consecutive ranking was established. Few differences were observed between each method. Compared with previous prioritization methods, our procedure is evidence based, includes a range of fields and criteria while considering uncertainty, and will be useful for analyzing diseases that affect public health [less ▲]

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See detailSalivary Glucose Oxidase from Caterpillars Mediates the Induction of Rapid and Delayed-Induced Defenses in the Tomato Plant
Tian, Donglan; Peiffer, Michelle; Shoemaker, Erica et al

in PLoS ONE (2012), 7(4), 36168

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See detailEvaluation de la diversité des pucerons et de leurs ennemis naturels en cultures maraîchères dans l’est de la Chine
Chevalier Mendes Lopes, Thomas ULg; Bosquée, Emilie ULg; Polo Lozano, Damien ULg et al

in Entomologie Faunistique = Faunistic Entomology (2012), 64(3), 63-71

The aim of this study was to evaluate the diversity and abundance of aphids and aphidophagous beneficials in courgettes and potato fields in the Shandong province, East of China. The assessment of aphid ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to evaluate the diversity and abundance of aphids and aphidophagous beneficials in courgettes and potato fields in the Shandong province, East of China. The assessment of aphid and related beneficial populations was conducted between May 9th and June 13th, 2011, using yellow traps and in situ observations on plants. A total of 53,206 insects were trapped and 35,144 observed on the plants. Aphids widely predominated in the traps and exerted a strong pressure on both crops early in the season. Two main species were identified on the plants, namely Aphis gossypii on the courgettes and Myzus persicae on the potatoes. Ladybirds were the most abundant aphidophagous predators, especially Coccinella septempunctata on the courgettes and Propylea japonica on the potato fields, the first one being earlier than the second. Only few hoverflies and lacewings were captured. Microhymenoptera appeared later in the season. The Aphidius gifuensis species represented the majority of trapped Braconidae, while the family Aphelinidae contained the largest number of individuals in the aphidiphagous. [less ▲]

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See detailL'entomophagie basée sur la production locale d'insectes comestibles : sommes-nous prêts ?
Sablon, Ludovic ULg; Alabi, Taofic Abdel Fabrice ULg; Drugmand, Didier et al

Poster (2012, March 07)

Les perspectives d’évolution de la population mondiale annoncent un accroissement continu menant à un niveau supérieur à 9 milliards d’individus d’ici 2050. Cette augmentation correspondra inévitablement ... [more ▼]

Les perspectives d’évolution de la population mondiale annoncent un accroissement continu menant à un niveau supérieur à 9 milliards d’individus d’ici 2050. Cette augmentation correspondra inévitablement à des besoins alimentaires accrus au niveau mondial. Même si des spécificités en terme de produits consommés et de disponibilités – facilités de productions varient d’une région à une autre, la limitation des superficies à consacrer aux productions agricoles, notamment dans le cadre des ressources animales est une constante. Il ne sera pas possible d’assurer des productions animales conventionnelles pour fournir les ressources nécessaires aux populations humaines à venir. Bien que les produits animaux comme sources de nutriments doivent être développés, il s’agit maintenant de se tourner vers des filières alternatives pour maximiser les ressources végétales utilisées en élevage, tout en minimisant l’espace nécessaire et les effets sur l’environnement, notamment en terme de résidus et polluants potentiels. L'entomophagie, ou le fait de consommer des insectes comme source alimentaire d’origine animale, est connue et pratiquée dans de nombreuses régions du monde depuis des siècles. A chaque situation locale, une solution entomologique comme ressource alimentaire peut être appliquée : par la collecte dans la nature ou par le développement d’élevage d’espèces indigènes. Si l’entomophagie est peu appliquée en Europe, c’est sans doute d’une part lié à une absence dans nos mœurs alimentaires et d’autre part lié à la diversité et l’abondance d’autres ressources animales plus conventionnelles dans notre référentiel occidental. Au vu de l’état prévisionnel de la difficulté à produire les ressources alimentaires animales dans un futur proche, peut-être est-il temps de ne plus considérer les insectes comme uniquement nuisibles et négatifs mais plutôt comme de nouvelles espèces à développer par exemple dans des productions industrielles. Si la taille de ces animaux d’élevage reste réduite, leurs capacités de reproduction, leurs courtes durées de développement et les taux de conversion de la biomasse végétale utilisée comme aliments nous permettent d’envisager des unités de production de tonnes de biomasses animales. En plus de cet aspect quantitatif, plusieurs paramètres qualitatifs font de nombreux insectes des ressources utiles notamment en terme de protéines (et plus particulièrement en terme de composition en acides aminés plus rares) et de lipides (avec une majorité d’acides gras insaturés, des ratios omégas 3 et 6 intéressants, l’absence de cholestérol,…). Chez nous l'entomophagie est encore méconnue même si l'on peut constater un intérêt croissant notamment ces derniers mois. Entre curiosité gustative, éveil environnementaliste lié au faibles quantités de résidus liées à la production d’insectes vis-à-vis d’autres élevages, ou efficacité de transformation de ressources végétales limitées, de plus en plus de personnes souhaitent franchir le pas de ne plus regarder mais bien goûter de l’insecte. Dans le cadre de plusieurs études menées à Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech – Université de Liège ainsi qu’à l’Insectarium Jean Leclercq – Hexapoda à Waremme, certains aspects socio-culturels liés à une diversité de préparations à base d’insectes ont été investigués. Des tendances nettes sur les critères menant à l’acceptation ou le refus catégorique de manger de l’insectes ont ainsi été déterminés. Aussi, des formulations particulières peuvent également être ciblées pour favoriser l’appréciation de la dégustation d’insectes. Face au défi alimentaire du futur et à l'intérêt croissant pour l'entomophagie dans diverses régions dont l’Europe, l’élevage industriel d’insectes constitue une piste sérieuse pour fournir une part non négligeable de produits animaux afin d’assurer des ressources notamment de divers nutriments pour les populations humaines. Diverses recherches sont actuellement en cours tant sur les aspects techniques de production que sur les approches socio-culturelles. Nul doute que d’ici quelques années, entiers ou fractionnés les insectes feront partie de nos régimes et habitudes alimentaires. [less ▲]

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See detailSelf-assemblage and quorum in the earthworm Eisenia fetida (Oligochaete, Lumbricidae)
Zirbes, Lara ULg; Brostaux, Yves ULg; Mescher, Mark et al

in PLoS ONE (2012), 7(3), 32564

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See detailVolatile organic compounds released by barley roots attract wireworms
Barsics, Fanny ULg; Fiers, Marie ULg; Haubruge, Eric ULg et al

Poster (2012, February 10)

Wireworms are the soil dwelling larvae of click beetles and are pests of many crops worldwide. Alternatives to insecticide treatments are needed in order to develop integrated management strategies. Our ... [more ▼]

Wireworms are the soil dwelling larvae of click beetles and are pests of many crops worldwide. Alternatives to insecticide treatments are needed in order to develop integrated management strategies. Our work consists in elucidating the role of barley root-emitted volatile organic compounds on the orientation behaviour of Agriotes sordidus wireworms. Using a dual choice olfactometer we have evaluated the attractiveness of a variety of baits ranging from barley roots themselves to isolated root-emitted volatile organic compounds. Wireworms were significantly attracted towards most of the tested baits. Our results should be taken into account in varietal selection, in crop rotation, or in trapping systems aiming at the reduction of the populations of this pest. [less ▲]

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See detailAphid predators sampling in agrosystems in Belgium between 2009 and 2011
Vandereycken, Axel ULg; Durieux, Delphine ULg; Joie, Emilie ULg et al

Poster (2012, February 10)

The Multicolored Asian ladybird, Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), was imported in 1997 in Belgium to control aphid populations. Few years ago after its introduction, this exotic ... [more ▼]

The Multicolored Asian ladybird, Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), was imported in 1997 in Belgium to control aphid populations. Few years ago after its introduction, this exotic insect was well adapted to temperate climate conditions and spread out all over ecosystems in Europe causing decline of other aphidophagous species. In arboreal habitats, H. axyridis is the most dominant Coccinellids but we are still lacking information about this occurrence in agrosystems. An aphidophages sampling between 2009 and 2011 was realized in four agrosystems such as broad bean, wheat, corn and potato. Nevertheless H. axyridis populations rise (5 times) from 2009 to 2011 in 2011, H. axyridis is the third most observed aphidophages after Episyrphus balteatus (De Geer) and Coccinella septempunctata (Linné). H. axyridis is the dominating species in corn with 70.83±6.60 individuals per 100m². [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of the genetic diversity of honey bees, Apis mellifera L. in the Walloon Region and selection of strains tolerant to the mite Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman
Leclercq, Gil ULg; Nguyen, Bach Kim ULg; Gengler, Nicolas ULg et al

Poster (2012, February 10)

For more than a decade, high losses of honey bee colonies have been noticed in several countries, including Belgium. Currently often the mite Varroa destructor is considered a main threat for beekeeping ... [more ▼]

For more than a decade, high losses of honey bee colonies have been noticed in several countries, including Belgium. Currently often the mite Varroa destructor is considered a main threat for beekeeping. In view of the inefficiency of the current chemical treatments, one of the solutions is to select honey bees tolerant to this parasite using genomic selection. To reach this objective the genetic diversity of honey bees needs first to be studied using mainly ‘Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms’ (SNP). Records and samples will be collected all over the Walloon Region in order to create an informative phenotypic and genomic data base that will be used for ‘Genome Wide Association Studies’ (GWAS) to detect associations between SNPs and tolerance, and to select bees tolerant to Varroa destructor. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) overwintering sites
Fassotte, Bérénice ULg; Durieux, Delphine ULg; Haubruge, Eric ULg et al

Poster (2012, February 10)

The invasive multicoloured Asian ladybird, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), forms large aggregations inside dwellings to overwinter. In order to highlight the specific features of infested houses, we ... [more ▼]

The invasive multicoloured Asian ladybird, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), forms large aggregations inside dwellings to overwinter. In order to highlight the specific features of infested houses, we investigated a large number of overwintering sites in Wallonia between 2007 and 2011. These sites were characterized through a survey sent to homeowners confronted to invasion problems. The results indicate that H. axyridis preferentially selects isolated brick houses with red or white fronts to take shelter. Aggregations are mostly located at the first floor, essentially inside south or west oriented rooms. Furthermore, ladybirds generally gathered into wooden windows frames facing south or west, and to a lesser extent, in the upper corners of walls presenting the same orientation. [less ▲]

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See detailImplication of honeydew microflora in ant-aphid mutualism
Fischer, Christophe ULg; Lognay, Georges ULg; Haubruge, Eric ULg et al

Poster (2012, February 10)

Some ant and aphid species can present a mutualistic relationship, ants using aphid honeydew as sugar source and in exchange providing the aphid colony cleaning and protection. From a behavioral point of ... [more ▼]

Some ant and aphid species can present a mutualistic relationship, ants using aphid honeydew as sugar source and in exchange providing the aphid colony cleaning and protection. From a behavioral point of view, this phe-nomenon has been well studied from decades. However, its chemistry and semiochemical mechanisms are still largely unknown. This study aims to identify semiochemicals involved in the establishment of this relation, using both chemical and behavioral approaches. Bioassays revealed that the great-est part of ant attraction toward aphid colonies is due to honeydew volatile compounds; enabling ant scouts to find more quickly aphid colonies and distantly recognize myrmecophilous species. Many of those VOCs seeming to have microbial origins, the main honeydew microorganisms have been isolated and their roles in VOCs production and ant attraction have been investigated. It appeared that honeydew microflora holds a key role in the establishment of ant-aphids mutualistic relationship. [less ▲]

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See detailUse of Chrysoperla carnea larvae for biological control of immature stages of Leptinotarsa decemlineata
Sablon, Ludovic ULg; Haubruge, Eric ULg; Verheggen, François ULg

Poster (2012, February 10)

In laboratory assays, we demonstrated predation of Chrysoperla carnea lacewing larvae against eggs, first and second larval instars of Colorado potato beetle (CPB). When looking at the daily consumption ... [more ▼]

In laboratory assays, we demonstrated predation of Chrysoperla carnea lacewing larvae against eggs, first and second larval instars of Colorado potato beetle (CPB). When looking at the daily consumption, we found that prey consumption by the third larval instar was 3-fold higher compared to the two first instars. Partial or total consumption of prey was also numbered. Different proportions of partial/total consumption were found and these depend on the lacewing larval stage. This study provides new perspectives for possible use of C. carnea as a biological agent to control CPB. Nevertheless, additional work has to be conducted under semi-natural and field to completely evaluate this predatory potential. [less ▲]

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